Transportation

 

 

https://sm.asisonline.org/Pages/CUATRO-DESAFÍOS-PARA-LA-SEGURIDAD-DE-LA-AVIACIÓN.aspxCuatro Desafíos Para La Seguridad de La AviaciónGP0|#cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8;L0|#0cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8|Physical Security;GTSet|#8accba12-4830-47cd-9299-2b34a43444652018-06-12T04:00:00ZAnthony McGinty, CPP; Traducido por Ari Yacianci<p>​<em style="text-align:justify;">Anthony McGinty, CPP, es un Analista Senior de Inteligencia en CSRA Inc, contratado por el Aeropuerto Internacional de Los Angeles. Es un miembro del Consejo de ASIS sobre Terrorismo Global, Inestabilidad Política y Crimen Internacional.</em></p><p style="text-align:justify;"><strong>1. Aeropuertos como ciudades. </strong>Los problemas tradicionales de las ciudades están encontrando su camino hacia los aeropuertos: la indigencia, los problemas mentales, el abuso de drogas, los delitos menores y complejos, y la desobediencia civil. Para las agencias de seguridad y policiales, el desafío es llevar a cabo las labores del primer respondiente al mismo tiempo que se identifican amenazas de grandes consecuencias para las operaciones de aviación. Ambas funciones requieren de conjuntos de habilidades específicos y diferenciados. Los directores de seguridad tienen que balancear activos, personal y operaciones para mitigar los riesgos tanto de disturbios públicos como para la seguridad nacional.</p><p style="text-align:justify;"><strong>2. Terrorismo internacional. </strong>La aviación comercial se mantendrá como un objetivo atractivo para grupos militantes y extremistas. El lado público de los aeropuertos, bordeando la revisión de seguridad, es vulnerable a un surtido de ataques terroristas, incluyendo tiroteos indiscriminados, equipaje conteniendo explosivos, drones hechos armas, y embestimientos con vehículos. Miles de militantes técnicamente competentes e ideológicamente motivados que están retirándose del califato en caída del ISIS podrían reagruparse bajo nuevas banderas, unirse a afiliados de Al Qaeda, o actuar de forma independiente.</p><p style="text-align:justify;"><strong>3. Perturbaciones en vuelo. </strong>Semanalmente, los informes de los medios y videos de Internet exhiben las más recientes atrocidades dentro de las cabinas de las aeronaves: riñas, diatribas influidas por el alcohol, agresiones sexuales, y resistencia a las instrucciones de los auxiliares de vuelo. Esta tendencia de disputas y violencia durante vuelos a 30.000 pies (10.000 metros) de altura es potencialmente peligrosa. De no alcanzar con colocar un agente de seguridad a bordo, las soluciones pueden incluir cambios institucionales en la relación entre la tripulación y los pasajeros. Por ejemplo, algunas instancias de tráfico de personas utilizando aerolíneas comerciales son tan comunes que ahora las tripulaciones están siendo entrenadas para identificar los indicadores y actuar. Éste es un ejemplo más del cambio de rol de la tripulación, de facilitadores de la comodidad a responsables del cumplimiento de las normas y leyes.</p><p style="text-align:justify;"><strong>4. Amenazas Internas. </strong>Los grupos terroristas podrían enlistar empleados aeropuertarios para eludir las revisiones de seguridad, especialmente empleados con acceso directo a las aeronaves. Algunos empleados también han contrabandeado drogas, armas, y otros elementos. Con tan sólo un empleado radicalizado o descontento ya se puede cometer un acto que lleve a un incidente catastrófico, lo que hace que lidiar con las amenazas internas sea una prioridad. Los aeropuertos y las aerolíneas están implementando sus propias estrategias para mitigar estas amenazas. Mayormente, este esfuerzo ha involucrado investigaciones de seguridad para todos los empleados, o algunos grupos selectos, previas al ingreso a zonas restringidas. La tecnología también puede ser de apoyo en estos esfuerzos. Las nuevas capacidades analíticas embebidas en los sistemas de video y control de accesos ahora pueden proveer una herramienta sofisticada de vigilancia. Asimismo, las políticas propias con rigurosos esfuerzos internos de "Si ves algo, dí algo" son esenciales.</p><p style="text-align:justify;"><em>The translation of this article is provided as a courtesy by Ari Yacianci. </em>Security Managemen<em>t is not responsible for errors in translation. Readers can refer to the</em><a href="/Pages/Employee-Theft.aspx" target="_blank"><em> </em></a><a href="/Pages/Four-Challenges-Facing-Aviation-Security.aspx" target="_blank"><em>original English version here​.</em></a>​<br></p>

