CSO/Leadership

 

 

https://sm.asisonline.org/Pages/Speak-the-Language-of-Payroll.aspxSpeak the Language of PayrollGP0|#28ae3eb9-d865-484b-ac9f-3dfacb4ce997;L0|#028ae3eb9-d865-484b-ac9f-3dfacb4ce997|Strategic Security;GTSet|#8accba12-4830-47cd-9299-2b34a43444652018-01-18T05:00:00Z<p></p><p></p><p>Payroll in the security service business is not rocket science, but that does not mean it is easy. Paying people for the hours that they work ties into scheduling, time and attendance, industrial relations, human resource management, and billing. </p><p>There are rules to follow, and these rules are not followed just once. Add tens, hundreds, and even thousands of guards to the equation, then mix in tens, hundreds, and even thousands of sites. Each of these sites has rules, realities, regulations, certification requirements, and particularities—as do the respective guards. The potential for errors and pitfalls is huge, and comes with real consequences.</p><p>A well-designed back-office system can help you handle all these variables efficiently and prepare your employees' attendance data so that it integrates easily with your payroll system.</p><p>Still, those who work in sales, operations, training, and human resources should be aware of certain key payroll terms and realities in order to avoid costly pitfalls and better understand costs--even if there is a payroll specialist on staff. Employee pay rate is just a piece of the puzzle, so let's call it the top line. </p><p>Think of the table below as one of those pocket language guides you might carry in a foreign country. My company has clients in both the United States and Canada, so we must be aware of forms and regulations for both countries. </p><table width="100%" class="ms-rteTable-default ms-rte-paste-settablesizes" cellspacing="0"><tbody><tr><td class="ms-rteTable-default"><strong>Term</strong></td><td class="ms-rteTable-default"><strong>Explanation</strong></td></tr><tr><td class="ms-rteTable-default">T4 (Canada)</td><td class="ms-rteTable-default">Employers (resident or non-resident) need to complete form T4, Statement of Remuneration Paid, for employees to whom they have paid "employment income, commissions, taxable allowances and benefits, or any other remuneration."</td></tr><tr><td class="ms-rteTable-default">W-2 (U.S.)</td><td class="ms-rteTable-default">Every employer who pays an employee $600 or more for the year and withholds taxes for services performed must file a Form<strong> </strong>W-2, Wage and Tax Statement, for each employee.</td></tr><tr><td class="ms-rteTable-default">T4A (Canada)</td><td class="ms-rteTable-default">In a calendar year, you may make payments relating to employment, like fees, allowances, or pensions, that total over $500. Or, you may have deducted taxes from such payment. In either case, you must fill out form T4A,<strong> </strong>Statement of Pension, Retirement, Annuity, and Other Income<strong>. </strong>Note that there are exceptions to these rules.</td></tr><tr><td class="ms-rteTable-default">ACA (U.S.)</td><td class="ms-rteTable-default">The Affordable Care Act, or healthcare law, details employer benefits and responsibilities, which vary according to the size and structure of your workforce.​</td></tr><tr><td class="ms-rteTable-default">1099 (U.S.)</td><td class="ms-rteTable-default">The Internal Revenue Service's (IRS) Form 1099-MISC, Miscellaneous Income, needs to be filed for each person who is not an employee and to whom you have paid at least $600 for services performed.</td></tr><tr><td class="ms-rteTable-default">Workers' Compensation (Canada) </td><td class="ms-rteTable-default">Employees who suffer an occupational injury or illness are eligible for workers' compensation benefits. Each province and territory has a board that makes decisions on such claims. (In the United States, workers' compensation is generally handled through private insurance.)</td></tr><tr><td class="ms-rteTable-default">Overtime</td><td class="ms-rteTable-default"><p>Overtime pay (OT) refers to employee wages that need to be paid at higher than the normal rate because the hours worked exceed "the number of hours deemed to constitute a normal workweek or workday."</p><p>OT varies based on jurisdiction, but in general OT can be 1.5 or 2 times a regular wage rate.</p><p>In the United States, salaried people can be entitled to OT if they earn less than the threshold, which is currently $913 per week; however, there are other conditions.</p></td></tr><tr><td class="ms-rteTable-default">Federal Holiday (U.S.) Statutory Holiday (Canada)</td><td class="ms-rteTable-default">This is a holiday authorized by the U.S. federal or Canadian federal and provincial governments, respectively. In addition to government organizations, other business entities may also observe the holiday. Employees required to work on such a holiday may receive wages above their normal rate.</td></tr><tr><td class="ms-rteTable-default">Break/Meal Periods</td><td class="ms-rteTable-default">Break and meal periods are obligatory pauses from work at defined intervals.</td></tr><tr><td class="ms-rteTable-default">Callback/Report-in Pay</td><td class="ms-rteTable-default">If, due to an emergency, an employee is asked to return to work after leaving work or during a paid leave, they earn callback or report-in pay.</td></tr><tr><td class="ms-rteTable-default">Direct Deposit</td><td class="ms-rteTable-default">A direct deposit is a free electronic deposit of funds into one's bank account.</td></tr><tr><td class="ms-rteTable-default">Final Paycheck</td><td class="ms-rteTable-default">When an employee leaves a firm, the final paycheck includes regular wages as well as any unused accumulated annual leave, calculated at the employee's former regular pay rate.