Strategic Security

 

 

https://sm.asisonline.org/Pages/Fake-News-Real-Threats.aspxFake News. Real ThreatsGP0|#28ae3eb9-d865-484b-ac9f-3dfacb4ce997;L0|#028ae3eb9-d865-484b-ac9f-3dfacb4ce997|Strategic Security;GTSet|#8accba12-4830-47cd-9299-2b34a43444652017-11-01T04:00:00Z<p>​In November 2016, a man armed himself with an assault rifle and drove six hours from North Carolina to Washington, D.C. His goal was to storm Comet Ping Pong, a D.C. pizza restaurant, and rescue children being held captive and abused by Hillary Clinton. Once inside, the man fired on the restaurant, but no one was hurt. </p><p>The Comet Ping Pong story was one of many deliberately false news stories circulating in 2016. After the story was exposed as a hoax, “a post on Twitter by Representative Steven Smith of the 15th District of Georgia—not a real lawmaker and not a real district—warned that what was fake was the information being peddled by the mainstream media. It was retweeted dozens of times,” according to The New York Times.</p><p>The concept of fake news entered the popular vocabulary during the U.S. presidential election in 2016. While intentionally spreading false news reports for financial, political, or psychological reasons is not a new phenomenon, the practice has expanded significantly in the last year. During the particularly divisive U.S. election, numerous hyper-partisan blogs and websites posted a wide range of rumors, conspiracy theories, and fabrications, which have collectively been labeled fake news. Far from its original meaning—articles that are blatantly untrue—the term fake news has been embraced by all sides of the political divide to denigrate reporting that they feel is biased or incomplete.</p><p>While primarily political in nature, fake news has been used against various organizations and poses a real and increasing threat to private sector organizations of all sizes. It is important for security professionals to explore the relationship between fake news and corporate security, and determine how they can begin to address the threats posed by the release of false news and information.</p><h4>Transmission<br></h4><p>There has been an explosion in the creation and distribution of fake news through various online channels, including blogs, websites, discussion forums, and especially social media platforms. According to a 2017 survey, A Real Plague: Fake News, conducted by Weber Shandwick, Powell Tate, and KRC Research, approximately 7 in 10 American adults reported having read a fake news story in 2016. Research conducted by Hunt Allcott and Matthew Gentzkow and published in the spring 2017 edition of The Journal of Economic Perspectives also found that a database of 38 million shares of fake news stories on social media translated to about 760 million instances of clicking on, and reading, fake news stories. </p><p>The subject matter of these stories has run the gamut from political conspiracies to alleged criminal conduct by high-profile individuals to allegations of corporate political bias. A unique aspect of the current situation is that these stories are shared more widely, and more quickly, than ever before due to the ubiquity of social media. According to Allcott and Gentzkow, the list of fake news websites compiled by Stanford University received 159 million visits during the month of the election, while some 41.8 percent of individuals reported that they were exposed to fake news via social media.</p><p>Another important aspect of the current situation is that many of these fake news stories have gained a level of credibility among segments of the population that is surprising considering the sometimes bizarre nature of the claims made. In a study by Ipsos Public Affairs for BuzzFeed, 75 percent of respondents who reported remembering a fake news headline believed it to be accurate. In the study by KRC Research, 74 percent of individuals surveyed reported that it is difficult to determine what news is real and what is not.</p><p>The increased acceptance of baseless rumors and extreme conspiracy theories is due in no small part to a widespread decline in trust in media, government, academia, and most other forms of traditional authority. The falling levels of trust in media have been well documented by Gallup, Pew Research, and the Edelman Trust Barometer. This collapse of trust has led to the increased importance of the “people like me” category as a trusted source of news and information. according to Edelman’s 2017 global report. Because of these developments, sources such as Reddit, personal blogs, Facebook accounts, and quasi-official websites have gained credibility, while trust in traditional news media and government sources has declined. The fact that these fake news stories are rebroadcast many times, through cross-links and reposts on social media, further adds to the illusion of credibility. </p><p>If fake news were limited to stories about Area 51 or the JFK assassination, it would represent an interesting sociological case, but with limited relevance to corporate security. However, both the subject matter and the intensity of emotion elicited make fake news a real threat to corporations in terms of potential financial losses, reputational damage, and the physical security of facilities and personnel. This enhanced threat environment will require adaptation by corporate security professionals and the incorporation of new defensive and offensive capabilities to existing corporate security plans.</p><p>The increasingly widespread use of false or misleading information to cause confusion or harm to an individual or organization is not likely to disappear in the near term. The efficiency of this technique has been clearly demonstrated and the tools facilitating it are becoming ever more powerful, accessible, and easy to use. It is also difficult to imagine a significant increase in trust in traditional authority figures in the near future. </p><p>For corporations, some of the most serious fake news risks relate to stock manipulation, reputational damage, and the related loss of business—through boycotts for example—and direct threats to staff and property.</p><h4>Stock Manipulation</h4><p>At the macro level, fake news has been used to move entire stock exchanges. This was the case in April 2013 when a tweet that appeared to come from the Associated Press (AP) Twitter account reported that there had been an explosion at the White House and that U.S. President Barack Obama was injured. The Dow Jones Index lost 145 points in two minutes, while the S&P lost $136.5 billion. The news was quickly disproved and the market corrected within minutes, but the potential for large-scale disruption was demonstrated. In this instance, the fake news attack was claimed by the Syrian Electronic Army, according to The Washington Post.</p><p>In October 2009, the Stock Exchange of Thailand (SET) fell 7.2 percent because of an online rumor related to the health of the Thai king. The market made up about half of the loss within the next trading day, and the Thai police made several arrests related to the case later that month, as reported by Reuters.</p><p>Fake news has been used to manipulate the shares of individual companies as well. In May 2015, a fake offer to purchase Avon Products led to a surge in trading and a significant increase in the share price, according to The New York Times. Then in November 2016, a fake offer to acquire Fitbit shares led to a spike in activity, and a temporary halt to the trade in Fitbit stocks as reported by The Financial Times. In 2013, a fake press release was posted claiming the Swedish company Fingerprint Cards AB would be acquired by Samsung. Company shares surged until trading was halted. </p><p>In the United States, the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) has taken an increasingly aggressive stance in combating this threat to market integrity. It has filed enforcement actions against 27 companies and individuals involved in “alleged stock promotion schemes that left investors with the impression they were reading independent, unbiased analyses on investing websites while writers were being secretly compensated for touting company stocks,” according to an SEC statement.​</p><h4>Reputation</h4><p>False stories, rumors, or statements taken out of context have led to both reputational harm, as well as to threats to corporate personnel and property. In this type of threat, a corporate statement or action that would be innocuous under normal circumstances has taken on an increased risk due to hyper-sensitive stakeholders.</p><p>A case in point was New Balance, when Matthew LeBretton, vice president for public affairs said, “The Obama administration turned a deaf ear to us and frankly, with President-elect Trump, we feel things are going to move in the right direction,” during an interview with The Wall Street Journal. The statement related specifically to President Trump’s plan to withdraw from the TransPacific Partnership (TPP), but was widely misinterpreted. This caused a twofold issue for New Balance. First, anti-Trump individuals saw the statement as an endorsement of the candidate and everything he was purported to believe. This in turn led to calls for a boycott, and many social media posts depicting the destruction of New Balance products as reported by CNBC. A few days later the same statement led Andrew Anglin, a blogger associated with the white supremacist movement, to write on his popular Daily Stormer blog that New Balance shoes were the “Official Shoes of White People.” New Balance was blindsided by the intensity of reactions to a single statement related to a proposed international trade agreement and was forced into reactive positions throughout the crisis.</p><p>Another executive statement that was taken out of context and twisted to fit a partisan narrative was made by Indra Nooyi, CEO of PepsiCo in her interview with Andrew Sorkin of The New York Times on November 9, 2016. Her statement included congratulations to President-elect Trump on his victory, while also indicating that some of her employees expressed concerns about their safety as a result of the election. Numerous fake media outlets exaggerated the statement by claiming that she and her employees were “terrified” of Donald Trump and his supporters. This led to a firestorm of social media protests against Pepsi, including calls for a boycott and threats against the company.</p><h4>Direct Threats</h4><p>As noted above, one of the most serious cases of threats to an organization based on fake news were the reports of child abuse allegedly masterminded by Hillary Clinton and carried out at a D.C. pizza parlor. While the story was repeatedly debunked, it nevertheless continued to circulate and was supported by Michael Flynn, Jr., son of then National Security Director General Michael Flynn, according to The Washington Post. The shooter was arrested immediately after leaving the pizzeria, where he found no evidence of any abuse. He later pled guilty to the interstate transportation of ammunition and a firearm, a federal charge, in addition to a D.C. charge of assault with a dangerous weapon, according to The Hill.</p><p>This case indicates that even the most ridiculous story, if repeated often enough, will find an audience that believes it, and possibly someone who is willing to take action based on its claims. It is possible that a less extreme story focusing on a corporate executive or brand would lead to similar examples of direct action.​</p><h4>Countermeasures</h4><p>Countering fake news is difficult when the target audience finds it easy to discount facts and the usual sources of information are distrusted. However, there are a number of actions that corporate security teams can take to mitigate the risks posed by this new threat.</p><p><strong>Risk assessment. </strong>As with any threat to corporate security, the place to start is with a detailed risk assessment. The corporate security team needs to look at both internal and external factors to determine both the level of risk, as well as the most likely points of attack. Internal factors include employee demographics, employee morale, and computer use policies. The external factors include the competitive environment, the current perception of the organization and its management, the level of openness and transparency, and the nature of current conversations about the organization. With this information, corporate security will be in a much stronger position to establish policies and procedures to mitigate the risks from fake news attacks.</p><p>A white paper by Accenture focusing on social media compliance and risk in the international financial industry highlights the importance of identifying areas where an institution has vulnerabilities and incorporating the findings into its risk mitigation plans. A survey of executives cited in the white paper, A Comprehensive Approach to Managing Social Media Risk and Compliance, found that 59 percent of respondents reported having no social media risk assessments in place, while only 36 percent reported being offered any training on social media risk mitigation.</p><p><strong>Monitoring. </strong>To have any hope of effectively countering fake news, the corporate security team needs to have as close to real-time visibility of its appearance as possible. This points to the requirement for a comprehensive monitoring program that builds on any existing media or social media monitoring capability the organization already possesses.</p><p>It is important that this monitoring program specifically focus on channels that are outside the organization’s norm. These channels may be antithetical to the values of the organization, targeted to a demographic that is generally not associated with the company, or linked to apparently phony information sources. It is also important to look specifically for negative references to the organization.</p><p>After experiencing a number of negative stories driven by news and social media, Dell Computer adopted an “everyone is listening” approach to social media monitoring. A Framework for Social Analytics by Susan Etlinger of the Altimeter Group discusses Dell’s hybrid model for media monitoring, which gives a large number of its 100,000 plus workforce some responsibility for monitoring social media channels related to their lines of business. The company also has a Social Media Listening Command Center, which employs sophisticated social media monitoring software to complement its traditional media monitoring program.  </p><p>A company’s monitoring system should also include an analysis component that helps vet the material, determining how it should be classified and its importance from a risk management perspective. This component would then ensure that any important material is routed to the key decision makers for immediate action.</p><p>Finance, investment, and hedge fund companies have been taking a lead in the area of monitoring and identifying fake news stories. The growth of organizations that can deploy multiple content generators focusing on specific companies poses a significant risk to stock market investors. According to reporting in Forbes, companies are also seeking to develop algorithms that can sort through large quantities of content and identify malicious fake news campaigns. One such company that has been widely cited in this regard is Houston-based Indexer LLC.​</p><h4>Response Plans</h4><p>Based on the results of the risk audit, the most likely fake news scenarios should be identified and used to create detailed response protocols that can be activated in the event of an actual fake news situation. At a minimum, these plans should include contact information for all crisis team members, checklists for key actions, prepared statement templates to be used with internal and external stakeholders, and escalation metrics in the event that the fake news situation is not immediately contained.</p><p>The importance of incorporating the social media environment into a robust crisis response system is shown in the Nuclear Energy Institute’s Implementing and Operating a Joint Information System planning document. The plan covers the importance of preassignment of roles and responsibilities, training and readiness exercises, and media monitoring and engagement. The last item includes specific information on the importance of ensuring that information on social media regarding nuclear facilities and incidents is accurate, and that rumors and falsehoods are flagged and corrected.​</p><h4>Training</h4><p>The weaponization of news represents an evolving threat for many organizations and is not often included in corporate crisis management plans or training programs. As examples of fake news incidents increase, corporate security professionals should build this new threat into security training that is offered in conjunction with the corporate communications and human resources functions. Members of the senior leadership team should also be involved in any fake news response training.</p><p>Countering fake news requires fast decision making and decisive action on the part of the organization. To be able to execute effectively, the relevant personnel should be exposed to these scenarios in a simulated environment.</p><p>The communications function at DePaul University in Chicago, recognized the importance of building a mix of true and false information on social media into its crisis response training program. The result was a multi-party simulation exercise involving real-time interactions with traditional media, Twitter, and Facebook, as well as direct stakeholder communications. One of the key challenges in this type of training is sorting through incoming information quickly while still ensuring that key facts are not overlooked.​</p><h4>Cross-Functional Teams</h4><p>By its nature, the threat posed by fake news needs to be met by a comprehensive organizational response. This implies a cross-functional approach to fake news management. While corporate security may take point, the expertise and resources available to the corporate communications, human resources, and legal teams will prove critical.</p><p>An executive from an international bank reported to Accenture that it was important for all key functions to participate in risk management planning, especially when it concerns social media. “However, it is always important to have a representative from risk sitting at the table—someone from compliance, someone from legal, and so forth, to provide guidance to the business and make sure what the company is doing is sound,” notes the Accenture white paper.</p><p>Because fake news is still a type of news, the communication and media relations skills of the corporate communication function will be needed to analyze the content and develop and distribute counter messages to all fake news reports. This function may also be the appropriate host for the monitoring program because it is a logical extension to standard corporate media monitoring activities.  </p><p>Employees are a critical audience for fake news and an important distribution channel for counter messaging. This being the case, the human resources department needs to be involved in the creation and execution of corporate security strategy with regards to fake news.  </p><p>To ensure that the organization’s rights are fully protected, and that it does not itself cross the line in terms of libel, the corporate legal team should be involved in the fake news strategy, and have a role in vetting counter messages.​</p><h4>Communications</h4><p>Because of the potentially serious morale and operational ramifications fake news can have on an organization, it is vital that employees are provided with clear and accurate facts and count­er messages as quickly as possible.</p><p>Beyond reacting to a fake news incident, the organization should seek to inoculate its staff against its effects by undertaking a comprehensive internal communications and employee engagement program. This can be incorporated into the concept of encouraging employees to be brand ambassadors.</p><p>Organizations that are most vulnerable to fake news are those about which little is known. Without a base of preexisting knowledge, stakeholders who are exposed to fake news cannot immediately discount it, which is where the seeds of doubt take root. It is thus important that the organization be as transparent as possible, which includes regular proactive external communications. Corporate actions and policies should be communicated, explained, and contextualized to establish the reality of the situation before a fake news story can present a false narrative.  </p><p>It is especially important to get in front of any bad news stories and ensure that the organization is seen as working to resolve the issue, rather than hiding it. The idea of a first mover advantage with releasing properly contextualized negative information is a central tenet of contemporary public relations practice, and it can help thwart attempts to create a scandal by fake news outlets. ​</p><h4>Trust</h4><p>While a full discussion of trust-based relationships is beyond the scope of this article, it should be noted that the establishment of trust with key stakeholders is one of the best defenses against fake news attacks. Creating trust goes beyond simply telling the truth. It involves a range of factors including organizational reliability, competence, and benevolence, along with honesty and transparency. Because trust building involves all aspects of organizational behavior, it must be seen as a strategic initiative and be driven by senior management. Trust’s relationship to fake news defense is likely to be a collateral benefit rather than a primary driver of the initiative.  </p><p>The use of intentionally false or misleading information distributed through online and social media channels to disrupt or harm organizations is likely to increase dramatically in the years ahead. These actions are increasingly easy and cheap to execute, and take advantage of current weaknesses in organizational capabilities and the fact that societal trust in most traditional authority figures is at a historically low level. It is thus imperative that responsible corporate security professionals develop the internal capabilities and protocols to deal with this new threat environment before they are faced with a fake news attack. The good news is that most of the necessary resources already exist to some degree within the organizational structure and only need to be oriented around the fake news threat. This will include proactive measures such as audits, monitoring, training, and proactive communications, as well as moving quickly to react to the emergence of damaging fake news to contain it and neutralize its ability to damage the organization.  </p><p>In today’s hyperconnected global information environment no organization is safe from a fake news attack. We have had ample warnings that the threat is real and is likely to get worse.  There is no time to waste in hardening the organization against this new type of assault.  </p><p><em>Jeremy E. Plotnick, Ph.D., is founder of CriCom LLC. He has worked in international communications consulting, public affairs, and public relations for more than 20 years. ​ ​ ​</em><br></p>