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https://sm.asisonline.org/Pages/The-Golden-Rule.aspxThe Golden Rule<p>​</p><p>HIGH IN THE ANDES mountains of northern Peru, 375 miles north of the capital city of Lima, is the Yanacocha mine—Latin America’s largest gold mine. The site, which is majority-owned by Colorado-based Newmont Mining Corporation, consists of six open pit mines, four leach pads, and three gold recovery plants. More than 100 small, rural communities fall within its influence area. While communities situated near Yanacocha have been concerned in the past about the mine’s impact on local water supplies and a lack of communication from the company, Lee Langston, Newmont’s regional director of security for South America, says that most concerns are related to employment.</p><p>Tensions over those concerns resulted in a series of protests in August 2006. Farmers blocked the road to Yanacocha for one week, and production at the mine came to a standstill for two days. According to media reports, protestors’ original demand for jobs turned to anger over environmental concerns, and in one violent clash, protestors blocking the road threw stones at police. In the response, one farmer was shot and killed.</p><p>The incident highlights the often strained relationships between local communities and international extractive companies operating abroad. As a result of this and other security conflicts between Newmont and the communities surrounding the mine in recent years, the company is in the process of implementing a new approach to security that recognizes the importance of human rights and community outreach.</p><p>Human Rights<br>The mining industry has an increased awareness of the connection between community relations and security today compared to a decade ago. “I think increasingly there really is a recognition on the part of the mining companies we work with that there is a degree of indivisibility between what you are doing in terms of your community relations or your community investment and security,” says Aidan Davy, a program director for socio-economic contribution for the London-based International Council on Mining & Metals (ICMM), an industry group which counts Newmont among its members.</p><p>Davy attributes the change to the influence of the Voluntary Principles on Security and Human Rights, an initiative of private companies, governments, and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), that is intended to provide guidance to extractive companies on how they can maintain the safety and security of operations while ensuring respect for human rights.</p><p>The Voluntary Principles, as they are commonly called, were established in 2000 and primarily address three issues: risk assessment, engaging with public security forces, and interacting with private security forces. For each of these issues, the Voluntary Principles provide several guidelines. Signatory organizations commit to abiding by the principles and submit annual reports on activities.</p><p>Extractive companies have historically taken a silo approach to security and community relations, Davy says, but the Voluntary Principles have led to a more synergistic approach. “Instead of taking the view of conventional security that our role is to protect our people and our assets in that order and [that] people outside the fence line or communities may represent a threat to either people or assets, the Voluntary Principles take the view that in legitimately providing security for people and assets, there is a genuine risk that you might compromise the safety, security, and wellbeing of people outside the fence line,” he explains.</p><p>That shift in perspective, he says, has helped companies realize the importance of aligning what they are doing in the security space to what they are doing in the community relations space. “That has had a profound influence, I would say, in terms of sensitizing people to the idea that these matters are closely related,” he says. </p><p>Slow Going<br>Davy admits that there is some public dissatisfaction about the lack of progress in implementation of the Voluntary Principles. “That absolutely is not the fault of companies exclusively,” he says. “I think it’s because, at its heart, the Voluntary Principles rely on a tripartite model of government, civil society, and company collective engagement and collaboration, and at times, I think they’ve failed to move this thing forward in a way that’s been collaborative.”</p><p>Indeed, one of the biggest challenges, according to Langston, is enforcing human rights in a foreign country and in remote areas. “The real challenge is that [we are] a private company, a foreign private company, [so] sometimes if it’s not approached delicately, government institutions can feel that you’re treading into their area of governing,” Langston says.</p><p>Davy says implementation guidance of the Voluntary Principles has also been lacking. “What’s been missing is practical guidance that will help people really move forward with implementation,” he says. An implementation guidance tool is currently being created by a coalition that includes the Voluntary Principles Secretariat, ICMM, the International Finance Corporation, the International Committee for the Red Cross, and the International Petroleum Industry Environmental Conservation Association (IPIECA). The guide should be available within a year, Davy says.