</td></tr><tr><td class="ms-rteTable-default">Minimum Wage</td><td class="ms-rteTable-default">The lowest wage rate an employer can legally pay an employee is called the minimum wage.</td></tr><tr><td class="ms-rteTable-default">Minimum Wage - Exemptions</td><td class="ms-rteTable-default">Certain employees, under certain conditions, may not be covered by certain parts of the minimum wage legislation in your jurisdiction. Or, special rules may apply to these employees. Consult your local authority.</td></tr><tr><td class="ms-rteTable-default">Payout of Vacation/Sick Pay</td><td class="ms-rteTable-default"><p>Vacation pay is a supplemental wage payment based on length of service to the company and a percentage of annual wages.</p><p>Sick pay is any amount you pay under a plan to an employee who is unable to work because of sickness or injury. These amounts may be paid by a third party.</p><p>Both payouts are subject to withholding taxes, as if they were regular wage payments.</p></td></tr><tr><td class="ms-rteTable-default">Payroll Deductions</td><td class="ms-rteTable-default">Whether mandatory or voluntary, payroll deductions<strong> </strong>are amounts withheld from an employee's gross wages.​</td></tr></tbody></table><img src="file:///C:/Users/FLORA~1.SZA/AppData/Local/Temp/50/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image002.png" alt="" style="margin:5px;width:624px;" /><p> </p><p>Considering how much the security service sector depends on quality talent, it is important to get the details of payroll right--first time and every time. </p><p><em>Mark Folmer, CPP, is vice president for the security industry at TrackTik. He is a member of the ASIS Security Services Council and ASIS senior regional vice president for Region 6, Canada. He also serves on the PSC.1 Technical Committee and Working Group.​</em></p><p>​</p>

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https://sm.asisonline.org/Pages/Put-Training-to-the-Test.aspxPut Training to the Test<p>​The classroom door flies open. An emotionally distraught student rushes into the doorway, produces a semiautomatic pistol, presses the muzzle of the gun to his temple with his finger on the trigger, and proclaims, "I can't take it anymore."</p><p>How will the teacher respond to this stressful, high-stakes situation? Will she intervene with verbal tactics or physical ones? Will she inadvertently put other students in danger by reacting too quickly? </p><p>An analysis by school security firm Safe Havens International found that teachers and administrators who had undergone traditional active shooter training were more likely to react to this situation by opting to attack the student or throw things at him, rather than taking the action steps outlined in the school's policies and procedures, such as calling 911 or instigating a lockdown. In other scenarios, trainees reacted in a similar manner that could intensify and aggravate the situation when time allowed for safer policies and procedures to be applied.</p><p>In the wake of high-profile massacres at schools and college campuses, institutions are preparing themselves for the emergency situations with scenario-based training programs. </p><p>The percentage of U.S. public schools that have drilled for an active shooter scenario rose from 47 to 70 percent from 2004 to 2014, according to a study by the National Center for Education Statistics. But the intensive search for solutions to these deadly events can lead to hasty planning and decision making, ultimately resulting in an ineffective response. </p><p>The number of teachers and administrators who opt to attack or otherwise approach the armed perpetrator indicates that current active shooter programs may be overwhelming for participants, causing them to respond to threatening scenarios in a dangerous way. Schools have also become narrowly focused on active shooter scenarios, when most deaths and accidents on campuses do not involve an active shooter. </p><p>Taking these factors into consideration, an all-hazards approach to scenario-based training allows schools to prepare for a range of incidents, including bullying, sexual harassment, and natural disasters. Fidelity testing then allows administrators and teachers to put those plans to the test and see how participants apply the training under stressful scenarios. </p><p>School leaders can then learn to rely on the solid foundational principles of policies and procedures, as well as communications and emergency plans, to diffuse potentially hazardous situations. Using these basic elements of active threat response and evaluating training programs to identify gaps could save lives.​</p><h4>Evaluations</h4><p>During the stress of an actual crisis, people often react differently than they have been trained to do. Fidelity testing of a training program can help determine if there are gaps between what the trainer thinks the trainees will do, and what actions trainees will take in real life. This was the aim of evaluations completed by campus security nonprofit Safe Havens International of Macon, Georgia. </p><p><strong>Methodology.</strong> Analysts conducted the evaluations at more than 1,000 K-12 public, faith-based, independent, and charter schools in 38 states. More than 7,000 one-on-one crisis scenario simulations were conducted by Safe Havens International in a series of school safety, security, and emergency preparedness assessments over the last five years. The participants were observed and scored by analysts who had completed a 16-hour formal training program and one day of field work. </p><p>Prior to running the scenarios, analysts came up with several action steps that should be taken in each scenario. These steps included initiating a lockdown, calling 911, sheltering in place, or pulling the fire alarm, for example. Based on those steps, the analysts developed a standardized scoring system to keep track of participant performance in the scenarios. </p><p>This type of training is known as options-based active shooter training because it gives the participants various responses to choose from. Many popular options-based programs are based on the U.S. Department of Homeland Security's Run. Hide. Fight. approach.  </p><p>Drawing from Safe Havens International's repository of more than 200 audio and video crisis scenarios, analysts ran the simulations and let administrators, support staff, and teachers respond accordingly. These simulations covered a range of scenarios, which were presented in several formats. </p><p>For example, some participants were guided through an audio narration of a school bus taken hostage by an armed student. The audio was paused, and the trainees were asked what they would do next in that situation. </p><p>Similarly, video scenarios depicted potentially violent situations that left participants with a number of choices on how to react. </p><p>In one scenario, a woman screams at staff in the school office while brandishing a claw hammer. In another, a student on a school bus jumps up with a gun and yells, "Nobody move, and nobody gets hurt!" The video is stopped and trainees are prompted to say how they would react. </p><p>Based on action steps that were predetermined to be ideal, analysts then scored the trainees' responses on tablet devices. The scoring was be tailored to individual clients. For instance, if analysts were training a school district that has a police officer on every campus, its response would be different from that of a rural district that does not have a law enforcement officer within 20 miles.</p><p><strong>Results. </strong>The results of the evaluations consistently showed that participants who were provided with options-based active shooter programs had lower scores than those who had not completed any type of training. </p><p>This outcome shows that current active shooter training methods may be overwhelming for administrators and teachers because they provide too much information—prompting them to attack when it is not necessary.</p><p>In an assessment in the northeastern United States, test subjects completed an options-based active shooter training program that was three and a half hours long. Evaluators found that the 63 administrators and staff members from 28 schools missed 628 out of 1,243 critical action steps that should have been implemented. That's more than 50 percent.</p><p>For example, participants failed to initiate or order a lockdown when it was appropriate 70 percent of the time. More than 55 percent of participants failed to call 911 or the school resource officer in scenarios depicting a person with a weapon, and 39 percent of participants failed to pull the fire alarm in situations involving fire. </p><p>During an assessment of a school district in the southwestern United States, 32 people from two groups participated in scenario simulations. One group completed a five-hour live training program based on the Run. Hide. Fight. video, developed by the district's school resource officers. The second group did not receive the training or view the video. </p><p>The simulation results revealed that none of the top five scoring participants had received any type of active shooter training. All five of the lowest scoring participants, on the other hand, had completed the training program. </p><p>The overall score was also significantly lower for the group that had completed training than it was for the untrained group. The lower scoring participants often opted to attack in situations where it was not the best option. </p><p><strong>Opting to attack. </strong>For the scenario described in the beginning of the article, where a student is potentially suicidal, analysts found that in one out of every four incidents, a school employee who had completed an options-based active shooter training would try to throw an object at or attack the student armed with a weapon. </p><p>Many of the participants in the simulations responded by opting to use force for almost any scenario involving a subject depicted with a gun. If the student in question was suicidal, such a reaction could be deadly, possibly leading to the student to shoot himself or others. </p><p>Participants who had not received formal training began talking to the student, encouraging him to put the gun down, and asking if it was okay for the other students in the classroom to leave. These basics of communication are essential in an active suicide threat situation and can help defuse possible violence.  </p><p>Another scenario featured a drunk man who was 75 yards away from a school at the same time that a teacher and her students were 25 yards from the school building at recess. The analysis found that 30 percent of participants playing the teacher chose to approach—and even attack the drunk man—even though he was three-quarters of a football field away from the school.</p><p>The best option in this scenario is for the teacher to instruct the students to go into the school and put themselves in lockdown, then go into the building and ask the office to dial 911. </p><p>In November 2017, a school in Northern California initiated its lockdown procedure when the school secretary heard gunshots nearby. The gunman tried to enter the campus but could not find an open door. Because school faculty followed policies and procedures, countless lives were saved.