 

 

https://sm.asisonline.org/Pages/Editor's-Note---Incentive.aspx2018-02-01T05:00:00ZEditor's Note: Incentive
https://sm.asisonline.org/Pages/How-to-Learn-from-Las-Vegas.aspx2018-02-01T05:00:00ZHow to Learn from Las Vegas
https://sm.asisonline.org/Pages/The-Strategic-Leader.aspx2018-02-01T05:00:00ZThe Strategic Leader

 

 

https://sm.asisonline.org/Pages/Editor's-Note---Incentive.aspx2018-02-01T05:00:00ZEditor's Note: Incentive
https://sm.asisonline.org/Pages/Pamela-Cichon,-CPP.aspx2018-02-01T05:00:00ZCertification Profile: Pamela Cichon, CPP
https://sm.asisonline.org/Pages/Paved-with-Good-Intentions.aspx2018-02-01T05:00:00ZPaved with Good Intentions

 

 

https://sm.asisonline.org/Pages/An-Expert-Partnership.aspx2018-02-01T05:00:00ZAn Expert Partnership
https://sm.asisonline.org/Pages/A-Day-Devoted-to-Education.aspx2017-09-26T04:00:00ZA Day Devoted to Education
https://sm.asisonline.org/Pages/Greipp-Scholarship-Recipients-Named.aspx2017-09-25T04:00:00ZGreipp Scholarship Recipients Named

 

 

https://sm.asisonline.org/Pages/Book-Review---Mental-Health.aspx2018-02-01T05:00:00ZBook Review: Mental Health
https://sm.asisonline.org/Pages/Patients-Are-People-First.aspx2018-02-01T05:00:00ZPatients Are People First
https://sm.asisonline.org/Pages/Rethinking-the-Intelligence-Cycle-for-the-Private-Sector.aspx2018-01-26T05:00:00ZRethinking the Intelligence Cycle for the Private Sector

 

 

https://sm.asisonline.org/Pages/March-2018-SM-Online.aspx2018-03-01T05:00:00ZMarch 2018 SM Online
https://sm.asisonline.org/Pages/March-2018-Legal-Report-Resources.aspx2018-03-01T05:00:00ZMarch 2018 Legal Report Resources
https://sm.asisonline.org/Pages/February-2018-SM-Online.aspx2018-02-01T05:00:00ZFebruary 2018 SM Online

 You May Also Like...

 

 