</p><p>Newmont, which is an ICMM member, was one of the first companies to sign on to the Voluntary Principles in 2001. But Oxfam America, an NGO participant in the Voluntary Principles, lodged a complaint against the mining company in 2007 with the initiative’s Secretariat. That complaint was in response not only to the protests in 2006 and the death of farmer Isidro Llanos Chavarria but also to allegations later that year of illegal wiretapping, surveillance, and death threats by a private security company employed by Newmont against a prominent human rights activist and outspoken critic of the company.</p><p>Newmont and Oxfam America subsequently agreed to a third-party comprehensive review of Yanacocha’s security management and practices. The review consisted of interviews with company executives, Peruvian National Police authorities, representatives from two of the three hired security companies employed by Yanacocha, NGO personnel, and community leaders.</p><p>A summary of the review of Yanacocha’s security and human rights procedures was released publicly last summer. “The total review identified areas of strong performance as well as the processes that they felt Yanacocha could improve upon,” says Langston. Newmont and Yanacocha analyzed the review and then developed a plan of action to implement the report’s recommendations for a new approach to security and human rights.</p><p>New Action Plan<br>The plan of action that came out of the review included short-term objectives that would be implemented by the end of 2009, medium-term objectives that would be implemented by the end of 2010, and long-term objectives that would be done in 2011. In terms of implementing recommendations for the Yanacocha site, Langston, as regional security director, is responsible for ensuring that they are completed in the timeframe set by the committee.</p><p>One example of a short-term objective is the creation of a Risk Assessment and Conflict Resolution Office. Langston says the company had a similar office before but it was not as effective as it could have been. One problem was that it only addressed complaints filed directly with the office. For instance, if an allegation appeared in the media, it was not considered a legitimate complaint.</p><p>“Well, you have to be reasonable,” Langston says. “If it’s floating around in the media, you better address it as a complaint.” Now the office considers all allegations no matter how they get word of them. “One of our employees can say he heard something in a store, and that would be investigated,” Langston adds.</p><p>Investigations. Yanacocha now investigates all use-of-force incidents. “Anytime any of our security people have an incident, whether it’s with an employee or a contractor or a community member, that is reported and treated just as if it is an allegation so we can determine whether the force used was reasonable or not,” Langston says.</p><p>All such reports undergo a new process of evaluation as well. If the risk level is classified as low, the incident is evaluated by a human rights and security investigation committee, which includes the site security manager as well as representatives from legal and operations. Representatives from other relevant departments are also on the committee.</p><p>For instance, if an incident involves the community, someone from the social responsibility department is there; if an allegation concerns an employee or contractor, a human resources or contracts manager serves on the committee. They assess the allegation and determine whether it has merit.</p><p>If the allegation is deemed legitimate, the committee orders an investigation and picks an investigation team to report back with results and recommendations. The onsite committee must also keep the South American regional board, which mirrors the committee at the site level, informed.</p><p>If the risk level of a complaint is considered medium, the regional-level committee handles it, and if it is a high-risk complaint, corporate, which also has a similar body, investigates.</p><p>Working with police. Because the response time is so long from Cajamarca, a contingent of police officers is stationed at the mine and rotated on a monthly basis. The company pays the police officers a daily stipend and provides lodging and meals and makes a contribution to the police institution for their services as stipulated in a formal memorandum of understanding (MOU).</p><p>In addition, the MOU has provisions for additional response to the mine area if an incident should occur. However, one of Yanacocha’s medium-term objectives is to work with the police to make this MOU more transparent. The police acknowledge on their Web site that they have an agreement with the mine, Langston says, but they do not publish the contents of the MOU, which is important information for the local community to have. </p><p>One of the long-term objectives is to expand the police training to the regional and national levels, but it will take time. “Obviously it’s the state’s responsibility to do this kind of stuff,” Langston says. But, “[i]f we can help them with a reasonable cost to the company, we’re going to do that.”