</p><h4>Active Threat Approach</h4><p>The narrow focus on active shooter incidents has left many schools ill-prepared for other active attacker methods, including edge weapons, acid attacks, and fire. Relying on active shooter training also neglects response to incidents that often go undetected, such as bullying and sexual harassment. </p><p>The Safe Havens International assessments revealed that many K-12 schools lack written protocols for hazardous materials incidents or do not conduct any training or drills for these easy-to-orchestrate, devastating types of attacks. Evaluations also revealed an unwillingness among some school staff to report incidents of sexual harassment.</p><p>Policies and procedures. Edu­cational institutions have written policies and procedures on a range of issues, including bullying, sexual misconduct, signing in visitors, and traffic safety. Scenario-based training will help demonstrate whether staff are prepared to apply those policies appropriately. All staff should be included in this training, including bus drivers, cafeteria employees, and custodial workers.</p><p>Scenario-based training can reveal the gaps between what procedure dictates and what staff would actually do when confronted with a threat. </p><p>For example, in one simulation conducted by Safe Havens International, a student sat in a classroom with a teacher after hours. The teacher stroked the pupil's hair inappropriately and used sexually explicit language. Some custodial staff faced with this scenario responded that they did not feel comfortable reporting what they saw to school administrators. Janitors, who may be more likely to witness such incidents, said they felt an imbalance of power among the staff, leaving them unwilling to speak up. </p><p>Administrators should address such issues by using multiple scenarios related to sexual misconduct to demonstrate to employees that they are not only empowered but required to report these situations. Reviewing these policies and procedures as part of scenario-based training, and incorporating possible threats other than active shooter, will bolster preparation among staff. </p><p><strong>Attack methods. </strong>While mass shootings garner the most media attention, most recent homicides at schools were caused by attacks that did not involve active shooter events, according to Relative Risk of Death on K12 Campuses by school security expert Steven Satterly. </p><p>The 2014 study revealed that of 489 victims murdered on U.S. K-12 campuses from 1998 to 2013, only 62 were killed by active shooters. The Columbine, Sandy Hook, and Red Lake Reservation School shootings made up 74 percent of those 62 deaths.</p><p>Several weapons possibilities exist, and should be acknowledged in training programs, including edged weapons, explosive devices, and fire. </p><p>There have been dozens of mass casualty edged weapons attacks in schools, and serious damage can occur in a matter of minutes. A mass stabbing and slashing incident in Franklin, Pennsylvania, in April 2014 left 21 victims injured when a sophomore began attacking other students in a crowded hallway. Similar attacks have occurred in China, Japan, and Sweden that have killed and seriously injured students and school employees.  </p><p>Acid attacks are occurring more frequently in the United Kingdom, as well as in India, East Africa, Vietnam, and other regions. </p><p>For example, in September 2016, a student rigged a peer's violin case with acid at a high school in Haddington, Scotland. The victim's legs were disfigured as a result.  </p><p>These types of attacks are relatively easy to carry out because acid is inexpensive and can be concealed in bottles that appear harmless. The injuries sustained in these attacks are gruesome and irreversible, and there are concerns that this attack method may become more common in the United States. </p><p>Many active shooter training approaches also fail to address combination attacks, in which the perpetrator uses two or more attack weapons, such as firearms and explosives, firearms and fire, and so forth. </p><p>In the 2013 attack at Arapahoe High School in Colorado, a student shot his classmates and a staff member several times before throwing three Molotov cocktails that set part of the library ablaze. The student then shot himself. </p><p>Combination attack methods can present complications for first responders who may have to decipher where each threat is located and which one to deal with first. These campus attacks demonstrate the danger of training concepts that focus intently on active shooter incidents, while not offering viable options for other extreme attack methodologies.</p><p>There are ways to better prepare school staff to react to violence and reduce the chance of unintended consequences. Scenarios that present a range of threats and situations help trainees learn to react in the most effective manner, and remind them to rely on existing policies. </p><p>Fidelity testing that includes a scoring system for action steps will help determine whether active shooter and active threat training concepts have been received by the faculty. Including all staff members who have contact with students creates an inclusive environment where everyone feels empowered to report misconduct. </p><p>Putting a mirror to current school emergency preparedness will reflect where changes need to be made. If there are significant gaps between the training concept and application of those concepts when reacting unscripted to scenarios, improvements are in order. By applying these principles, schools can prepare themselves for the common emergencies, the worst-case-scenarios, and everything in between.  </p><p>-- </p><h4>​Sidebar: keeping simulations safe<br></h4><p>​Even the most well-intentioned scenario-based training can result in injuries. Training programs that teach throwing of objects, taking people to the floor, punching and kicking, or similar uses of force can wind up hurting trainees and trainers alike.