https://sm.asisonline.org/Pages/December-2016-Industry-White-Papers.aspxDecember 2016 Industry White Papers<p><em>​Sponsored Content.</em></p><p>SIS international is committed to serving the information needs of the global community of security </p><p>practitioners. One means of delivering subject matter expertise is to partner with the manufacturer and supplier community to elicit a breadth and depth of insight and practical information that all too often goes untapped. The papers in the following pages reflect one aspect of that ongoing project. </p><p>According to a recent Security Management survey, fully 90 percent of ASIS members describe vendors as reliable contributors to the ongoing conversation in the industry, and many say they have gleaned valuable insights and information from vendor materials that they are not getting from other media sources.</p><p>The challenge, say security practitioners, is the low signal-to-noise ratio in vendor communications. Some say that vendors communicate only information that contributes to their sales. Others suggest that vendor communications historically have been narrowly tailored to their specific products and services. </p><p>To leverage this industry source for members while simultaneously addressing the concerns they describe, Security Management is partnering with security vendors to develop original content. For the past six years, this partnership has produced white papers, case studies, and an online presentation series that showcases subject matter expertise with impartiality and context. </p><p>We hope you will find that this collection of 2016 papers instructive and educational. The experts representing distinct solutions often use their own products and services to illustrate points about technologies used or practices chosen, but the information is designed to be a useful addition to your broader efforts to keep abreast of the advancing security industry.​</p><h4>No Train. No Gain</h4><p><strong>By G4S</strong></p><p>A cross sectors and industries, employee training becomes a vulnerable budget item in challenging </p><p>economic environments, and the security industry is no different. As organizations seek to boost competitiveness and profitability through cost reduction, business processes are identified for reduction or elimination. All too often training is seen as expendable, rather than a strategic necessity. </p><p>Research shows that effective training affects profitability, competitiveness, employee engagement, and customer satisfaction. A recent webinar sponsored by G4S and hosted by Security Management magazine emphasizes the importance of maintaining an adequate employee training program. This paper and the companion webinar, which is available at no cost, explore the impact that such programs have on an organization’s culture, reputation, and bottom line.</p><p><strong>Successful Companies Have Strong Employees.</strong></p><p>For every company, organizational strength is directly linked to the performance of its employees. According to a recent IBM survey of C-suite managers, 71 percent of CEOs rank human capital above products, customer relationships, and brands as the leading source of sustained economic value. </p><p>For the security industry, which is primarily service-based, employees constitute the product itself. Training security officers, therefore, not only improves the individual employee but also advances the interests of the organization. The same IBM survey found a correlation between training and organizational success, noting that 84 percent of employees in the best performing organizations receive the training they need compared with 16 percent in the worst performing companies. </p><p>Employees who are given the skills to do their jobs well and the support to grow their abilities and take on greater responsibility become more effective in their roles. Personal development of each individual employee helps produce long-lasting competencies and increases an employee’s motivation. </p><p>Most managers recognize that training is critical to project success. A majority of global leaders surveyed by IBM (65 percent) cited talent and leadership shortages as their top business challenge. At the same time, leaders at most of the organizations surveyed believe employees are currently receiving the training they need. Seven out of 10 human resources professionals said employees were being adequately trained, a number that rises to eight out of 10 among senior management. In many organizations, there is a disconnect between what decision-makers think about the level of training provided and what recipients feel that they need.</p><p>The Association for Talent Development reports that training and development supports business growth more than 75 percent of the time. They also note that large organizations have an advantage when designing, implementing, and budgeting for training programs compared to employees at midsize companies. While larger employers often have generous learning expenditure budgets, they typically spend less per employee than midsize organizations. This is because the cost to develop and maintain the training and development program is spread among more employees. </p><p>As a result, employees at large organizations typically receive more training hours than their counterparts at midsize organizations. On average, large organizations report that their employees received 36 hours of training, or approximately 4.5 days, compared to midsize organizations, which report that their employees received 27 hours of training, or nearly 3.5 days. At the same direct learning expenditure per employee, large organizations were able to provide an extra day of training to their employees. </p><p><strong>Safety and Risk Mitigation.</strong></p><p>Employee training and staff development helps organizations mitigate risk and has a considerable impact on safety for the organization, stakeholders, and the public. A 2008 Michigan State study found that U.S. security services is a $7 billion industry, employing 1.1 million unarmed security officers compared to 833,000 police officers. This study demonstrates that security officers play an increasing role in public safety.</p><p>Safety and risk mitigation are issues that security professionals help clients address on a daily basis. Employee training is a risk mitigation strategy that is measurable and can affect the bottom line. Training prevents unsafe environments that arise when workers lack the knowledge and skills required to use equipment and supplies safely, which could result in injury or death. A company that fails to train staff adequately should expect an increase in expenses related to medical care, damaged equipment, compensating customers for defective products, and lawsuits. </p><p>For example, as a result of an inspection by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, one security company was cited with 15 alleged safety violations and faced penalties totaling $149,250. The majority of the proposed fine ($140,000) was for four willful citations for failing to train workers on recognizing hazardous situations and slip, trip, and fall prevention. </p><p>According to the U.S. Department of Labor, slips, trips, and falls cause 15 percent of all accidental deaths, second to motor vehicles, and are the number one cause of injury and lost working time in the world. In 2014, G4S implemented a Slip, Trip & Fall Safety Campaign to reduce preventable incidents and emphasize the importance of safety at their work sites. In the first year of the campaign, the company saw a 5 percent reduction in incidents, a 25 percent reduction in slip, trip, and fall costs, and a 27 percent reduction in average cost per incident. </p><p>Campaigns like the one implemented by G4S also provide opportunities to document processes or routines, a best practice that is a positive byproduct of training. Documenting processes mitigates risk and compensates for the absence of skill of individual employees.  </p><p><strong>Create a Learning Culture.</strong></p><p>Organizations that prioritize training and development minimize turnover, create an environment of continuous performance improvement, and improve customer satisfaction. An investment in training is an investment in employees. It increases motivation, making employees more positive, productive, and valuable to the organization over the long term. </p><p>Employee turnover costs organizations time, human capital, and money. Turnover of new hires is particularly costly. Since recruiting new staff is more expensive than retaining existing staff, appropriate training is imperative. Research shows that employees who do not feel they can achieve their career goals at their current organization are 12 times more likely to consider leaving than employees who do feel they can achieve their goals. New employees are 30 times more likely to consider leaving. </p><p>Staff development and education dramatically improve employee retention. The larger the gap between the skills required to perform a task and the actual skills of employees, the greater their dissatisfaction and the higher the turnover. According to IBM, new employees are 42 percent more likely to stay in their current position when they receive the training they need to perform the job properly. Conversely, employees who do not feel they can achieve their career goals at their current organization are 12 times more likely to consider leaving than employees who do feel they can achieve their career goals. </p><p>Training contributes to a learning culture in other ways as well. It strengthens the leadership skills of those implementing the training and creates opportunities for feedback, from manager to employee but also from employee to manager. It promotes the open communication necessary for a positive work environment. Finally, without proper training, it is difficult to promote or hire internally for positions higher up in the corporate hierarchy. </p><p><strong>Providing Value for Stakeholders.</strong></p><p>The benefits of a skilled workforce affect all areas of the organization from sales and marketing to customer service and support, and these efficiencies add value for stakeholders. </p><p>Research shows that adequate training improves communication and helps employees establish a greater number of positive working relationships, improving the employee’s experience as well as performance and customer service. Improved team skills ensured that objectives were met 90 percent more often. Strengthening team skills by only 1/3 increased the likelihood that stakeholders would meet their objectives from 10 to 100 percent, according to the IBM survey. </p><p>The International Data Corporation reported a $70,000 annual savings and 10 percent increase in productivity when teams were well trained, and an IBM case study pointed to 22 percent faster rollouts of products and processes. </p><p><strong>Training Methods.</strong></p><p>Many organizations are already training employees in customer service, legal authority, access control, and fire and life safety, as well as first aid, CPR and AED. Companies might consider expanding training further to include topics like ethics, conflict resolution, de-escalation, or how to interact with local and state officials who respond in emergencies. </p><p>Training and education are most productive when they are ongoing and continuous, but every training opportunity need not be a huge commitment of resources. Training formats vary and require different levels of resource commitment. Organizations may invest in big campaigns like the G4S Slip, Trip & Fall initiative, but a monthly meeting that addresses new industry trends or regulations is a small but worthwhile training effort as well. When preparing for a project, teams receiving 40 hours of training per member met their significant project objectives three times as often as teams that received 30 hours of training or less.</p><p>Some training methods include: </p><p> • Lectures – Usually take place in a classroom format and are led by a trainer or instructor covering specific topics.</p><p> • On-the-job training – Relies on employees to recognize the skills and knowledge they will need as they perform their work and then develop those skills on their own.</p><p> • Coaching and mentoring – Gives employees a chance to receive training one-on-one from an experienced professional and gives trainees the chance to ask questions and receive thorough, honest answers. </p><p> • Role playing – Allows employees to act out issues that could occur in the workplace. Key skills often touched upon are negotiating and teamwork. </p><p> • Technology-based learning – Includes basic PC-based programs; interactive media, using a PC-based CD-ROM; interactive video, using a computer and a VCR; web-based training programs. </p><p> • Technical training – Focuses on a specific need of specific employees.</p><p> • Outdoor training – Employs physical and mental activities that encourage teamwork and help develop collaborative skills. </p><p> • Case Studies – Provide trainees with a chance to analyze and discuss real workplace issues. They develop analytical and problem-solving skills and provide practical illustrations of principle or theory.  </p><p><strong>Lessons Learned.</strong></p><p>Leaders of top performing organizations understand the importance of training, education, and staff development at every level. Fostering an environment of continuous learning reaps benefits for the employee, the organization, and stakeholders. Training should be ongoing and processes should be documented as a strategy for mitigating the absence of skill of individual employees. As competition among businesses in the security industry increases, having an effective employee training program can be the difference between failure and success.</p><p>​<br></p><h4>Leveraging Business Intelligence in Your Security Strategy</h4><p><strong>By iView Systems</strong></p><p>Today, nothing is more critical to security and loss prevention operations than meaningful data. Every department within the operation bears the responsibility to not only provide useful data, but to continually improve the value of that data. Business Intelligence is used to help companies gain insight into their operations; segment and target customers to improve customer security, safety and experience while finding anomalies in the heaps of data to run more efficiently and effectively </p><p>This white paper explores how to change the game for your company. Learn how to collect and, leverage data to achieve effective loss prevention, risk mitigation, efficient fraud detection, incident analysis and monitoring. </p><p><strong>Harness Big Data.</strong></p><p>Today, the sources and volume of data collected have exploded. Security operations collect every event and incident from every transaction from various sources including alarms, environmental sensors, intrusion-detection systems and video surveillance.