</p><p>The comprehensive review also recommended equipping police forces with nonlethal weapons, Langston says. “We’re not so sure [as a] company that we want to get involved in providing that type of material, because it’s nonlethal, but it’s offensive in nature,” Langston says. Currently the company provides protective gear for police who are stationed at the mine site or who are responding to an incident. These items include helmets, shields, padding, and other riot response equipment.</p><p>Equipping police raises concerns beyond just the cost to the company, Langston says. There are also legal concerns. “We need to be very cognizant of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act when we talk about equipping people,” he says. “We have to have some means of monitoring the use of that equipment.” </p><p>Another objective the company hopes to meet by the end of this year is the establishment of regular, formal meetings with public security partners, which include the national police as well as the military. Newmont’s security officials currently engage in formal, high-level meetings with these partners at least once a year, but the company is negotiating with Peru’s interior and defense ministries to set up a formal schedule that would include meeting twice a year at the ministry level and quarterly with generals at the regional level.</p><p>The purpose of the meetings is to assess collaboration and discuss ways to improve performance within the framework of the Voluntary Principles. Yanacocha’s security manager, Jose Antonio Rios Pita Diez, CPP, currently meets with local police on a weekly basis.</p><p>Human rights training. In 2008, in an effort to improve the company’s implementation of the Voluntary Principles even before the review was completed, Yanacocha launched two training programs designed to raise awareness among employees and contractors about the importance of respecting human rights. One program is basic training in human rights and provides an overview of relevant initiatives Newmont is involved with, such as the Voluntary Principles and the United Nations Global Compact. Each participant also receives a primer on human rights.</p><p>In the first year, 3,000 participants benefited from the program, including all of the security contractor personnel working for Yanacocha. The program continues on an annual basis.</p><p>The second training program launched the same year is training in the Voluntary Principles. This program targets the mine’s security staff, contractor personnel, and police assigned to the site. Training focuses on ways to ensure the safety of Yanacocha’s employees and operations while respecting human rights. </p><p>In the first year, the training was provided only to security and contractor supervisors and to public security officers assigned to provide support to the operation. In 2009, all security personnel received the training, which includes use-of-force instruction and a code of conduct for law enforcement officers. The training is being extended in 2010 to Newmont’s Conga project, which is also in Peru, and its Merian project in Suriname. </p><p>Community relations. Yanacocha’s security department has also launched a security-community integration program to improve relationships and trust between security personnel and local communities. As a part of the program, security personnel work with security contract personnel, the police, the military, and local businesses and organizations to plan one-day festivals in isolated communities in the mine’s area of influence. Some activities include music provided by the army or police bands, Andean folk dances, lunch prepared and served by security personnel, and social services, such as presentations on family planning, spousal abuse, and hygiene conducted by the police health unit.</p><p>The security department spearheads approximately one event per month, going to a different local village each time. Security personnel and their families attend. Not only do the events build trust between company and contract employees and the communities, but they also improve relations between the state law enforcement personnel and the local Indian communities, Langston says. </p><p>Yanacocha’s Diez says that it is important to venture into the community relations realm, even though others may consider it the work of an external affairs or social responsibility department.</p><p>“We are doing our work in a preventive way because if we have some problems in the road, the problem also will be for the security department and also for our company,” he says. “We are working in a preventive way in order to avoid these kinds of situations.”