Transportation on AsiaGP0|#28ae3eb9-d865-484b-ac9f-3dfacb4ce997;L0|#028ae3eb9-d865-484b-ac9f-3dfacb4ce997|Strategic Security;GTSet|#8accba12-4830-47cd-9299-2b34a43444652016-08-01T04:00:00Z<p>​<span style="line-height:1.5em;">When a major casino operator in Macau was six weeks out from opening a second phase of its resort development, senior management realized that the in-house security design had not been subject to third-party review or validation. Arup’s Hong Kong–based Resilience, Security, and Risk practice was asked to carry out a sitewide assessment, identify significant vulnerabilities and resulting risk levels, and manage the implementation of the necessary solutions in the short time remaining before opening. </span></p><p>The Macau casino project burgeoned into something bigger than originally intended. Arup’s initial review identified a number of operational practices that had been acquired over time and were obstructing the effective implementation of security. The team was tasked to address these, and to review policies and procedures. The project was then phased, initially focusing on critical measures required to be put in place for the opening. A follow-up phase closed out the second-tier items. The fast-track nature of the assessment posed a major challenge to a small team. Some team members reported to the site for a single area assessment and left 48 hours later, having slept on the property.  </p><p>In the end, opening day was incident-free. This was due, in part to the successful collaboration in operational planning for crowd management and incident response at the opening day events, and the involvement of Arup’s traffic team, which modeled crowd movements. </p><p>Founded in 1946 as a civil and structural engineering firm, Arup came to international prominence with its design of the Sydney Opera House, which opened in 1973. Arup currently has more than 10,000 employees and has added some 25 more disciplines to its repertoire, including all the major engineering specializations, as well as planning, transport, environmental, security, and risk consulting </p><p>Though Arup’s Resilience, Security, and Risk practice for East Asia is headquartered in Hong Kong; team members are also located in London, Singapore, Australia, and the United States. The Hong Kong group comprises 10 staff members who specialize in risk, security planning, and design. The team tackles everything from the initial risk assessment to intelligence, threat vulnerability studies, and natural hazards risk assessments. Through integration with specialists in other disciplines, and in other regions, it is able to conduct detailed analysis and modeling for specific risks such as explosions and earthquakes. </p><p>The team’s geographical range runs from India to Japan, working primarily on complex projects for major corporations. While some projects have more of a traditional security design focus, many require innovation. Some are new builds and some are major refurbishments or retrofits, and jobs range in duration from a few weeks to many years. </p><p>Because Arup is independent—not affiliated with any products or services—its advice is free of vendor bias. This allows the company to more easily spot overarching trends. Following is a discussion of emerging markets and security trends the group has witnessed in Asia.   ​</p><h4>Airports </h4><p>Arup has consulted for more than 100 airports within the last five years—ranging from some of the world’s largest international hubs to smaller regional airports. The company has identified several aviation security trends surrounding compliance, technology, expansion, and customer service. </p><p>Compliance. In the Asia-Pacific region, aviation is a growth market. This growth is driven from a national level as governments see the value of hosting international airports. Along with the airports comes an increasing awareness of the value of international security compliance standards.  </p><p>Work with individual airports is designed to determine how many of the domestic and international standards are going to affect a particular aviation operation. In airports with large hub capacity that are focusing on hosting international flights, becoming fully compliant with international regulations is imperative. </p><p>However, compliance with security regulations can help an airport of any size become a true competitor. For example, in Hong Kong there is no requirement for screening of U.S.-bound cargo because it is coming from a known and trusted airport that meets international screening regulations. However, airports in mainland China do not meet these regulations, meaning that U.S.