</p><p>The goal of a modern security department includes a set of processes and supporting technologies for data management to allow security practionitioners greater flexibility in cobbling together disparate systems into a unified security control system that enables Security Directors to know exactly what’s going on, in  real-time while providing analysis to generate actionable items that can give security operations the agility it needs in times of crises.</p><p>We define “big data” as a capability that allows companies to extract value from large volumes of data. Like any capability, it requires investments in technologies, processes and governance.</p><p>There is no doubt that business intelligence software provides the ability to analyze a multitude of transactions and information on one centralized platform, empowering users to capture, analyze and glean actionable insight, hidden in the layers of data within the enterprise. Data-driven risk management requires situational awareness that can only come from a systemic and holistic approach. True value comes from correlating large amounts of incident and security data and presenting it in an visually appealing format, whereby users are able to quickly draw conclusions act on it in in a timely manner.</p><p>Nowhere is this more true than in the security function, where protection can be only as complete as situational awareness. By giving safety, security, risk management and loss prevention managers the ability to track, organize and analyze their data via configurable dashboard visualizations, BI software can provide context and comparison of security related information. This context moves the risk capabilities of an organization toward prevention from a traditional reporting and documentation function, providing the ability to show causality and structure, while giving insight into security and safety related issues.</p><p>More than 86 percent of respondents to a June 2016 survey by CIO Insight now say that BI is important to their company and intrinsic to their role. Global revenue in the business intelligence and analytics market will grow more than 5 percent in 2016, reaching $16.9 billion this year according to a recent Gartner forecast. But it is only now that BI and analytics have matured enough that the market is offering easy-to-use, agile products designed for specific business functions. Off-the-shelf software products provide data in a way that can be incorporated into larger enterprise BI. They are grounded in specific functions in a way that fills the gap between the promise of BI and the reality of its application in the business unit and in small- to medium-sized businesses. For the purposes of this paper, we will consider the iTrak® Business Intelligence package available from iView Systems. While there are many competitors in the BI field—many of which are already in use in organizations that have not adopted BI for security—iView software is built specifically for the needs of security, surveillance and loss prevention. Unlike SAP, Microsoft BI, IBM Cognos, and other enterprise-level BI solutions, iTrak® is not a software that needs to be bent to the task of security and loss prevention through extensive customization and programming, but one that can be immediately deployed to produce results. </p><p><strong>Business Intelligence with Roots in Security and Loss Prevention.</strong></p><p>BI is not shaping just the practice of security and loss prevention, but also their overall role in the enterprise. “In the security and related risk fields, data comes in an unending stream from every device and direction,” says Martin Drew, president of iView Systems. Harnessing that data provides operational insights that create greater organizational efficiencies.  The investment in security is no longer just about protecting assets—but about leveraging those capabilities to create a financial return that is directly attributable to that investment. </p><p>Security practitioners have long competed at a disadvantage with other departments that made demonstrable connections to the financial bottom line. As the IT function became more integrated with security operations, the requirement to “make a business case” became the challenge for every upgrade or new investment.  But as Avi Perez, the chief technical officer for Pyramid Analytics writes, the best practices of business intelligence are not about making business cases, but about solving problems. </p><p>The iTrak® BI application was built explicitly for the security function and is rooted in just that—detecting anomalies in your data to to solve problems. The first and most obvious return on investment BI makes is in the reduction of manual security processes. Fully 76 percent of midsize or larger companies (more than 500 employees) relied on a manual processes for exception alert reporting from physical security systems as recently as two years ago according ASIS International research. Fewer than 30 percent of these same organizations had invested in business intelligence at that time. Considering that fully 71 percent of companies were using BI in some aspect of their operations as early as 2012, this represented a comparatively slow adoption rate by security practitioners. iView Systems committed to change these statistics with its iTrak® BI and found one of the most ready sectors to be the gaming industry. </p><p>“Casinos would spend as much as five days of every month just doing required manual reports,” says Giselle Chen, senior business intelligence analyst at iView Systems.  Automating that process can virtually eliminate that time requirement, improve the accuracy of reports, while speeding  the dissemination of the information to all identified stakeholders by simply scheduling the reports to run at whatever required interval.</p><p>“Several dashboards can eliminate virtually hundreds of reports and provide the ability to quickly drill down from the highest summary to as many established groups and sub-groups as required—even down to individual incidents,” says Chen. The investigation is not conducted through reams of paper, but by highly intuitive paths navigated by the simple click of a mouse. An international organization such as a hotel would be able to identify gaps in efficiency as the aggregate effect impacts the overall organization. Users can also expect a substantial decline in errors. While errors will always occur, through BI they can be addressed at a systems-wide process level and fixed once. With manual reporting, a certain persistent level of error exists mostly as occurrences at the incident report level. Training and active monitoring can help to reduce these, but human error is simply the cost of doing business with manual processes.</p><p><strong>Data Visualization: A New View.</strong></p><p>From this larger awareness, gaps can be explored and analyzed by specific regions, types of properties, or seasons of the year. This is the nature of how BI and analytics provide established reports and dashboards to raise situational awareness while providing ad hoc reporting to investigate the source of problems. Throughout the process, data visualizations depict the rows and columns of raw data in an intuitive format. Incident reports presented as bar charts immediately draw the eye to anomalies. Pie charts, heat maps and bubble graphs all create pictures that more directly engage the problem-solving capacity of the human brain. </p><p>By filtering out all the steps it takes to get from raw data to the dashboard display, BI software makes it easier and faster for end users to understand the information and how it relates to their department and operations using customizable data visualizations and dashboards.</p><p><strong>Showing the Big Picture as Well as Supporting Details.</strong></p><p>Another early win that has application in every security environment is reducing the impact of false alarms. “As much as 80 percent of any front-line security officer’s day can consist of responding to false alarms,” says Chen. The high rate of false alarms inflates the number of personnel required to guard a facility and can reduce the response time to actual incidents—increasing costs, while lowering efficiency. </p><p>With BI, supervisors have a real-time awareness of how their resources are allocated—where officers are dispatched, which officers are on break while distinguishing proprietary from contract staff and armed from unarmed officers. </p><p><strong>Self-Service business intelligence (SSBI)</strong></p><p>Self-Service BI enables business end users to rapidly design, deploy and analyze reliable data, at a relatively low cost to a business unit, with less dependence on IT.</p><p>“Reports are highly customizable and the training to use the BI toolset can take as little as 10 minutes,” says Chen. “Once a system is implemented, much of the data is already customized according to the requirements of the facility and the organization. The data, entered once, can serve many purposes without the burden of multiple entry in different systems. </p><p>From there end users can create and customize dashboards and reports with a simple drag-and-drop. This ad hoc capability to create new scenarios, combine disparate data sources and explore a variety of permutations and parameters of data are all part of a mature BI system that no longer requires extensive programming competencies. </p><p>The key to the success of iTrak® Bi is the fact that users don’t need IT experts by their side to work with the data presented in the dashboard. Users can access the dashboards, manipulate and analyze data and bring in other members of a team to work together on certain data analysis projects.</p><p><strong>Moving from Reaction to Prevention and Prediction</strong></p><p>The value proposition for BI in the security sector is not limited to creating efficiencies. Oft-cited in the industry literature is the capability for retail facilities to mine surveillance systems to better understand traffic patterns and position products with a data-driven understanding of their environment. Surveillance systems can also be used to monitor and enforce safety practices in warehouses and other environments where injuries are common. Access control systems and computer log-ins can provide international businesses with better awareness of how remote facilities are being used and create savings through fine-tuning HVAC systems and even reducing and increasing office footprints according to actual needs. </p><p><strong>A Look Ahead at BI.</strong></p><p>Data is the water we swim in today. We are creators and consumers of data and wielders of the intelligence it provides. The most substantial impact in 2017 will be the continued deployment of specialized BI platforms from analytic packages which come with an integrated set of tools, data schemas, business views, and predefined reports and dashboards that significantly accelerate the time it takes to get a BI solution up and running. </p><p>Packaged applications like iTrak®BI allow organizations to deploy BI on a small scale for a single department and then expand seamlessly to support other departments using the same model and platform, delivering a consistent view of enterprise information.  </p><p>BI will move increasingly to cloud deployments and mobile platforms with data security as the prime governor in the transition and the total cost of ownership will continue to drop and the realized return on investment will continue to grow quickly </p><p>Within a decade, the way we did business 10 years ago will be unrecognizable. The fundamentals of security and loss prevention will remain familiar, but how their function partners with other departments and contributes to the mission of the organization as a whole will be limited only by the imagination of the practitioner.</p><p>​<br></p><h4>Emergency Towers: The Case for Safety in K–12</h4><p><strong>By Talkaphone</strong></p><p>The perception and practice of security in primary schools around the United States changed one December day in 2012.  The tragedy that occurred at Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newton, Connecticut was a tipping point. Those charged with the security of K-12 school facilities across the country looked to their own charges with a collective sense of urgency. </p><p>“With everything in the media and some of the major events occurring, not only in our country, but also abroad, we’re coming to a better realization that some of these incidents could occur anywhere,” said Chief of Police Alan Bragg of Cypress-Fairbanks Independent School District in Texas.  </p><p>Cypress-Fairbanks is the third largest school district in Texas, providing education to more than 115,000 students in an area spanning more than 186 square miles. Eleven high schools, eighteen middle schools, and fifty-six elementary schools comprise Chief Bragg’s charge. </p><p><strong>Working with the District</strong></p><p>In 2014 the district passed a $1.2 billion bond, setting the stage for massive security, transportation, and infrastructure upgrades aimed at preparing the district for large-scale growth. With two to three thousand students added each year, just keeping up with growth is a primary challenge.</p><p>But Bragg, who came to Cypress-Fairbanks four years ago to start the police department, is ready for the challenge. He credits the school bond with empowering his team to create an environment that provides the best solutions to protect students, staff, and community members.</p><p>Key to those upgrades are 67 Talkaphone blue light emergency towers with call stations to be installed throughout the district. The blue light systems will be placed in strategic locations where the community tends to gather.</p><p>Bragg is not new to the advantages of Talkaphone. When he was leading police efforts at Spring Hill Independent School District, another large school district in Texas, Bragg credits a blue light system for saving a life when there was a medical emergency at a school athletic event. Because the blue light tower was integrated with the access control system, dispatchers were able to remotely open a door and give access to a life-saving automated external defibrillator (AED) system. Without that AED when and where it was needed, the outcome would likely have been different.</p><p>“When things go bad and an emergency occurs, sometimes cell phones aren’t available,” Bragg said. “Having that extra device out there could also be a lifesaver for us.” When response time is critical, the towers also offer the advantage of known location</p><p><strong>Installation Considerations.</strong></p><p>At Cypress-Fairbanks, the Talkaphone towers will be installed in centrally located areas where a lot of traffic is likely. Many of the schools are on what Bragg calls a “triplex”—a campus that includes a high school, middle school, and elementary school.</p><p>Each triplex will include a tower with a camera that will be placed in front of the high school, near a large parking area. Two additional camera-enabled towers will be placed near the athletics complex and in another central location.