</p><p>On a regional level, Newmont is working with the Interior Ministry to assist and provide resources to the rondas campesinas, or rural peasant patrols, which have developed over centuries to provide security for their own rural communities. Each local community has its own ronda. Newmont provides them with minor equipment and gear that makes the ronda campesina stand out in the community, such as vests that say “Ronda” and identify the community; flashlights, boots, and some rain gear.</p><p>Results<br>The goal of these community outreach efforts at its simplest was—and is—to “put a face” on security. The hope was that if local residents got to know security personnel as people before there was an incident, then when they showed up on the scene to respond to trouble, the locals might be disgruntled, but they would be “less likely to pick up a rock or a stick and start to assault the guard. And that’s exactly what we’re seeing,” says Langston.</p><p>He says that security personnel are met more cordially on the road and that they now have conversations with members of the communities. Both Langston and Diez say the efforts at Yanacocha are also showing some tangible results. For example, the company experienced 25 roadblocks in 2007 and only one last year. The company also tracks conflicts that involve physical force, and those incidents have dropped from 64 in 2007 to six in 2009.</p><p>Langston has noticed a growing awareness that community relations affect security and vice versa. “Used to be security was checking the lunchbox at the gate, and it’s much more than that now,” he says. “You have to go beyond the fence, and that takes a whole different mind-set and set of skills.”</p><p>Stephanie Berrong is an assistant editor at Security Management.<br></p>GP0|#3795b40d-c591-4b06-959c-9e277b38585e;L0|#03795b40d-c591-4b06-959c-9e277b38585e|Security by Industry;GTSet|#8accba12-4830-47cd-9299-2b34a4344465
https://sm.asisonline.org/Pages/aviation-maritime-security-intelligence-0012875.aspxAviation & Maritime Security Intelligence<div class="body"> <p> <span style="color:#ff0000;"> <em> <strong>*</strong> </em> </span> <em> <strong>**** Aviation & Maritime Security Intelligence by Hassan Eltaher. E&W Communications; Available from ASIS, item #2014; 242 pages; $35 (ASIS member); $39 (nonmember). </strong></em></p><p><em><strong>This book provides a basic over­view of some intelligence functions in transportation security, but it omits a number of important elements. For example, it focuses on the bureaucratic and organizational issues surrounding intelligence management rather than the fundamental concepts and potential solutions that could improve the effectiveness of intelligence support to key transportation modes. It focuses on intelligence support for an organization with regulatory oversight of security measures rather than organizations responsible for executing security operations or programs. As a result, this book is unlikely to be useful for professionals with a background in intelligence or transportation security.</strong></em></p><em> </em> <p> </p> <p>The first half of the book focuses on basic concepts of intelligence and the structure of intelligence units or agencies. It includes additional material on cultural bias in the analysis and threat of terrorism. While the problem of bias is important in determining the quality of analysis, it is not the only issue affecting analytical quality. Analysts also need to understand operational contexts and structured methodologies, assess sources for accuracy and bias, and be able to defend their findings. Unfortunately, the focus on organizational constructs results in an incomplete description of the intelligence cycle.</p> <p>While analysis and intelligence-sharing issues among government agencies are discussed, there is little acknowledgement of intelligence requirements for consumers who may be in a position to act, including front-line security and law enforcement personnel. </p> <p>The second part of the book focuses on the aviation and maritime security operating environments. The author provides general descriptions of possible threats to maritime and aviation targets, but the context is within the international regulatory codes for maritime and aviation. The threats cited are primarily terrorism and piracy and do not focus on other issues such as organized criminal activity and smuggling. As a result, ports, ships, aircraft, and airports are treated as targets, not conduits for illicit activity. </p> <p>This book’s lack of a complete description of the intelligence cycle is likely to be misleading for novice practitioners. For experienced intelligence and security practitioners, this book is unlikely to offer any new or valuable information.</p> <hr /> <span style="color:#800000;"> <strong>Reviewer:</strong> </span> Michael Edgerton, CPP, is a security consultant based in the Middle East and a member of ASIS Global Terrorism, Political Instability and International Crime Council. He has more than 28 years of military, government, and private sector experience in security and intelligence with a focus on maritime and port security. <p> </p></div>GP0|#21788f65-8908-49e8-9957-45375db8bd4f;L0|#021788f65-8908-49e8-9957-45375db8bd4f|National Security;GTSet|#8accba12-4830-47cd-9299-2b34a4344465