</p><p>At least one popular active shooter training program has resulted in high rates of serious injuries among trainees, according to Jerry D. Loghry, CPP, loss prevention information manager for EMC Insurance.</p><p>Loghry verified that EMC Insurance has paid out more than $1 million in medical bills to school employees for injuries sustained in trainings from one active shooter program over a 22-month time period. In addition, one police department is being sued due to those injuries. </p><p>Instructors can be trained on how to engage participants in use-of-force in a safe way. Reasonable safety measures should be put into place, such as floor mats, and participants should wear protective padding, goggles, and even helmets if necessary. </p><p>Safety rules should be written in advance and observed during training simulations. </p><p>Local law enforcement can be a valuable resource for simulating active threat situations in a safe manner, because police officers complete similar close-quarters combat training on a regular basis. Observing these best practices can help prevent litigation and liability issues, as well as enhance the overall experience of participants and instructors.​</p><h4>sidebar: fidelity Testing<br></h4><p></p><p>For stereo systems, fidelity means that the sound generated by the speakers is nearly identical to the sound of the music that is recorded. In marriage, fidelity means that a person will be faithful to their promises to another.</p><p>In the world of school safety, fidelity indicates a close alignment between what is intended by safety policies, plans, drills, and training, and what people do in reality. Fidelity testing is the best way to verify the level of alignment between intentions and reality.</p><p>In the case of active shooter preparedness, fidelity testing involves efforts to measure whether there is a close match between theory and what people will actually do under the stress of a violent incident.  </p><p>With properly designed active shooter preparedness approaches, practical application under extreme stress should mirror, to a reasonable extent, the theoretical expectations of the approach. If people cannot correctly apply the active shooter survival options they have been provided under simulated conditions, their performance will likely not improve when they are placed under extreme stress. </p><p>A high degree of fidelity helps reduce the distance between what people ideally do under stress and what they are likely to do. A reasonable level of fidelity testing of active shooter survival concepts should document that people are able to:</p><p> </p><p>•             Demonstrate the ability to identify when they are in an active shooter situation.</p><p>•             Apply each option they are taught in an appropriate fashion when tested with scenarios they do not know in advance.</p><p>•             Apply each option under limited time frames with incomplete information.</p><p>•             Demonstrate knowledge of when applying each option would increase rather than decrease danger.  </p><p>•             Demonstrate the ability to identify when they are in a situation involving firearms that is not an active shooter event.</p><p>•             Demonstrate the ability to properly address a wide array of scenarios involving weapons other than firearms.​</p><p>​<br></p><p><em><strong>Michael Dorn </strong>is the CEO of Safe Havens International. 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https://sm.asisonline.org/Pages/Protecting-Executives-at-Home.aspxProtecting Executives at Home<p>​</p><p dir="ltr" style="text-align:left;">Maybe it's temporary copycatting, or it could be a new trend, but more and more executives and other high-profile figures are experiencing protest attacks at home.</p><p dir="ltr" style="text-align:left;">In just the first five months of 2017, protesters have gathered outside the homes—not offices—of the following U.S. executives, political leaders, and other prominent persons:</p><ul dir="ltr" style="text-align:left;"><li>Wells Fargo CEO Tim Sloan</li><li>Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg </li><li>U.S. Bank CEO Richard Davis</li><li>Robert Mercer, co-CEO of hedge fund Renaissance Technologies</li><li>Ivanka Trump</li><li>U.S. Senator Mitch McConnell</li><li>U.S. Representative Maxine Waters</li><li>U.S. Federal Communications Commission Chairman Ajit Pai</li></ul><p dir="ltr" style="text-align:left;"><br></p><p dir="ltr" style="text-align:left;">Protests at executives' homes are wildly unpredictable in their timing and other characteristics. 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They are sometimes belligerent and can lead to bad outcomes for the family or the protesters. </p><p dir="ltr" style="text-align:left;">What can a security department or its executive protection division do to minimize the potential harm to executives (a duty they owe to those important, exposed employees) and even to protesters (whose injury could lead to bad press for the company)? </p><p dir="ltr" style="text-align:left;">The answer is anticipation and preventive measures. As for anticipation, one of our clients, a large multinational corporation, takes special efforts to track mentions of the company and its executives—not only in news sources but also in social media. The company's intelligence team also joins the distribution lists of adversarial organizations and, when possible, uses geofencing to monitor social media activity that mentions executives' homes or originates near them. Staff members also conduct research on the specific individuals who make potentially threatening comments online to gauge their possible dangerousness. </p><p