-bound cargo must be thoroughly screened. This gives Hong Kong an advantage. Were airports in mainland China to gain that advantage by complying with tougher standards, they would be elevated and Hong Kong would no longer have an advantage. </p><p>These regulations apply to both the passenger and cargo sides of the operation. Currently, the European Union and the U.S. Transportation Security Administration issue regulations for passenger screening, and the U.S. Department of Homeland Security issues regulations for screening of cargo. </p><p>Another challenge is to keep an eye on the future of airport security policy. This policy analysis then drives what happens on the ground in terms of recommendations to clients. This is critical to maintain flexibility for the airport’s future security needs. For example, the sheer size of security equipment, both current and future, must be factored in to design specifications. </p><p>Technology. Another development in aviation security is the increasing awareness of technology and how essential it is in meeting requirements and combating threats. In this arena, airports must predict where the industry is moving and the implications of this for their operations. </p><p>For example, security practitioners in Asia are now debating the merits of metal detectors versus full-body scanning. Arup counsels that body scanners are the future, but there is still resistance from aviation security professionals, especially in India, due to cultural concerns around privacy. </p><p>Security influences the structure of the airport itself, and assessments frequently find that changes need to be made to load-bearing capacity and ceiling heights to accommodate the newer screening equipment, which is typically heavier and taller. </p><p>One client that is developing multiple airport facilities—some international and some with ambitions of being international—had questions about capacity. They wanted to know the maximum volume of passengers and cargo that could be pushed through the new spaces. Airport operators had to be refocused on basic security needs, analyzing airport perimeter protection before turning to passengers, baggage, and cargo. These basic security assessments are a necessary precursor to design solutions, because the most technologically advanced terminals in the world are vulnerable without adequate perimeter security. </p><p>Expansion. In addition to building new airports, there is a strong trend in the Asia-Pacific region to expand, upgrade, and enhance existing facilities. The challenge for airport owners and operators is to balance space de­mands among security requirements and other uses that are seen as commercial income generators. </p><p>With expansions, most of the work is done at the design level because the physical space is already established. In these cases, research on future trends is conducted from an operational perspective, applying benchmarking and best practices. </p><p>An example of this is check-in baggage screening. A standard system can always be designed to meet current needs, but security requirements are constantly changing with a lead time of up to nine years. With this knowledge of where the industry is going, designs can reserve space for specific types of technology. </p><p>Customer service. As airlines and airports in Asia introduce changes to enhance the passenger experience, the challenge for security is to ensure effective screening while keeping intrusion and disruption to a minimum. </p><p>To do this, operators are urged to promote security as a selling point. While airports such as Amsterdam and London Gatwick have embraced this philosophy, selling that message in a positive way in the Asian market has been a challenge. The airports that have employed this approach have totally revamped the passenger security experience, making it more pleasant and less stressful. </p><p>Some airports in Asia also try to benchmark their security against insurance. If airports have a quality security plan, they can negotiate an insurance discount. This is still quite a new concept for some airports, so more education is needed to demonstrate to airports that their up-front investment in security can yield rewards through lower insurance premiums. ​</p><h4>Casinos </h4><p>Casinos in Asia are technologically advanced but challenging environments that require large surveillance operations. Examples of this can be found on the island city of Macau—a gambling attraction known as the “Las Vegas of Asia.”  </p><p>For casinos, a detailed security plan is critical. For example, one casino client provided little input, asking for a standard layout. Once the casino opened, it was obvious that the cameras were in the wrong places, and significant changes to the camera configurations were needed. Like any other complex operation, casinos are urged to make decisions early and test them thoroughly.  </p><p>This is the approach for a new building project, Wynn Palace Macau. One of the most revolutionary facilities in Asia, Wynn has more than 7,000 cameras and thousands of access-controlled doors. The casino has exacting requirements for camera coverage of gaming tables—sometimes requiring multiple angles on the same location—and this can compound the security challenge. Each gaming table requires a different configuration to accommodate the rules of the game, and Wynn has hundreds of tables. </p><p>In addition, the level of detailed design required can also be extremely challenging. Wynn has exacting design standards for architectural finishes, which must be considered in the camera layouts. These also extend to the landscaping, where integration of the cameras into the luminaires was initially considered before a bespoke camera-mounting structure was eventually devised. </p><p>Casino operations go beyond gaming, and casino security goes beyond surveillance. Such operations face the usual challenges of access control associated with the hospitality environment—some casino properties integrate up to five independent five-star hotels within the development. In addition, the security plan must account for the movement of thousands of employees with different jobs, all with different access rights. With staff drawn from all over the region and comprising dozens of nationalities, there are challenges for communication, training, and the creation of a security culture. ​</p><h4>Master Planning Districts </h4><p>With burgeoning growth in recent years, city master planning has come to the fore as a design discipline. In Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur’s International Financial District (KLIFD) is intended to create a new financial services hub, clustering private sector tenants, key regulators, and high-end residential, as well as hospitality and commercial elements. The district is built around a landscaped area that uses crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) principles. </p><p>The focus is on framing a security master plan to be adopted by successive project teams because KLIFD is being developed over an extended period of time. Instead of a single concept design for translation into construction, the project is focused on a philosophy of security, which, with some fixed elements, could be applied and interpreted by successive design teams, possibly from different commercial entities. The layout of major spaces such as standoff from public roads, the design of the shared utility tunnels, and security command, control, and communications infrastructure was set at an early stage. Security design for individual structures has been left to various design teams working under a set of guidelines for each of the different categories of space in the project. </p><p>In China, owners of the tallest tower in Beijing, located in the central business district, wanted an evacuation plan. The building covers an entire city block and holds more than 20,000 people. As part of the plan, the building is now linked to a districtwide management system that will notify building managers of any emergency that takes place in the district, such as a bomb scare in another building. </p><p>Another large planning project is the Macau Zhuhai Bridge. When completed, the bridge will connect the island of Macau to Hong Kong at a border-crossing facility adjacent to the airport. The plan for the project, which is a major Pearl River Delta infrastructure initiative, envisages commercial development in the border-crossing area and requires detailed coordination with the CIQP (customs, immigration, health services, and police) agencies who will service this new land border to China. </p><p>Some of the same issues were also addressed in security planning for Hong Kong’s new high-speed rail connection to Guangzhou, China’s “southern capital” and third-largest city. Another major infrastructure project, this has seen close collaborative work with the same CIQP agencies and the railway operator, detailed risk assessments for individual structures, and a resilience review for the main Hong Kong terminus. </p><h4>Data Centers </h4><p>Hong Kong has positioned itself as a regional data center hub, with government support and heavy investment from financial services and telecom providers. Typical security needs for data centers include threat, vulnerability, and risk assessments; concept and detailed design for physical and electronic security equipment and systems; and construction and installation supervision.  </p><p>Data center operators focus on availability, while end users are typically more concerned with the confidentiality and integrity of data and applications. This—and the fact that operators sometimes include nondata functions, such as employee break areas, in the design—means that security must provide for multiple levels of access, auditable controls for restricted spaces, and both monitoring and confidentiality for other areas. </p><p>Minimum perimeter screening is mandated, but where the screening takes place—at the main site entrance or in the lobby—is at the discretion of the facility owner. While some degree of vehicle screening is common, screening people in commercial buildings is still relatively unusual in many parts of Asia. </p><p>Other data center clients have specific concerns, ranging from blast effects and mitigation to whole-facility risk from fire, flooding, and systems failure, as well as security risk. </p><p>One common feature of all projects is that they all start at the strategic level, and security strives to be involved early in the project. If a company plans a security screening area poorly, for example, it is difficult and expensive to redesign it later. </p><p>Putting a proper operation and maintenance plan is place is also critical. Major international clients have seen sophisticated solutions fall apart because they are not maintained. In Shanghai, for example, two new buildings were erected with state-of-the-art security systems. However, the systems were not maintained and had to be replaced five years later.  </p><p>As economies in Asia continue to grow, security will continue to be a factor in building projects. Risks will also evolve, requiring that security practitioners stay current on the latest trends and how they fit into the various cultures in the region.  </p><p>​-- </p><p><em><strong>Damian Ryan </strong>leads Arup’s security consulting practice in East Asia from the company’s Hong Kong office. A former Hong Kong police officer, Ryan has 30 years’ experience in public and private-</em><span style="line-height:1.5em;"><em>sector security planning in the region. He is a member of ASIS International. Mark Turner, with the Hong Kong office of Arup, also contributed to this article.   ​</em></span></p>

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 You May Also Like... a Transit Security Project<p>​<span style="line-height:1.5em;">Security is not a revenue generator in public transit, and security projects compete with numerous others within the corporate enterprise for funding. The top 75 transit agencies in the United States spend roughly 4 percent of their operating budget on security personnel and equipment, according to the Federal Transit Administration’s Public Transportation System Security and Emergency Preparedness Planning Guide.</span></p><p>To succeed, security must address this competition by presenting the project in corporate terms, evaluating traditional financial performance measures, such as return on investment and net present value. </p><p>Security should also promote a project’s cost-saving, a powerful method to quantify the value of investing in security. One transit system, the Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority (MARTA), in Atlanta used the cost savings of a camera analytics project to gain approval.</p><p>MARTA has numerous physical assets, including a network of video cameras that surveil 38 rail stations, 532 in-service buses, five bus garages, three rail yards, and other infrastructure located within the jurisdictions of 30 different law enforcement agencies in and around Atlanta.</p><p>The MARTA Police Department (MPD) is the longest-serving transit police agency in the country that is also certified by the Commission on Accreditation for Law Enforcement. The MPD is a full-time, full-service agency with more than 300 sworn officers, including detectives, uniform patrol, explosive detection units, and nearly 50 civilian staff members. </p><p>The MPD has more than 2,000 cameras covering the MARTA system, but found around-the-clock monitoring impractical due to boredom, distraction, and cognitive fatigue. A 24-hour monitoring program would also require additional facilities and manpower. </p><p>The MPD wanted to get the most out of its cameras and, in 2009, it began investigating how analytics could help. The road to implementing this solution required quantifying the value of a new technology amid competing priorities. Security advocates sometimes base their investment requests on the merits of an intangible perception of security, the consequences of not investing, or how the investment supports compliance with industry regulation. </p><p>But the MPD felt that these approaches fell short of providing the necessary comparative analysis. The MPD reasoned that its project would more likely find success if decision makers could easily compare projects seeking investment and evaluate quantifiable benefits that demonstrate a positive return on investment using the same scale.​</p><h4>Quantifying Benefits</h4><p>Security benefits are measured as the difference between the costs before and after project implementation. The cost benefits to MARTA needed to be researched to perform the return on investment analysis. </p><p>The MPD turned to Dr. Kendra C. Taylor, a MARTA consultant and associate vice president at AECOM, to conduct this research and analysis. She reviewed legislative requirements, industry benchmarks, risk assessments, and historic and anticipated costs to provide contextual material. Taylor’s financial analysis of costs was the most critical component because it would provide comparative numbers.</p><p>The first step in quantifying the benefits was to interview stakeholders whose day-to-day operations would be affected by the adaptive technology, including employees who would maintain the system after installation.</p><p>The next step was to explore potential scenarios to determine the types of costs involved. The third step was to collect data to estimate values for costs identified, and the fourth step was to perform analysis to determine the benefit value. This benefit value was used in the calculations for the return on investment.