https://sm.asisonline.org/Pages/Awareness-on-the-Waterfront.aspxAwareness on the Waterfront<p>​</p><p>THE PORT OF HOUSTON is one of the busiest ports in the world. It ranks first in the United States for foreign waterborne tonnage and second in U.S. import tonnage. In addition, millions of visitors pass through the port annually. The port also contains the world’s second largest petrochemical complex, which poses its own unique set of challenges and regulatory measures that must be dealt with.</p><p>Following is a look at how the port has integrated security into all of its operations and how it uses a physical security information management (PSIM) system to integrate its various security technologies into a common viewing platform for enhanced situational awareness and response.</p><p>Port Authority<br>Understanding the way the port is managed is an important consideration when it comes to security. The Port of Houston Authority (PHA) is a state-owned entity that operates eight major terminals along the 52-mile Houston Ship Channel. Governed by a seven-member elected commission, the PHA is responsible for helping to maintain a secure, economically prosperous environment for the Port of Houston and the 150-plus businesses operating within it.</p><p>The PHA facilitates many crucial operations involving the waterways in and around the Port of Houston, including dredging—the deepening of the channel so that ships can pass through—and overseeing the Houston pilots, who are maritime experts charged with guiding ships in and out of the port.</p><p>Marcus Woodring is the PHA’s managing director of health, safety, security and environment. He represents PHA on three major committees responsible for security at the Port of Houston. First is the Houston Ship Channel Security District, a managing body created by the Texas state legislature in 2007 to govern security initiatives in the ship channel region. The ship channel security district is an umbrella organization for security. It is the body through which everyone within the port can get together to discuss issues.</p><p>Second is the Lone Star Harbor Safety Committee, which is led by local industry; it deals primarily with safety issues. Third is the Area Maritime Security Committee, which is led by the U.S. Coast Guard—the federal body for law enforcement and security at the port.</p><p>“You can see that the safety, the security, and the stewardship of the environment all have collaborative groups that get together,” explains Woodring. He points out that some ports that are small have one overarching security office, but Houston is relatively large, and the port has a 25-mile-long complex. As a result, “Houston is very collaborative—and it is so big that that’s the only way to do it,” he says. “It’s a great group of people. When a crisis hits, they all pull together.”</p><p>Woodring says that “in a crisis, there are representatives from each section of industry.” That may include personnel from shippers, container ships, chemical ships, oil tankers, the port authority, the refineries, the tug boats, and the Houston pilots.</p><p>“Everybody gets on a conference call,” Woodring says. They discuss the current status of the different terminals, as well as which ships get priority to move first once the incident has ended. While large ships like oil tankers are often given priority, sometimes an unexpected vessel needs precedence, making the coordination effort important, he explains.</p><p>“It doesn’t matter if it’s an oil spill, if it’s fog, if it’s a terrorist act, if it’s a hurricane… this team will activate,” says Woodring.</p><p>Woodring has firsthand experience with crises at the Port of Houston. “I was here during Hurricane Ike,” he notes. At the time, he was with the Coast Guard, where he served as captain of the port (until two years ago, when he retired from that position). “So from that side, I saw everybody pull together: safety, security, and stewardship, and we used those three committees to respond to that crisis,” he explains.</p><p>Woodring says that his current role with the PHA still allows him to contribute to the port’s overall well being. “Some days I’m wearing my Port of Houston Authority hat, where I’m just concerned with my eight terminals,” he says, “and on other days I have to spin my hat around and be worried about the greater good.”</p><p>Security Process Integration In March 2008, the PHA became the first port authority in the world to achieve the ISO 28000, the international standard certification for supply chain security management. In 2011, the PHA was recertified through 2014.