dir="ltr" style="text-align:left;">In addition, it makes sense to delist the executive's home phone number to minimize the risk of abusive calls and to make it harder to find the executive's address. Delisting is difficult and not reliably permanent, but it is worth a try. A dedicated adversary may still be able to find the phone number and address, but there is no reason to make the task easy, especially for less-organized, spur-of-the-moment, or unbalanced persons. </p><p dir="ltr" style="text-align:left;">This anticipatory work, along with planning, makes it possible to implement special measures quickly when risk spikes. The following are some of the measures security personnel can put in place when they detect a plausible risk of protests at an executive's home:</p><ul dir="ltr" style="text-align:left;"><li>Provide security driving services to the executives and possibly to members of their families. Protesters may swarm or attack personal vehicles, and a security-trained driver would be better equipped to avoid or otherwise handle such incidents.</li><li>Contract for a law enforcement presence outside the executive's home. If the protesters remain on public property and are not violating the law, police may not do anything to protect the executive. However, a police officer in a marked or unmarked patrol car parked in front of the house may help keep the situation from escalating. </li><li>Set up temporary exterior video cameras, viewing 360 degrees outward from the home, to monitor and document protester behavior, especially any trespassing or throwing of projectiles.</li><li>Make sure the home has bright floodlights shining outward at night so protesters cannot easily trespass undetected.</li><li>Remind the family to turn on its security alarm system.</li><li>Consider having the family live elsewhere for a few days.</li></ul><p dir="ltr" style="text-align:left;"><br></p><p dir="ltr" style="text-align:left;">Protests at executives' homes are disturbing and potentially dangerous. They cannot be prevented, but with careful research and planning, they can be managed.</p><p dir="ltr" style="text-align:left;"><em>Robert L. Oatman, CPP, is president of R. L. Oatman & Associates, Inc.</em></p>GP0|#3795b40d-c591-4b06-959c-9e277b38585e;L0|#03795b40d-c591-4b06-959c-9e277b38585e|Security by Industry;GTSet|#8accba12-4830-47cd-9299-2b34a4344465
https://sm.asisonline.org/Pages/The-Future-is-Flexible.aspxThe Future is Flexible<p>​Mention teleworking, and some managers immediately feel at sea. How can I supervise employees I can’t see? Will staffers be sending check-in emails while watching Netflix? Can professionalism be maintained in pajamas?</p><p>Yet behind these fears lay opportunities. Teleworking, if planned and managed successfully, can be thought of as an opportunity for an organization to build trust and productivity among employees. It can also be employed as a strategic talent management initiative that improves employee attraction, engagement, and retention while reducing costs for both the firm and the workers. </p><p>In the security field, there are some jobs that are not conducive to telework, such as physical security positions that require an on-site presence. But others are more location flexible, and some positions have elements of both–they require on-site availability on some days, but they also include duties that can be conducted at home, such as report writing, security officer scheduling, or customer service interactions that take place over email and phone. Security managers who dismiss telecommuting because not every position in their department is telework-friendly may be losing out on the broader organizational benefits of telework. </p><p>The aim of this article is twofold. It will offer some best practice guidance, mined from expert opinion and recent research, for managing teleworkers. It will also explore how a telework program can be used by a manager so that it plays a key role in the organization’s talent management strategies. ​</p><h4>Growing Trend</h4><p>About 43 percent of U.S. workers work remotely in some capacity, even if that means telecommuting only once a week or less, according to the 2017 version of Gallup’s annual report, The State of the American Workplace. That percentage is up from 39 percent in 2012, which indicates a moderate but steady increase in teleworking.</p><p>As telecommuting becomes more popular, the average amount of time each teleworker spends at home or in another remote location increases. The percentage of U.S. teleworking employees who spend 80 percent or more of their time (equivalent to four days per week or more) working remotely has increased from 24 percent in 2012 to 31 percent in 2016. The number of employees who work remotely 40 to 80 percent of the time has also slightly increased, while the number of employees working remotely less than 20 percent of the time has decreased.</p><p>In addition, in more than half of the largest U.S. metro areas, telecommuting beats public transportation as the preferred commuting option, according to another report, 2017 State of Telecommuting in the U.S. Employee Workforce. Telecommuting has grown far faster than any other commuting mode, according to the study, which was issued by FlexJobs and Global Workplace. </p><p>One of the drivers of the growth of telework has been the U.S. federal government. In 2010, the U.S. Telework Enhancement Act became law, and it required the head of each executive agency to establish and implement a policy under which employees could be authorized to telework. The U.S. General Services Administration (GSA) serves as the lead agency for the government’s initiative; in its latest annual report to Congress, GSA said that federal teleworking continues to increase, with