</p><p>Bragg’s goal is to place the towers where they can be accessible by almost everybody. Strategic sites have been identified across each of the Cypress-Fairbanks campuses and installation began in the summer of 2016.</p><p>While the shootings at Sandy Hook precipitated a far-reaching investment in security in schools around the country, the fact is, violence on K-12 campuses is a common experience. According to a report by the United States Bureau of Justice Statistics, Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2015, there were 53 school-associated violent deaths from July 1, 2012 through June 30, 2013. In 2014 there were about 850,100 nonfatal victimizations at school, resulting in 363,700 thefts; and 486,400 violent victimizations, which include everything from simple assault to serious violence.</p><p>For Bragg, preventing these far more common threats is his day-to-day charge. That’s why his department functions just like any other police department, with round-the-clock monitoring and trained professionals on duty. </p><p>“It’s a 24-hour operation for our police department,” he said. “We monitor all our district burglar alarms and access control. Everything is handled by our police department.” </p><p>Soon Bragg will add those 67 Talkaphone towers to the list of tools his police department uses to secure the district’s campuses. He said he’s looking forward to the ability to turn on a camera at the device location and help diagnose a threat before arriving. Each of his blue light systems will allow the user to autodial directly into the Cypress-Fairbanks dispatch center.</p><p><strong>The K-12 Environment.</strong></p><p>Blue Light towers have been a staple on college campuses for decades, but have only recently begun to be deployed at primary and secondary school locations like those in Cypress-Fairbanks. The reasons are numerous, but Bragg and other industry experts think media coverage and heightened public awareness contribute to the pressure the public has begun to exert on its local schools.</p><p>Bragg said that it is not uncommon for him to receive a call from parents considering a move into the district. “Some of their questions revolve around crime statistics and if we’re safe,” he said. “Parents ask those questions now. It’s important to them.”</p><p>Today’s society is hyper-aware about security issues. Parents actively inquire about physical safety measures alongside the more traditional considerations such as class size and educational testing results. Those distinguishing factors ripple outward as successful schools create desirable neighborhoods which in turn drive local economies. To that end, the highly visible Blue Light towers are powerful symbols of security infrastructure. </p><p>While parental demands for greater protections are common, it is still unusual for school districts to have formally trained life safety professionals on staff such as Bragg at Cypress-Fairbanks. Life-long educators are not police and before investing in significant upgrades, it behooves schools to reach out to professionals that can conduct a thorough risk assessment and make thoughtful recommendations that will likely include both obvious and less-obvious security precautions. </p><p>Sometimes in budget discussions and even the occasional story in the media there will be a question as to how much security is actually needed. The plain fact is that the media does gravitate to school violence in ways that may raise fears out of proportion with actual risk. On the whole, K-12 schools are very safe places compared to the world that often surrounds them. </p><p>But school systems are legally accountable for a duty to protect students. This duty requires school officials anticipate potential and foreseeable dangers and take reasonable measures to safeguard children. </p><p>While secondary schools are the subject of a higher frequency of published negligence litigation, primary schools have a far higher proportion of judgements decided against them. Younger students are considered more vulnerable which places a higher duty of care on the school.  Ultimately, the decision will fall to a jury comprised of people who read the same media coverage of school violence. </p><p>Funding is the other obvious challenge. The simple fact is that most school districts are forced into making hard decisions with the budgets they are allocated. In such environments, it can be difficult to know where to start. </p><p><strong>Making Budgets Work.</strong></p><p>Bragg is quick to acknowledge these concerns, but believes parents and elected school officials will advocate for needed changes when they see the value in a blue light system. </p><p>“You can start with a basic device and you can get basic features that will enhance some of the security levels on your campus and then add other features as funds become available,” he said. “Sometimes picking a basic system to enhance security is a good first step. That’s important.”</p><p>Bragg adds that, in his years working with school districts, he’s witnessed parents mobilizing when the issue is important enough. “You’d be surprised how many times parents get together and say, ‘you know, that’s really great, I wish we had another one back behind the athletics fields’. Then they’ll do a fundraiser and car wash to help find the funds to make that school even safer,” he said.</p><p>Installing a Blue Light system, similar to those favored by Cypress-Fairbanks, doesn’t have to be a budget breaker and the return on investment is immediately felt in the deterrent factor created by the high visibility of the product. The towers, which stand more than 9-feet tall, can be modified to meet various needs and price points. Cameras, two-way broadcast systems, and even an AED can be stationed inside the tower. </p><p>The Talkaphone systems are built on an open platform that can be integrated with current standard communication systems and third-party vendors. This approach means that Talkaphone can easily be retrofitted into an existing environment without the need for numerous and costly upgrades—a major appeal for large and established districts like Cypress-Fairbanks. </p><p>The Talkaphone system operates on the standard Session Initiation Protocol (SIP), which means it will work with most major or modern Voice over IP (VOIP) phone systems on the market. Talkaphone devices can also send a digital output that can communicate with other central server systems, such as access control. This means that secondary or tertiary events, such as a lockdown or camera call-ups, can be triggered from the Talkaphone device. </p><p>Finally, mass notification capability is differentiator of the product, triggering notifications over the company’s Wide-Area Emergency Broadcast System (WEBSTM) to provide mass broadcasts and notifications that keep classrooms, offices, buildings, outdoor areas, and entire districts connected.</p><p><strong>Strategic Visibility.</strong></p><p>For Cypress-Fairbanks, the Blue Light towers are the most visible, public-facing, security upgrade to the campuses. Several other changes have been made behind the scenes to make the district a leader in securing its students. </p><p>VOIP phone systems are being installed this summer as are several new CCTV cameras—40 new cameras in each high school, 20 in each middle school, and 10 in each elementary. All of these upgrades work together to create a cohesive security program that provides the police department with the information and tools they need to do their jobs. </p><p>Equally important, however, is the fact that with the Blue Light system, each visitor to campus is empowered to keep themselves and their fellow community members safe. Even at night, Bragg knows that the towers will remain lit and visible and the only thing a user needs to do to find help quickly is push a button.</p><p>It is no accident that the Cypress-Fairbanks towers are placed in highly trafficked areas. “Our district is a very busy and active district with a lot of community involvement in the evenings,” said Bragg. For example, during the busy high school football season, the two football stadiums are in use from Thursday through Saturday during the week between late August and early December.</p><p>Bragg said that with a district as diverse as his, cellphones are not a given. Additionally, in events where quick intervention is required and first responders need to be called, the towers eliminate the hesitation that may come from not knowing what number to call.</p><p>At the end of the day, Bragg’s operational focus is strategic. “We’re being proactive and preventive,” he said. “Not a day goes by that we don’t talk about the safety and security of our staff, students, and facilities. It’s a priority for me and our district.​</p><h4>Cloud-Based Security Integration</h4><p><strong>By Team Software</strong></p><p>Without WinTeam, Jayson Yao believes he would have never landed one of his biggest customers. His company, 50 State Security Service, Inc., was seeking a government contract, and the client required customized billing. “The way that they needed their billing was the most complicated billing we had ever encountered. And because we were on WinTeam, we were able to furnish the detailed billing they needed,” Yao said. “It also had to match up to the biometric reports that WinTeam receives. If we weren’t on WinTeam, we couldn’t have complied with the invoicing.”</p><p>Yao, chief financial officer and vice president of 50 State, said his company was able to further cement the contract through an integrated customer self-service portal, which allowed the client to access 50 State’s officers’ schedules. “With the customer self-service portal, it was very easy for us to give them access to scheduling,” Yao said. “Without WinTeam, this would have been next to impossible to provide.” </p><p>WinTeam is an integrated, cloud-based software system developed by and for contractors in the building service and security industries. Developed by TEAM Software, it delivers financial, operations, and workforce management components to help streamline business processes and deliver a complete picture of profitability. Companies can leverage shared data from throughout their organization, and because it’s a cloud-based solution, data can be accessed from the office, home, or on the road. TEAM Software currently has nearly 400 clients in the United States, Canada, and the Caribbean, with hundreds of thousands of end users. TEAM Software is employee owned and focused on customer service. </p><p>Many companies choose TEAM Software because of the integration of the various components of its software. This integration helps reduce time and resources required to maintain various independent solutions, makes it easier to extract coherent information and reports from the overall system, and helps ensure compliance more efficiently. “We have everything from not only the operation side of the business and workforce management, but we also incorporate payroll and human resources and then tie it all to the backend, which is the general ledger for financial reporting,” said Jill Davie, TEAM Software senior vice president of client experience. “So having all of that information in one database and one system, where information flows seamlessly from one area to the next, is definitely the advantage of using TEAM Software.”</p><p>If companies are not using an integrated package like WinTeam, they may be using paper systems, spreadsheets, or unrelated software applications. Those systems may offer individual pieces like scheduling or payroll, but they will not be integrated with the backend general ledger. So then companies must purchase an additional accounting package and figure out how to make the various systems talk to each other. Companies may be working with multiple vendors, facing implementation issues, and struggling with ongoing costs and maintenance. </p><p>“WinTeam is focused on security companies, so their scheduling is really strong for that type of business,” said Betty Ritts, vice president of information technology at AlliedBarton Security Services. “It integrates compliance with it, so many of our officers’ licenses for various state requirements as well as armed licensing is integrated. Also, the scheduling is integrated with payroll and billing, so it keeps it all together. That makes it much easier if you have to go back and audit for a client. And there’s a lot of good bells and whistles to help us to manage the business.”</p><p>“We switched to TEAM Software because of the added versatility and added capability,” said Denis Kelly, executive vice president of Sunstates Security. He said his company made the switch in 2008 because of the integrated accounting, payroll, and scheduling functions that were offered, enabling users to run reports and analyze data. </p><p>In the end, businesses see a financial gain because they can get a complete picture of their profitability and make better business decisions, especially as they face shrinking margins and increasing competition. “It’s saving them time, making them more efficient, and getting them better insights into their business,” said Scott Gauger, TEAM Software director of sales. “There are a lot of different individual software solutions, but putting them all in a consolidated, integrated package—there aren’t that many out there.”​</p><p><strong>Integrated Features.</strong></p><p>WinTeam offers comprehensive financial and accounting management capabilities and allows companies to manage their workforce effectively with powerful scheduling tools. Companies can save time by creating weekly work schedules from permanent master schedules, then manage exceptions at a glance, like overlapping shifts, overtime, or compliance issues. The compliance tracker tool helps ensure that employees meet job requirements, like special licensing or training. Scheduling information is seamlessly integrated with accounts receivable and payroll, so companies can bill customers with accurate and timely information. The software also allows companies to track inventory and equipment issued to employees or jobs and monitor supply levels and costs. </p><p>WinTeam includes human resources tools to help companies administer insurance benefits in compliance with Affordable Care Act (ACA) employer regulations. Because timekeeping and human resources data is contained in one system, companies can easily determine employee benefits eligibility based on hours worked. In addition, all benefits and eligibility data is captured and available for ACA reporting and compliance. </p><p>Customers appreciate the many different features of WinTeam. For example, Barry Williamson, chief financial officer of GMI Integrated Facility Solutions, said his company finds the integrated system makes job cost reporting easier. “You can run an onscreen job cost on your computer, and there are drill downs to the source of every single number. So if accounts payable is involved, you drill down and see the accounts payable invoice that makes up the entry. If it’s revenue, then you can drill down to the customer invoice that makes up the revenue. You can drill right down to the daily time sheet through payroll to see where those numbers are coming from. It’s the same with inventory,” Williamson said. “Without even getting out of your chair, you can see every component that makes up the revenues and costs to see where you’re missing the budget or where you’re performing well against budget.”