</p><p>Patricia Ramsey is a senior administrative security program manager at PHA. She and her team report to Woodring, as do the PHA police chief, fire chief, safety director, facility security officers, and the environmental director. “We have a well-integrated team between the above-mentioned positions and their staffs,” she notes.</p><p>Ramsey says that PHA sought to answer a single question by obtaining the ISO certification: “How could we vertically integrate security into all our processes most efficiently so that security wasn’t something just off by itself but was totally integrated so that we maintained compliance with all the security regulations?” PHA “felt the best way to do that would be through an ISO certification that gave us a structure and a standard,” she says.</p><p>“The scope of our certification is perimeter security, so that includes fence lines, rail gates, guard posts, all entry points into the terminals,” explains Ramsey. She adds that “there are many processes that come under the standard as well, such as emergency response, purchasing, training, documentation, communications, [and] senior management review.”</p><p>The PHA Port Police, as well as two of the eight terminals—the Bayport and Barbours Cut terminals—were originally certified to the standard after three years of developing the system and applying its criteria and procedures. Later, the Manchester terminal was added, and Ramsey says they’re currently working on getting a fourth terminal, Turning Basin, certified. But Ramsey notes that all of the terminals work under the ISO standard’s procedures and guidelines even though not all of them have formally been certified yet. “We’re always working toward improvements based on our policy, [which] is to maximize port security while expediting the flow of commerce,” she says.</p><p>Obtaining the certification required an organized, documented approach, as well as the involvement of a core team, with representatives from different sectors of the port authority. “We’re lucky in that our structure is already set up so that we have engineers that are on the security team; we have IT people that are on the security team; we have access to our environmental management representative; we have an attorney who’s assigned to security matters,” Ramsey explains. “We have a core team that always works on security together, so we used that advisory group” for the standard.</p><p>The PHA’s security management team is working on several projects to hold itself to the standard. For example, they recently implemented a new visitor management solution, which is composed of an electronic gate list system for registering visitors to the port. “We previously had another system that was not as effective, so we took all of the hopes and wishes and problems that we had with the previous system and rolled them into a new system that we had built for us,” Ramsey says.</p><p>“We created a system that’s for the port environment. Because [when] we have a ship come in, it’s here for three or four days, a lot of people need to come in and off the ship; we need to streamline their access,” Ramsey notes.</p><p>Overall, Ramsey says, the standard provides “a real structure for continual improvement.” She adds, “It’s made us much more efficient [because it is now] much easier to quantify requirements for improvement. It’s much easier to track almost anything we want to track, whether it’s if we’ve had security breaches or false IDs,” for example.</p><p>Ramsey says maintaining the certification is an ongoing process that requires constant reevaluation and assessment.</p><p>As a part of the ongoing process, they also conduct three internal audits per year, as well as one audit carried out by an external group. “The internal audit process ensures that not only are we meeting the standard but also that our documented procedures and processes are being followed and that we are achieving continual improvement,” says Ramsey.</p><p>Common Platform<br>The various bodies at the port each have their own monitoring centers where they can view sensory information coming in from various points around the port. For example, the Houston Ship Channel, which is part of the Port of Houston, is protected with many different types of physical security systems—including access control, surveillance cameras, radar, sonar, a vessel tracking system, GIS mapping software, and intrusion alarms— which come from various vendors. The Harris County Sheriff’s Office command center, referred to as the SMAG (Sherriff’s Monitoring and Analysis Group), monitors security for the Ship Channel. It needed a way to bring all the data from these various systems together for monitoring and analysis. It turned to a physical security information management (PSIM) system that integrates disparate tools into one common viewing platform. The other bodies at the port—such as the Coast Guard, the Port Authority, the SMAG, as well as Houston Transtar, which is a partnership of the Texas Department of Transportation, Harris County, The Metropolitan Transit Authority of Harris County, and the City of Houston—can see everything the PSIM is monitoring, which helps with situational awareness.