participation growing from 39 percent to 46 percent of eligible employees from 2013 to 2015. </p><p>Another telework driver is the increasing pressure from younger workers for more work options. “The millennial generation, which values flexible work, has risen to prominence in the workforce. They are influencing and encouraging remote work policies,” says Robert Arnold, a principal with management consultancy Frost & Sullivan’s Digital Transformation-Connected Work Industry practice. With developments like advanced cloud services, technology continues to evolve and offer more reliable support for remote work, Arnold adds. </p><p>Nonetheless, barriers remain. “Federal agencies have made considerable progress (in teleworking), but they also continue to report challenges such as management resistance, outdated cultural norms, and technology limitations,” the GSA said in its latest annual report to Congress. </p><p>Often, this management resistance simply boils down to lack of trust, says Kate Lister, president of Global Workplace Analytics. “Some managers have this attitude–if they’re not looking at [workers] in the office, they’re at home on the sofa eating bonbons,” she says. Ironically, she adds, being in sight does not always mean being productive; workplace studies show that the majority of both cat videos and pornography are viewed in the office during working hours.​</p><h4>Concentrative v. Collaborative</h4><p>One of the first tasks for those who plan to manage teleworkers is deciding who on staff may be eligible for telework. Overall, Gallup has found that a little over half of U.S. jobs, or about 55 percent, could allow for telecommuting, at least on a part-time basis. </p><p>Security jobs that require a daily on-site presence are generally not eligible for telework. And some employees, regardless of position requirements, simply do not want to telecommute. “Many people already know this about themselves—given the choice, they will opt to go into an office every day for the companionship, sense of purpose, or because they don’t trust themselves to be productive at home,” say consultants from Frost & Sullivan in their report, Best Practices for Managing Teleworkers: Changing Attitudes, Changing Ways.</p><p>However, those holding jobs with part-time on-site requirements may be eligible. Lister cites the example of a group of park rangers she worked with. Although they spent much time patrolling the park, they also had administrative responsibilities such as report writing, allowing many to successfully telecommute part time.</p><p>For guidance, some organizations use the model of concentrative versus collaborative work, Lister explains. Concentrative work, which is best conducted alone and without interruptions, can be done well remotely; collaborative work, such as meetings and group projects, is often best tackled in the firm’s office, with other team members present.​</p><h4>Best Practices</h4><p>Once it is decided who might be working remotely, teleworking managers should keep in mind the following best practices, which come from various experts, including those quoted above, and from program guidance offered by GSA. </p><p>Co-create. A teleworking policy should be developed by the entire team. To set the tone and foster confidence before a new teleworking program begins, managers should engage in dialogue with their teams and address any questions about teleworking. Asking team members to discuss and achieve consensus on solutions to these questions can help the team become more invested in making a teleworking initiative a success.</p><p>While the specific answers will differ for each organization, managers should be prepared for questions such as: </p><p>• How will we connect with each other?</p><p>• How will teleworking affect my performance evaluations and the way my work is assessed?</p><p>• What are the procedures for coordinating team projects?</p><p>• Will teleworking affect my career path?</p><p>• How can we manage customer expectations while teleworking?</p><p>• How can we use technology to help us telework better?</p><p>• Can we create a sense of workplace and community when we are working away from the office?</p><p>Teamwork. If more than one employee is telecommuting, treat telework as a team activity rather than an individual one, whenever possible. Develop a team schedule, rather than an independent schedule, and a teleworking system that is consistent with the needs of the department and organization. This may mean that if an important team meeting needs to be held in person, employees normally scheduled to telework that day may have to come to the office on a scheduled telework day.</p><p><strong>Virtual presence. </strong>Instant messaging systems can be used by team members to check in each morning, and change status when they will be away from the computer for more than a few minutes. Using a rotating system, one team member can also lead a virtual water cooler chat with a question or comment for team members to respond to once or twice a day. Transparent communication tools like shared calendars can also be useful.</p><p>In addition, advanced collaboration tools like video conferencing may also be considered. “They help to bridge the gap by building trust and intimacy that is conveyed by eye contact, body language, and other nonverbal communication cues,” Arnold says. </p><p><strong>Customer service.</strong> If your team members interact with customers, make sure service-level support requirements in communicating with customers are clearly defined. All team members need to agree to meet the same service levels to ensure transparency to the customer. Commit with each other to an acceptable response period for email inquiries or phone calls.