​</p><h4>Analysis</h4><p>The interviews with staff pointed to potential reduced costs associated with railcar vandalism, fare evasion, panhandling, liability, and rail incidents, making them the focus of the analysis. When presenting its findings to MARTA executives, the MPD provided a narrative, explaining each area of potential savings in lay terms with clearly stated costs and benefits.</p><p>Vandalism. Adaptive video technology can send alerts to stop acts of vandalism before they occur by identifying would-be vandals when they enter an area that is off limits. </p><p>For example, one evening, two MARTA railcars were covered extensively in graffiti while in the rail yard. The cars were out of service all day while they were being cleaned. </p><p>According to Ethel Williams, superintendent of railcar appearance at MARTA, the system suffers 20 acts of vandalism on railcars each year. Williams notes that the restorative costs of these incidents include almost a full day of labor and special cleaning supplies. In addition, fences are frequently damaged when the vandals enter the rail yard. Preventing these incidents would save MARTA more than $50,000 per year.</p><p>Fare evasion. In 2014, MARTA announced that fare evaders cost the transit authority an estimated $3.5 million per year.</p><p>Some of the tactics used to ride MARTA without paying include: waiting for a passenger to exit, then slipping through to enter before the gate closes; crowding through in the same direction after only one person taps his or her fare card; and simply pushing through a gate with brute force. </p><p>Adaptive video technology can detect this unusual movement and alert staff, who may review the footage on a smartphone and apprehend the person who evaded the fare.</p><p>The MPD reviewed historical analysis on fare evasion and conservatively estimated that MARTA would reclaim around $200,000 by using the pattern-detection element of adaptive video technology and hiring an officer to stand nearby.</p><p>Panhandling. It is illegal to panhandle on MARTA buses and trains and at MARTA stations. When a person stands out as moving from rider to rider along the platform, the adaptive video technology can send an alert for further investigation by MARTA personnel. </p><p>To quantify the value of having this technology on panhandling prevention, the project team considered the effect of panhandling on passengers’ perception of safety. It also considered the effect on lost ridership using customer feedback from ridership surveys and a study that tied the perception of safety to ridership. </p><p>The MPD estimated that around $50,000 in revenue loss would be prevented by addressing panhandling through the use of adaptive video technology.</p><p>Liability. Liability, in the form of slip-and-fall judgments, may result from wet or dangerous conditions at rail stations or other passenger facilities. In addition, when a passenger slips or falls, MARTA wants to address the matter quickly and accurately. </p><p>The adaptive technology may detect these conditions in advance of an accident and alert MARTA employees to address the condition before it contributes to an injury.</p><p>The MPD worked with Donna Jennings, director of risk management at MARTA, along with the authority’s safety and legal departments to get historical information on incidents where the new technology would have been valuable. </p><p>Using historical data on the costs of judgments and conservative estimates on the reduction in the number of judgments, the MPD was able to identify nearly $25,000 in cost savings.</p><p>Incidents. The greatest potential for cost savings was with the avoidance of rail incidents through alerts from the adaptive video technology. Several past incidents of passengers stumbling, falling, or purposefully jumping into the train right of way were caught on video. </p><p>This video was used forensically, but it has the potential to be used in real time in the future for significant cost savings each year to alert MARTA personnel to stop a train before hitting a fallen patron.</p><p>Potential cost savings include avoidance of legal costs, settlement costs, costs to restore the train and station, lost revenue from buses removed from other service to transport impacted travelers, and lost ridership during and after the restoration period. The up to $2 million annually in identified costs that could be avoided, while significant financially, are negligible compared to the value of a life saved.​</p><h4>Success</h4><p>Part of the cost of doing business is protecting assets. The project team was able to make the case that the quantifiable benefits of investing in adaptive video technology to prevent intentional and accidental damage were justified. The return on investment proved to exceed investment costs by a factor of two or three, with a payback period of less than two years. </p><p>This type of analysis helped decision makers compare this investment with other opportunities in the portfolio. The conclusion was favorable for security, and the system integration began in 2012 and is ongoing. </p><p>--</p><p><em><strong>Aston Greene</strong> is the commander of MARTA’s Emergency Preparedness Unit.