</p><p>WinTeam’s features work especially well in the security industry, where scheduling and licensing play such an important role. Companies can use the system to make sure officers are where they need to be at the right time and that they’re qualified for the job. Plus, the integrated mobile features mean information from WinTeam can be used by supervisors and officers in the field, in real time.</p><p>The personnel scheduling feature allows companies to track where they need to place officers based on their clients’ needs. In addition, workforce tools help managers ensure officers report to the site. With integrated time and attendance features, employees can clock in via telephone, biometric time clock or on their mobile device, and that timekeeping information is updated back in WinTeam from the field. Plus, the system will post alerts when officers do not report to duty. “They get a bird’s eye view of the entire operation, including all shifts that are currently active or will be active in the next hour,” said Mike Straub, TEAM Software senior vice president of software development. “They’re able to see all of the activity and all of the exceptions as they happen.”</p><p>Compliance has been a core component of WinTeam for more than 15 years. Companies can enter requirements at the job level, and then monitor whether employees have the proper licensing and training. When companies schedule employees for a shift, they can check to see if their licensing has expired. “The system will either warn or even not allow people to be scheduled based on that compliance,” Straub said. In addition, a compliance alert engine will allow companies to notify officers when licenses are coming due, so that companies can be proactive in making sure their officers have all that they need to be put in place. </p><p>Kelly, from SunStates Security, said TEAM Software has helped his company track compliance and training for its employees. “We have several hundred courses available for our people, from initial training to ongoing learning to customized courses,” Kelly said. “When someone takes a course, the challenge is tracking their results and ultimately seeing how they’re progressing as an employee. All of that information flows into WinTeam, so we can see everything from their initial background checks to when they’ve been hired and all the training they’ve completed.”</p><p>The mobile features offered by TEAM also work well in the security industry, allowing supervisors to access the information in the field so they can make good decisions about scheduling employees or finding the appropriate kind of employees to work. TEAM Software’s employee and customer self-service solution can be used on Android and Apple devices, with a downloadable app. Everyone in the company, from supervisors to employees, can use the app to see their schedules or retrieve their paystubs. And because most people are accustomed to using an app, it’s user friendly. </p><p> “With our mobile and web offering, we’re really trying to penetrate the entire organization of our customers. We want to bring our solutions all the way to the security officers, so the officers can benefit from receiving their paychecks through a mobile device,” Straub said. “We can even bring the technology to our clients’ own customers. They have customers who need to be able to access invoice information or other various operational types of information, so we’re continuing to improve our customer self-service capabilities so our customers can provide more information to their customers.” </p><p>Kelly said his company relies heavily on the mobile application, which allows managers to do quality assurance checks, compliance reports, and inspections in the field. Because officers have access to their schedules and paystubs on their mobile phones, those mobile features save time, which can be put back into improving customer service and growing the business.</p><p><strong>Roots in the Security Industry.</strong></p><p>TEAM Software was formed in the 1980s in Omaha, Nebraska. It all started when a building service and security contracting company was hunting for an integrated, industry-specific management system to help organize operations, streamline accounting processes, and provide insight into profitability. The company couldn’t find any existing solution that could do exactly what it wanted, so it put together a small team to build one of its own. Six years later, the team had developed the prototype for what is now known as WinTeam. Frank Labedz, the CFO and software project lead, realized that this unique solution could make a significant difference for other businesses, so he started a new company to offer the solution to other contractors.</p><p>Some 25 years later, TEAM Software still remembers its roots in the security industry. “We tailored the software around the security business, where what drives everything is your labor, your hourly workers. That drives your billing and your payroll, your margins and profitability,” said TEAM Software’s Davie. “So focusing our system around that piece of the software gave us an advantage in speaking the language of these companies—understanding that if you manage your labor and your workforce, that will drive your profitability and your success.”</p><p>Davie said TEAM Software actively promotes its product in the security industry, attending trade shows regularly and connecting with its customers face to face. TEAM Software also hosts its own annual conference for clients.</p><p>GMI’s Williamson said his company has taken advantage of the networking opportunities offered by TEAM Software. “TEAM’s yearly conference has evolved from a meeting that was basically sitting around in a hotel room to a large hotel gathering with hundreds of people. It’s come a long way,” Williamson said. “That environment is great to meet with people who are doing what you are doing and who have the same challenges as you do. It’s a good opportunity to talk with your peers.”</p><p>TEAM Software stresses not only its background in the security industry, but also its focus on customer service. The company became employee owned in 2007, with each employee owning stock in the company. The company was looking to reward its employees for all their hard work and wanted its employees to have a stake in the success of the company. And because they have a vested interest in TEAM Software’s success, they understand that they are only successful if their customers are satisfied. </p><p> “One of the key things we hang our hat on is great customer service, providing our clients with appropriate answers to their questions in a timely manner and following up on their needs,” TEAM’s Gauger said. TEAM Software offers a dedicated support department that answers customers’ calls, an implementation and education department that helps new clients, and ongoing training of existing clients for new products as they are brought out. </p><p>Ritts from AlliedBarton said TEAM Software listens to its clients. “Staff are very good about taking feedback and suggestions from their clients, especially when they’re going to change things or add new functionally. They’re very good about reaching out to clients for their input and brainstorming through things,” Ritts said. “They also stay on top of new things as they relate to payroll regulations, such as the ACA. And they let their customers know, so they’re a good source of information for their clients.” </p><p>The fact that TEAM Software is employee owned results in other benefits to its customers as well. “Our customers in the security industry know turnover and costs related to turnover. So being employee-owned reduces our turnover, which increases quality and efficiency and our ability to deliver,” said Straub. “We’re able to retain an amount of knowledge. Because that knowledge is not walking out the door every two or three years, we’re able to be a lot more efficient.”</p><p>By promoting a culture of strong customer service in the security industry, TEAM Software employees build strong relationships with their clients. “They’re more than a vendor, they’re a consultant,” Yao said. “They’re a resource that I use,  so it’s not only about how their software can help us. They have their finger on the pulse of the industry, so I can get feedback from them on the trends in the security industry.”</p><p><strong>Future Plans.</strong></p><p>Providing good customer service also means keeping abreast of changes in technology. TEAM Software made an early move to the cloud in 2001. While customers used to receive software and install it on their own computers, now most new businesses use the cloud, and more and more customers are coming to expect that type of service. The cloud makes it easier for companies to get on board, since they no longer have to purchase equipment like servers, install a network, and get everything up and running. </p><p>TEAM Software will continue to expand the technological capabilities of its software. “We’re on the cusp of bringing all that technology to a more central unified technology, meaning bringing our Windows application forward to be more of a Web-based solution,” Straub said. “That’s where our future belongs: trying to bring our entire set of platforms together as one suite of offerings so that it’s a more of a seamless and unified solution to all our customers.” </p><p>The company will also respond to the changing landscape, as the security industry sees more consolidation. “There are a lot of mergers and acquisitions happening,” Davie said. “Mid-size companies feel that they can market themselves to an acquiring company because they use our products.  Because we do have three of the top five largest security companies in the industry, some companies have felt that using WinTeam gives them an advantage in selling their business because they can integrate more seamlessly into the buying company if they use WinTeam as well.”</p><p>Davie said TEAM Software will continue to seek opportunities in the security industry and feels that there is room for growth. “It’s important for people to know we’re committed to the industry,” Davie said. “While we may consider branching out and offering our software outside of our niche markets down the road, we do not plan to turn our back on the security industry or leave that market in any way.”​</p><h4>Leveraging the Command Center Investment Enterprise-wide</h4><p><strong>By Christie</strong></p><p>Traditionally, command centers are considered part of the security operations domain. Cameras, intrusion detection systems, video and audio recordings, and alarms are just some of the security-related systems effectively monitored and managed in traditional command centers. </p><p>However, threats to an organization are not limited to physical security, and command centers can process data from a wide range of sources, offering risk mitigation throughout the enterprise. The ubiquity of IP-enabled technology, the increasing access to raw data, and the desire to minimize information silos expand the role of command centers. In this white paper, you will learn how investing in a command center can benefit the entire organization. </p><p><strong>Role Within an Organization</strong></p><p>For decades, certain industries have harnessed the power of a command center to support business operations beyond security. For example, telephone and data providers monitor outages, traffic, and data flow by region. Command centers are ideal for managing operations on waterways, highways, and public transportation networks. </p><p>In general, command centers enhance situational awareness, so events can be managed quickly and effectively. In the security world, that often means responding to physical threats. When a locked door is suddenly opened, an alarm sounds, and a streamlined response begins. </p><p>“In the old days a security guard would consult a notebook, saying, ‘What do we do when door number 32 is opened? Do we send a guard? Point a camera at the door?’” says Richard Derbyshire, CTS-D, consultant relations manager at CHRISTIE Digital Systems. Modern command centers offer an entirely automated environment. </p><p>“The response in the software is to trigger some form of alarm that then alters some aspect on the visual display,” Derbyshire says. “You have an intrusion detection, a connection outage in your security system, or some other abnormality. You also have an automated sequence to point a camera at the door, call up a series of response procedures, or display the scene of intrusion. </p><p>Command centers often feature a large-format, video display. For example, the screen might show a geographical map of a campus or a series of different images that change from green to red when an alarm status is triggered. The anomalous event is clearly registered by everyone in the room and—if required—elsewhere in the organization. What’s more, command centers provide flexible monitoring. Visual displays are networked; they can be monitored remotely, from a laptop, smartphone, or a backup command center. “The shared display within a shared space enhances understanding of what’s going on in the area you are covering,” Derbyshire says.</p><p><strong>Beyond the Security Budget.</strong></p><p>“Command centers are best applied when monitoring systems,” Derbyshire says. “Think of all the different entities in the world that can be construed as systems.”</p><p>Command centers are valuable tools for securing physical assets, but they also provide situational awareness that extends beyond security, mitigating risks, and safeguarding business processes. “Command and control environments are used for multiple aspects of the business, on both the commercial side and the government side,” says Ronald Willis, a senior associate at Shen Milsom & Wilke, LLC, an international technology and acoustical consulting firm.</p><p>For example, a command center can monitor the IT network across the corporation. “It has some aspect of security,” Willis says, “but the cyber guys are doing security. This is network or content monitoring,” he adds. “You might be a software development firm working on a video wall so that everyone can see it and track progress.” </p><p>Integrator Dan Gundry, a senior control room specialist at Vistacom Inc., agrees.  