</p><p><strong>IT support. </strong>A common reason for teleworking dissatisfaction is IT failure. Teleworkers are dependent on fast, reliable, consistent connections. Work with your IT group to ensure the technology is effective, efficient, operates consistently, and provides excellent customer service. IT department involvement and support is critical to your success.</p><p><strong>Trust. </strong>In talking with teleworkers on the phone, managers should avoid comments like, “Hey, I hear a washing machine. Are you doing your laundry, or working?” Instead, managers should use telework as an opportunity to foster trust between employees and management. Established daily check-ins can be useful, but rigid micro-monitoring of daily activities hinders productivity and creates an environment of distrust.</p><p><strong>Get together.</strong> The value of in-person community office time increases when working in a mobile environment. Collectively decide what types of events and activities will build a sense of cohesion and community. A regular social event might be included. </p><p><strong>Office space options. </strong>In some organizations, teleworkers are encouraged to share their space while teleworking, and relinquish their in-office space when working in the office. This will require coordination with other employees, and sometimes the development of shared space protocols. Hoteling software, which can help administrators keep track of space booking and scheduling, can also assist in this process. </p><p><strong>Manage by results. </strong>For managers used to passing offices where employees are working away, telework can be disconcerting. But apparent worker activity should not be confused with the results those activities produce. Establish a clear definition of objectives and performance indicators, and keep track of those indicators. </p><p><strong>Monitor performance measures. </strong>One measure might be team sick days and absenteeism—have they decreased as your teleworking program progresses? Customer satisfaction might be another measure —has the needle moved in any direction since some team members started teleworking? </p><p><strong>Keep evolving. </strong>Managers should think of a telework program as a continual work in progress. Teams are unlikely to get all arrangements right the first time. Evolving work groups and projects may also force changes in the original arrangements, regardless of how successful they may have been. Remain flexible, evaluate frequently, and adjust the arrangements as needed.​</p><h4>Telework as Strategic Initiative </h4><p>The potential value of a well-managed teleworking program becomes even more clear when it is contextualized in the broader state of the current workplace. And as Gallup’s The State of the American Workplace finds, “the modern workforce knows what’s important to them and isn’t going to settle.” More than half of U.S. employees (51 percent) are searching for new jobs or watching for openings, and 47 percent say now is a good time to find a quality job.</p><p>But in this environment, teleworking options can boost an organization’s employee retention efforts. “Gallup consistently has found that flexible scheduling and work-from-home opportunities play a major role in an employee’s decision to take or leave a job,” the report says. </p><p>GSA has found that teleworking can have a positive impact, in various ways, on the worker. In research comparing teleworkers with nonteleworkers, GSA found that teleworkers report more job satisfaction and higher engagement levels. They are also less likely to want to leave their current organization than nonteleworkers. </p><p>Private sector experts have found similar effects. “We do find that job satisfaction and loyalty continue to be positively impacted by remote work. Work-life balance is a big emphasis by employers in many sectors that wish to recruit and retain top talent and employees with increasingly scarce skill sets,” Arnold says.</p><p>Indeed, when it comes to employee engagement, the Gallup report showed that the most engaged workers were those who spent 60 to 80 percent of their week—or roughly three to four days—working from home. While four days out of the office may be a bit extreme for some organizations, Lister says that many employers are finding two to three days a week as the telecommuting “sweet spot,” with workers benefitting from both in-office camaraderie and out-of-office concentrative sessions. And Gallup has found that workers who say they have privacy when they need it are 1.7 times more likely to be engaged than workers who do not have that luxury.</p><p>Organizations are also finding other benefits to telework. Some organizations have combined an increase in telework with a transition to a smaller office space, thus reducing overhead costs. </p><p>And the 2017 State of Telecommuting in the U.S. Employee Workforce report found that employers, on average, save roughly $11,000 per half-time telecommuter per year. In addition, firms are often getting more out of their telecommuters. A half-time teleworker gains back an average of 11 days a year in commuting time, and will devote about 60 percent of that gained time toward work, Lister says. </p><p>Finally, as the benefits of teleworking become apparent to more employees and more organizations, they are also forcing change, Gallup finds. Organizations are being forced to reconsider how to best manage and optimize performance. Even the basic idea of when and where people work is evolving. </p><p>“The workplace is changing,” Gallup says, “at unprecedented speed.”  ​</p>GP0|#cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8;L0|#0cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8|Physical Security;GTSet|#8accba12-4830-47cd-9299-2b34a4344465