</p><p>John Chaney, a mobility architect at the Harris County Information Technology Center, which supports the Houston Ship Channel Security District, was involved in the process. He explains that the SMAG implemented a NICE Systems PSIM product called Situator. Chaney says the use of that technology has allowed them to gain better situational awareness and integrate existing disparate technologies into one, easy-to-manage interface.</p><p>“Before that, we really didn’t have anything that would bring those different disparate information sources together,” he says. “We just looked at Situator and NICE’s products as something that would give us a good foundation to not only coordinate better but then better refine our processes for long-term.”</p><p>Another NICE product, called NICE Inform, gives the SMAG the ability to go back and review the way an incident was handled. “Say a scenario happens at the port, and there’s radio involved, there’s phone involved, and information sharing and different things like that that Situator would handle,” Chaney explains. “Inform lets us come back and play the scenario after the event and then better reform our processes…. It integrates all those different sources, and you can bring it into one common viewing platform,” says Chaney. “You can take in the different stovepipes and integrate that information.”</p><p>That integration leads to more meaningful intelligence and, ultimately, better incident investigations as well as improved real-time detection and response. For example, Chaney says the Situator integration recently led to the SMAG being able to arrest four men who broke into a warehouse at the port.</p><p>In addition to better situational awareness, the PSIM system also displays the port’s standard operating procedures for each particular type of incident when it occurs so that operators can maintain protocol even during a stressful situation when they might not be able to recall the proper procedures from memory.</p><p>“Integration is usually the best mechanism of having better situational awareness,” says Dr. Bob Banerjee, senior director of Training and Development at NICE Systems, developer of the PSIM solution the port implemented. He explains that PSIM addresses three crucial areas when it comes to reacting to a situation: awareness, management, and reconstruction.</p><p>Banerjee notes that that reconstruction is crucial for security in a port environment. “[Situational reconstruction] is exactly what ports want, and that’s what people who are interested in continuous improvement want,” he says. “Because if you can analyze a complete incident, then you can see better where you went wrong, you can change your standard operating procedures, and then do a dry run of that new operating procedure, and see if the outcome is better. Did we detect it faster? Did we resolve it faster? Did it escalate less because of our improved operating procedure?”</p><p>“PSIM is about detecting things earlier, managing situations faster, and then learning from your mistakes. And that’s exactly what ports are doing all the time now,” he says. “You do have multiple command centers, and it becomes very challenging for those command centers to share information.” This helps.</p><p>Another project Chaney is working on is helping to deploy the Long Term Evolution (LTE) public safety broadband network, which was designed for public-safety communications. Harris County is one of only three counties in the United States to carry out the broadband deployment, according to Chaney.</p><p>The center was awarded funding for the project by the Port Security Grant Program, and got a waiver from the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). It plans to deploy smart devices to first responders in the field for more efficient situation management using Situator. “To be able to supply video and situational awareness and better coordination capabilities to public-safety people was a huge benefit for us for the build out of this network,” says Chaney. “Long-range, we see that as a great opportunity.”</p><p>Chaney sees PSIM solutions as a great way to maintain security at the port. “Our goal and concept there is to provide as much situational awareness [as possible] to public-safety first-responders in any kind of event,” he says. “The whole concept is the better you can do that, the safer your cities will be.”</p><p>Holly Gilbert is an assistant editor at Security Management.<br></p>GP0|#3795b40d-c591-4b06-959c-9e277b38585e;L0|#03795b40d-c591-4b06-959c-9e277b38585e|Security by Industry;GTSet|#8accba12-4830-47cd-9299-2b34a4344465