According to Gundry, one of easiest ways to leverage a command center is to integrate IT and physical security. “It provides the ability to leverage the same content to achieve the same goal—protecting the organization’s business interest and its people,” Gundry says. “We’re seeing the integration of both IT and physical security to leverage that investment, leverage the space, and bring operations into alignment.”</p><p>Providing everyone with a common operating picture improves responsiveness and decision-making by assimilating all the right data, Gundry adds. “When you take that concept and you move it beyond, you’re still talking about having the right info at people’s fingertips in a highly functional way.”</p><p>Derbyshire points to universities, which often integrate security functions within their data communications network command centers, either locating them in the same space or in adjoining spaces. “The security command center function is incorporated into the data network design because so much of the security system is an IP system,” he says. “If you lose a part of your IP system, you lose a part of your security system.”</p><p><strong>Supporting the Global Workplace.</strong></p><p>The command center environment also supports global business and information sharing. “If you’re working on a project in Abu Dhabi and you have to talk to an engineer in Chicago, you can do a Skype call and talk to them while sharing content over the network,” Willis says. “That information can be deployed and displayed on a virtual surface, or video wall surface. Whether you have a three-foot-square array or a 10-by-12 foot video wall, it’s still a virtual surface. You can do anything you want on that surface.”</p><p>Willis prefers the term “multi-array deployment” to command center, because the purpose of the technology and the way it is implemented can vary so widely. “I have a customer that has three different conference rooms, and they all have video walls in them,” he says. “They have different size arrays but the main purpose is to be a conference room or multipurpose room.”</p><p><strong>Growing Trend.</strong></p><p>Experts say that command center technology is being used in more building-wide applications, particularly in emergency management, emergency operations, and other specialty buildings where it’s important to have flexible content. While these organizations may have a command center or control room, information must also be sent to breakout rooms, conference rooms, war rooms, and managers’ offices. “Using CHRISTIE’s Phoenix platform as the backbone for video sharing across the enterprise, and within a building, is becoming more commonplace,” Gundry says.  </p><p>Command centers have a greater breadth of scope in an IP-enabled world, because a broad range of devices can be monitored. “Walk into a big building and, in your mind, peel away the finishes,” Derbyshire says. “Look behind and ask, ‘Why does that elevator go to the right floor every time? Why does the escalator stop and start when it’s supposed to, and how are the temperature and humidity controlled?’ They are all systems, and they can all be monitored and controlled by a central network.” </p><p><strong>A Case Study.</strong></p><p>When Ohio’s Hamilton County Emergency Management and Homeland Security Agency (EMA) upgraded its facility nearly three years ago, it was looking for a system that was flexible and reliable. “Unlike a lot of security centers, we’re not stagnant,” says Steve Siereveld, the organization’s operations manager and emergency operations center manager. “Most of the time when we looked at security centers, they had the same 20 or 30 displays up all the time,” Siereveld adds. “We switch wall layouts as the incident dictates.”</p><p>The EMA coordinates emergency response to all natural and manmade hazards in Cincinnati, Hamilton County, and 12 counties in three states (Ohio, Kentucky, and Indiana). However, its emergency operations center is a 24/7 “warm” facility, which means it is not always occupied. “It’s nothing for weeks and weeks,” Siereveld says. “But when something happens it’s a million miles an hour right out of the gate. We need something that’s quick and responsive.”</p><p>In 2014, the EMA purchased the CHRISTIE Phoenix—a network distributed open content management system for simultaneous encode, decode, and display of AV data—to use with its street and river camera system. Phoenix captures the camera feeds and brings them into a full HD video wall of 32 CHRISTIE Entero high-brightness 67-inch LED cubes. </p><p>“We’re constantly changing and redrawing the screen, and the screen redraws are quick,” he says. “We didn’t need something that took a minute to change screen layouts; we needed it to take a couple of seconds.”</p><p>While the center is equipped to help operators react to large-scale emergency incidents—caused by weather or terrorism, for example—Siereveld says the EMA has not experienced such an event for a few years. Instead, the center is used on a regular basis for planned events throughout the year, like firework displays over the Ohio River; Taste of Cincinnati, one of the nation’s largest street festivals, and the 2015 MLB All-Star Game. </p><p>The organization also uses the operations center for meetings, simulations, exercises, drills, and national homeland security classes. Human resources even uses the facility for employee testing. “There aren’t many places where you can find 54 computers in a room,” Siereveld notes. “They might put a PowerPoint up or just put a timer up on the video wall.”</p><p>Regardless of its use, the command center is a steadfast tool for the EMA. “From a user comfort and the reliability level, CHRISTIE’s technology has been very advantageous for us,” Siereveld says. “With our old system, it was older technology and sometimes it would work and sometimes it wouldn’t. With our current system, I don’t feel the need to fire things up two or three hours ahead of a meeting. I’m comfortable turning it on five minutes beforehand, knowing it will work.”</p><p>From an investment perspective, Siereveld says, “You can’t put a dollar tag on a life.” But he acknowledges that the CHRISTIE system saves the EMA money. With the old system, if a part broke, it had to be ordered from Japan and might take as long as three months to replace. Replacing bulbs cost approximately $50,000. “With the all LED, there’s one moving part, and we have no real maintenance,” Siereveld says. “Also, we have one set of spare components, and we can field swap them. If we do lose a display we can pull a module out and replace it. We’ve never had to do it, but we can if we need to.”</p><p><strong>Conclusion.</strong></p><p>With today’s networked systems and IP-enabled world, command centers can do more than alarm and video monitoring. In the security world, command centers focus primarily on situational awareness of the physical environment. They improve responsiveness by providing all operators with the same picture and positively impact decision-making. The security investment of a command center can now be leveraged throughout the enterprise—to enhance communication, secure supply chains, protect business interests, and contribute to the bottom line.</p>GP0|#28ae3eb9-d865-484b-ac9f-3dfacb4ce997;L0|#028ae3eb9-d865-484b-ac9f-3dfacb4ce997|Strategic Security;GTSet|#8accba12-4830-47cd-9299-2b34a4344465
https://sm.asisonline.org/Pages/Put-Training-to-the-Test.aspxPut Training to the Test<p>​The classroom door flies open. An emotionally distraught student rushes into the doorway, produces a semiautomatic pistol, presses the muzzle of the gun to his temple with his finger on the trigger, and proclaims, "I can't take it anymore."</p><p>How will the teacher respond to this stressful, high-stakes situation? Will she intervene with verbal tactics or physical ones? Will she inadvertently put other students in danger by reacting too quickly? </p><p>An analysis by school security firm Safe Havens International found that teachers and administrators who had undergone traditional active shooter training were more likely to react to this situation by opting to attack the student or throw things at him, rather than taking the action steps outlined in the school's policies and procedures, such as calling 911 or instigating a lockdown. In other scenarios, trainees reacted in a similar manner that could intensify and aggravate the situation when time allowed for safer policies and procedures to be applied.</p><p>In the wake of high-profile massacres at schools and college campuses, institutions are preparing themselves for the emergency situations with scenario-based training programs. </p><p>The percentage of U.S. public schools that have drilled for an active shooter scenario rose from 47 to 70 percent from 2004 to 2014, according to a study by the National Center for Education Statistics. But the intensive search for solutions to these deadly events can lead to hasty planning and decision making, ultimately resulting in an ineffective response. </p><p>The number of teachers and administrators who opt to attack or otherwise approach the armed perpetrator indicates that current active shooter programs may be overwhelming for participants, causing them to respond to threatening scenarios in a dangerous way. Schools have also become narrowly focused on active shooter scenarios, when most deaths and accidents on campuses do not involve an active shooter. </p><p>Taking these factors into consideration, an all-hazards approach to scenario-based training allows schools to prepare for a range of incidents, including bullying, sexual harassment, and natural disasters. Fidelity testing then allows administrators and teachers to put those plans to the test and see how participants apply the training under stressful scenarios. </p><p>School leaders can then learn to rely on the solid foundational principles of policies and procedures, as well as communications and emergency plans, to diffuse potentially hazardous situations. Using these basic elements of active threat response and evaluating training programs to identify gaps could save lives.​</p><h4>Evaluations</h4><p>During the stress of an actual crisis, people often react differently than they have been trained to do. Fidelity testing of a training program can help determine if there are gaps between what the trainer thinks the trainees will do, and what actions trainees will take in real life. This was the aim of evaluations completed by campus security nonprofit Safe Havens International of Macon, Georgia. </p><p><strong>Methodology.</strong> Analysts conducted the evaluations at more than 1,000 K-12 public, faith-based, independent, and charter schools in 38 states. More than 7,000 one-on-one crisis scenario simulations were conducted by Safe Havens International in a series of school safety, security, and emergency preparedness assessments over the last five years. The participants were observed and scored by analysts who had completed a 16-hour formal training program and one day of field work. </p><p>Prior to running the scenarios, analysts came up with several action steps that should be taken in each scenario. These steps included initiating a lockdown, calling 911, sheltering in place, or pulling the fire alarm, for example. Based on those steps, the analysts developed a standardized scoring system to keep track of participant performance in the scenarios. </p><p>This type of training is known as options-based active shooter training because it gives the participants various responses to choose from. Many popular options-based programs are based on the U.S. Department of Homeland Security's Run. Hide. Fight. approach.  </p><p>Drawing from Safe Havens International's repository of more than 200 audio and video crisis scenarios, analysts ran the simulations and let administrators, support staff, and teachers respond accordingly. These simulations covered a range of scenarios, which were presented in several formats. </p><p>For example, some participants were guided through an audio narration of a school bus taken hostage by an armed student. The audio was paused, and the trainees were asked what they would do next in that situation. </p><p>Similarly, video scenarios depicted potentially violent situations that left participants with a number of choices on how to react. </p><p>In one scenario, a woman screams at staff in the school office while brandishing a claw hammer. In another, a student on a school bus jumps up with a gun and yells, "Nobody move, and nobody gets hurt!" The video is stopped and trainees are prompted to say how they would react. </p><p>Based on action steps that were predetermined to be ideal, analysts then scored the trainees' responses on tablet devices. The scoring was be tailored to individual clients. For instance, if analysts were training a school district that has a police officer on every campus, its response would be different from that of a rural district that does not have a law enforcement officer within 20 miles.</p><p><strong>Results. </strong>The results of the evaluations consistently showed that participants who were provided with options-based active shooter programs had lower scores than those who had not completed any type of training. </p><p>This outcome shows that current active shooter training methods may be overwhelming for administrators and teachers because they provide too much information—prompting them to attack when it is not necessary.</p><p>In an assessment in the northeastern United States, test subjects completed an options-based active shooter training program that was three and a half hours long. Evaluators found that the 63 administrators and staff members from 28 schools missed 628 out of 1,243 critical action steps that should have been implemented. That's more than 50 percent.</p><p>For example, participants failed to initiate or order a lockdown when it was appropriate 70 percent of the time. More than 55 percent of participants failed to call 911 or the school resource officer in scenarios depicting a person with a weapon, and 39 percent of participants failed to pull the fire alarm in situations involving fire. </p><p>During an assessment of a school district in the southwestern United States, 32 people from two groups participated in scenario simulations. One group completed a five-hour live training program based on the Run. Hide. Fight. video, developed by the district's school resource officers. The second group did not receive the training or view the video. </p><p>The simulation results revealed that none of the top five scoring participants had received any type of active shooter training. All five of the lowest scoring participants, on the other hand, had completed the training program. </p><p>The overall score was also significantly lower for the group that had completed training than it was for the untrained group. The lower scoring participants often opted to attack in situations where it was not the best option. </p><p><strong>Opting to attack. </strong>For the scenario described in the beginning of the article, where a student is potentially suicidal, analysts found that in one out of every four incidents, a school employee who had completed an options-based active shooter training would try to throw an object at or attack the student armed with a weapon. </p><p>Many of the participants in the simulations responded by opting to use force for almost any scenario involving a subject depicted with a gun. If the student in question was suicidal, such a reaction could be deadly, possibly leading to the student to shoot himself or others. </p><p>Participants who had not received formal training began talking to the student, encouraging him to put the gun down, and asking if it was okay for the other students in the classroom to leave. These basics of communication are essential in an active suicide threat situation and can help defuse possible violence.  </p><p>Another scenario featured a drunk man who was 75 yards away from a school at the same time that a teacher and her students were 25 yards from the school building at recess. The analysis found that 30 percent of participants playing the teacher chose to approach—and even attack the drunk man—even though he was three-quarters of a football field away from the school.</p><p>The best option in this scenario is for the teacher to instruct the students to go into the school and put themselves in lockdown, then go into the building and ask the office to dial 911. </p><p>In November 2017, a school in Northern California initiated its lockdown procedure when the school secretary heard gunshots nearby. The gunman tried to enter the campus but could not find an open door. Because school faculty followed policies and procedures, countless lives were saved.</p><h4>Active Threat Approach</h4><p>The narrow focus on active shooter incidents has left many schools ill-prepared for other active attacker methods, including edge weapons, acid attacks, and fire. Relying on active shooter training also neglects response to incidents that often go undetected, such as bullying and sexual harassment. </p><p>The Safe Havens International assessments revealed that many K-12 schools lack written protocols for hazardous materials incidents or do not conduct any training or drills for these easy-to-orchestrate, devastating types of attacks. Evaluations also revealed an unwillingness among some school staff to report incidents of sexual harassment.</p><p>Policies and procedures. Edu­cational institutions have written policies and procedures on a range of issues, including bullying, sexual misconduct, signing in visitors, and traffic safety. Scenario-based training will help demonstrate whether staff are prepared to apply those policies appropriately. All staff should be included in this training, including bus drivers, cafeteria employees, and custodial workers.</p><p>Scenario-based training can reveal the gaps between what procedure dictates and what staff would actually do when confronted with a threat. </p><p>For example, in one simulation conducted by Safe Havens International, a student sat in a classroom with a teacher after hours. The teacher stroked the pupil's hair inappropriately and used sexually explicit language. Some custodial staff faced with this scenario responded that they did not feel comfortable reporting what they saw to school administrators. Janitors, who may be more likely to witness such incidents, said they felt an imbalance of power among the staff, leaving them unwilling to speak up. </p><p>Administrators should address such issues by using multiple scenarios related to sexual misconduct to demonstrate to employees that they are not only empowered but required to report these situations. Reviewing these policies and procedures as part of scenario-based training, and incorporating possible threats other than active shooter, will bolster preparation among staff. </p><p><strong>Attack methods. </strong>While mass shootings garner the most media attention, most recent homicides at schools were caused by attacks that did not involve active shooter events, according to Relative Risk of Death on K12 Campuses by school security expert Steven Satterly. </p><p>The 2014 study revealed that of 489 victims murdered on U.S. K-12 campuses from 1998 to 2013, only 62 were killed by active shooters. The Columbine, Sandy Hook, and Red Lake Reservation School shootings made up 74 percent of those 62 deaths.</p><p>Several weapons possibilities exist, and should be acknowledged in training programs, including edged weapons, explosive devices, and fire. </p><p>There have been dozens of mass casualty edged weapons attacks in schools, and serious damage can occur in a matter of minutes. A mass stabbing and slashing incident in Franklin, Pennsylvania, in April 2014 left 21 victims injured when a sophomore began attacking other students in a crowded hallway. Similar attacks have occurred in China, Japan, and Sweden that have killed and seriously injured students and school employees.  </p><p>Acid attacks are occurring more frequently in the United Kingdom, as well as in India, East Africa, Vietnam, and other regions. </p><p>For example, in September 2016, a student rigged a peer's violin case with acid at a high school in Haddington, Scotland. The victim's legs were disfigured as a result.  </p><p>These types of attacks are relatively easy to carry out because acid is inexpensive and can be concealed in bottles that appear harmless. The injuries sustained in these attacks are gruesome and irreversible, and there are concerns that this attack method may become more common in the United States. </p><p>Many active shooter training approaches also fail to address combination attacks, in which the perpetrator uses two or more attack weapons, such as firearms and explosives, firearms and fire, and so forth. </p><p>In the 2013 attack at Arapahoe High School in Colorado, a student shot his classmates and a staff member several times before throwing three Molotov cocktails that set part of the library ablaze. The student then shot himself. </p><p>Combination attack methods can present complications for first responders who may have to decipher where each threat is located and which one to deal with first. These campus attacks demonstrate the danger of training concepts that focus intently on active shooter incidents, while not offering viable options for other extreme attack methodologies.</p><p>There are ways to better prepare school staff to react to violence and reduce the chance of unintended consequences. Scenarios that present a range of threats and situations help trainees learn to react in the most effective manner, and remind them to rely on existing policies. </p><p>Fidelity testing that includes a scoring system for action steps will help determine whether active shooter and active threat training concepts have been received by the faculty. Including all staff members who have contact with students creates an inclusive environment where everyone feels empowered to report misconduct. </p><p>Putting a mirror to current school emergency preparedness will reflect where changes need to be made. If there are significant gaps between the training concept and application of those concepts when reacting unscripted to scenarios, improvements are in order. By applying these principles, schools can prepare themselves for the common emergencies, the worst-case-scenarios, and everything in between.  </p><p>-- </p><h4>​Sidebar: keeping simulations safe<br></h4><p>​Even the most well-intentioned scenario-based training can result in injuries. Training programs that teach throwing of objects, taking people to the floor, punching and kicking, or similar uses of force can wind up hurting trainees and trainers alike.</p><p>At least one popular active shooter training program has resulted in high rates of serious injuries among trainees, according to Jerry D. Loghry, CPP, loss prevention information manager for EMC Insurance.</p><p>Loghry verified that EMC Insurance has paid out more than $1 million in medical bills to school employees for injuries sustained in trainings from one active shooter program over a 22-month time period. In addition, one police department is being sued due to those injuries. </p><p>Instructors can be trained on how to engage participants in use-of-force in a safe way. Reasonable safety measures should be put into place, such as floor mats, and participants should wear protective padding, goggles, and even helmets if necessary. </p><p>Safety rules should be written in advance and observed during training simulations. </p><p>Local law enforcement can be a valuable resource for simulating active threat situations in a safe manner, because police officers complete similar close-quarters combat training on a regular basis. Observing these best practices can help prevent litigation and liability issues, as well as enhance the overall experience of participants and instructors.​</p><h4>sidebar: fidelity Testing<br></h4><p></p><p>For stereo systems, fidelity means that the sound generated by the speakers is nearly identical to the sound of the music that is recorded. In marriage, fidelity means that a person will be faithful to their promises to another.</p><p>In the world of school safety, fidelity indicates a close alignment between what is intended by safety policies, plans, drills, and training, and what people do in reality. Fidelity testing is the best way to verify the level of alignment between intentions and reality.</p><p>In the case of active shooter preparedness, fidelity testing involves efforts to measure whether there is a close match between theory and what people will actually do under the stress of a violent incident.  </p><p>With properly designed active shooter preparedness approaches, practical application under extreme stress should mirror, to a reasonable extent, the theoretical expectations of the approach. If people cannot correctly apply the active shooter survival options they have been provided under simulated conditions, their performance will likely not improve when they are placed under extreme stress. </p><p>A high degree of fidelity helps reduce the distance between what people ideally do under stress and what they are likely to do. A reasonable level of fidelity testing of active shooter survival concepts should document that people are able to:</p><p> </p><p>•             Demonstrate the ability to identify when they are in an active shooter situation.</p><p>•             Apply each option they are taught in an appropriate fashion when tested with scenarios they do not know in advance.</p><p>•             Apply each option under limited time frames with incomplete information.</p><p>•             Demonstrate knowledge of when applying each option would increase rather than decrease danger.  </p><p>•             Demonstrate the ability to identify when they are in a situation involving firearms that is not an active shooter event.</p><p>•             Demonstrate the ability to properly address a wide array of scenarios involving weapons other than firearms.​</p><p>​<br></p><p><em><strong>Michael Dorn </strong>is the CEO of Safe Havens International. He has authored 27 books on school safety and emergency preparedness, and his work has taken him to 11 countries. He has provided post-incident assistance for 12 active shooter incidents at K-12 schools, and helped coauthor a u.s. government IS360 Web training program on active shooter events. He can be reached at mike@weakfish.org ​</em></p>GP0|#cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8;L0|#0cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8|Physical Security;GTSet|#8accba12-4830-47cd-9299-2b34a4344465
https://sm.asisonline.org/Pages/Q-and-A-Event-Security.aspxQ&A: Event Security<p>​The ASIS 2017 Book of the Year is <em>Managing Critical Incidents and Large-Scale Event Security</em> by Eloy Nuñez and Ernest G. Vendrell. The authors spoke to <em>Security Management </em>about security trends and challenges in the event industry.</p><p><em><strong>Q. </strong>What are some of the biggest challenges facing the event security industry today?</em></p><p><strong>A. </strong>An overreliance on technology is a major challenge. We tend to think that a wall or a fence will keep the bad guys out, and it does help a lot, but in and of itself it's not going to solve our problems. We know that every fence and wall can be breached, and every technology that one can think of can be counteracted. It takes an active observation of the technology and how it's working. Another challenge is a sense of complacency–the idea that someone else is watching. That tends to make us less alert. Communication also becomes so important, especially when you're dealing with a variety of participants. It's essentially impossible to achieve requisite levels of coordination and collaboration without that effective communication.</p><p><em><strong>Q. </strong>How has the event security space evolved over the last few decades?</em> </p><p><strong>A. </strong>Three factors have made us more effective and efficient than in the past: computer processing speed, the miniaturization of technology, and the interconnectedness of people via devices. The improvements to technology have been outstanding. We're now able to process information more quickly. The interconnectedness allows us to communicate, collaborate, and crowdsource for information. There are so many different people from disparate backgrounds and agencies. We all get together and plan things out, and the byproduct is that we learn from each other.</p><p><em><strong>Q. </strong>Your book draws on lessons learned from past events. What are some of the overarching themes in those lessons?</em></p><p><strong>A.</strong> Given the complexities of critical incident management and large-scale event planning, we try to simplify things as best we can so that everyone is able to execute those plans. It takes a well-trained, diversified, and committed team that has clear goals and objectives. Have the team that you put in place practice as much as possible, and institute training that's relevant, realistic, and replicates the environment that you're working in. </p><p><em><strong>Q. </strong>Given the range of threats to the live event industry, how can security professionals share information to help mitigate those challenges?</em></p><p>A. Networking is so critical. One thing we wrote about was that, in the public safety arena, we were great at identifying lessons learned, but the problem was that we weren't applying those lessons. Conferences like the ASIS annual seminar and exhibits), where you have professionals sharing lessons learned and how they applied them, are so important in terms of professionalization and collectively doing a better job moving forward. Identifying contacts ahead of time and getting to know them before there's a problem is critical. That way when an unforeseen incident occurs, you have the right parties on speed-dial.</p>GP0|#cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8;L0|#0cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8|Physical Security;GTSet|#8accba12-4830-47cd-9299-2b34a4344465