</em></p>GP0|#28ae3eb9-d865-484b-ac9f-3dfacb4ce997;L0|#028ae3eb9-d865-484b-ac9f-3dfacb4ce997|Strategic Security;GTSet|#8accba12-4830-47cd-9299-2b34a4344465 for Security and Beyond<p>​<span style="line-height:1.5em;">In 2015, there are more than 2 billion surveillance cameras worldwide, according to estimates from Seagate Technology. These cameras are watching over people and property in previously unimagined settings. The United Kingdom, an early adopter of public area surveillance, had nearly 6 million cameras in 2013, according to estimates by the British Security Industry Authority–one camera for every 11 citizens. Institutions like schools and hospitals have long relied on surveillance to protect those coming through their doors, and retailers and manufacturers are using traditional surveillance to not only improve security, but to enhance quality control and boost flaging marketing strategies. </span></p><p>Experts testify to the increasing affordability of cameras as a factor in the industry’s growth. They also point to the operational value surveillance systems provide, in addition to the traditional security applications. As an illustration of how surveillance is being used in unique ways, this article looks at how a major transportation authority is using cameras to provide operational benefits. Next is a look at how trends in surveillance in law enforcement, municipal, and education spaces are making surveillance technology indispensable.​</p><h4>Mass Transit</h4><p>The Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA) is the fifth largest transit system in the United States, with an average daily ridership of nearly 1.4 million people. The agency’s transportation modes include bus, light rail, subway, ferry, and paratransit for riders with physical disabilities. </p><p>“The transit environment is one of the most complicated security environments you could have because of the unbelievably high volume of customers, the complexity of trains and track, and…hundreds of staircases and escalators and elevators,” says Randy Clarke, director of security and emergency management at MBTA. “All of these things could be places where a security issue could come up or an emergency response or fire emergency. Slip, trip, and fall–these things happen all day, every day.” </p><p>Clarke tells Security Management that the security arm of the MBTA takes an approach to the divisions it services much like a corporate security program would: “Our job is to support our internal clients, such as the operations control group, transit police, legal department, things of that nature.” Security staff also support the Registry of Motor Vehicles, as well as the state police and highway operations center. </p><p>In 2009 the agency began a capital security project to secure all of its facilities with a video surveillance system. The number of cameras MBTA has is in “the thousands,” says Clarke, and they are all embedded within the agency’s access control system that services its more than 10,000 employees. </p><p>To expand its video surveillance program, early last year MBTA began rolling out a project to equip its buses with an integrated video system that would provide real-time surveillance aboard 225 of its more than 1,100 buses. “If you walk into a store, you see a monitor and know you’re on TV; therefore, you know there’s security in this building,” Clarke says. “We wanted that approach for bus security.” </p><p>The previous solution was burdensome and took time out of daily transit operations because video could not be transferred over a network, notes Clarke. “You’d have to go get the bus, take the bus out of service, pull the hard drive, hope the hard drive actually works, put it in a hard-drive reader, replace it with another one, and there will be impacts to the bus operations because you either have to hold the bus and do this operation out in the street impacting customers, or take the bus out of service.”</p><p>MBTA turned to Canadian firm Genetec for its Omnicast video surveillance solution, which provides a number of features that enhance law enforcement and public safety while increasing operational benefits for the agency. </p><p>Each bus is equipped with two 360-<span style="line-height:1.5em;">degree cameras and four high-definition cameras, all manufactured by Panasonic. Additional equipment, such as an anti­vibration feature, is provided to meet the needs of a rugged transportation mode like a bus, which encounters obstacles such as potholes. A screen installed inside the bus shows all the camera views so passengers can see themselves and others on video, much like in a retail store environment. The video is recorded and stored locally on a network video recorder (NVR) inside each bus. </span></p><p>Whenever a bus pulls back into the depot, the video begins downloading automatically to the central server over Wi-Fi, and the footage is stored for about a month. However, if there is an incident that occurs while the bus is still moving, Clarke says they can immediately download the video over the Verizon LTE network to the central monitoring station. “We’re not going to do that for a 30-minute file or six different camera views, but we can do it for an immediate incident,” he explains.  </p><p>The MBTA has a sworn police force of transit officers who specifically deal with incidents relating to the transportation system. Each squad car has a mobile data terminal that integrates with the bus video surveillance platform, allowing an officer to see in real time what’s occurring on a vehicle via a Wi-Fi connection. In addition to the transit police dispatch center, the MBTA has a separate dispatch for transit operators, and at least one police officer is on duty there at all times. </p><p>City and state law enforcement agencies also benefit from the video surveillance when it comes to tracking down criminal suspects. Clarke notes that immediately after committing a crime, thieves will often use public transportation to flee the scene. Recently, a bank robber jumped on a subway train to evade police. Operators at the central monitoring station were able to match the video surveillance to the suspect’s description, and they instructed the train operator to wait at the next station until law enforcement could arrive and make an arrest. </p><p>Operator assault is another major problem the video surveillance solution is helping to solve. In one case, a patron punched a driver in the face; the driver immediately radioed into transit dispatch. Within a minute the central monitoring station had pulled up video from the bus, Clarke says, and zoomed in on the offender’s face. When officers arrived at the scene, the suspect was walking down the street attempting to escape. He was immediately arrested.</p><p>MBTA has a high level of engagement with the public, Clarke notes, and it uses tools such as social media to communicate with riders. With video surveillance, any tweets sent to MBTA over Twitter are easily corroborated, allowing situations to be resolved more quickly. For example, a patron may send a message that she suspects the bus driver is intoxicated. “We’ll look at the video, see if that video validates what the person is saying; if so, they can send a road supervisor, intercept that bus, and do a fitness for duty check on that employee to make sure that they’re not intoxicated,” he explains. </p><p>He adds that the MBTA has an exhaustive list of policies and procedures when it comes to filming and retaining the video. “We have a really detailed chain of custody for why we do video, how it’s archived, how it’s maintained, how it’s digitally stamped, how it would go to court, how it wouldn’t go to court—all those kinds of things.”</p><p>The agency has added 60 more buses to the Genetec platform since the initial deployment in 2014, and it plans to mi­­grate more of its fleet in the future. Clarke says any company looking to implement a similar video application should be prepared for customer feedback. “You just have to know with eyes wide open going into what you’re doing. When you’re go­ing to open up video on anything like a bus, you need to know that people are going to see it—the expectation level is high.” ​</p><h4>Law Enforcement</h4><p>“Especially in the municipalities, preventing crime is still the primary use for the video surveillance solution,” says Dave Sweeney, COO of Advantech, a company that provides system integration. His organization has completed a number of video surveillance projects for law enforcement, allowing them to take advantage of low-cost cameras to replace the need for human force. “We have a local police leader who says ‘I can’t afford to put an officer on every corner, but I can afford to put a camera on every corner,’” Sweeney notes. </p><p>Other municipalities have established partnerships with local businesses and law enforcement, providing a central monitoring station for camera feeds. While they may not have a dedicated </p><p>officer watching the monitors 24/7, if anything should occur throughout the city, “they have learned to use the tool to help them solve the crime, to dispatch their resources, and to try to find witnesses who may have left the scene to figure out what occurred,” he notes. For example, one such municipality teams up with government agencies. While the city owns about 75 percent of the cameras feeding into its central monitoring station, the other 25 percent come from the local housing authority’s cameras.</p><p>Sweeney says public perception can be a major challenge faced by municipalities when deploying video surveillance. “You always have the skeptical crowd who is leery of ‘Big Brother’ watching them,” he notes. “But if you put the solution in and publicize the benefits of it, ultimately the community will gain trust in it.” </p><p>Scalability is also crucial for muni­ci­­palities and law enforcement, but bu­dget constraints may only allow them to expand their video surveillance infrastructure a handful of cameras at a time. Often, Sweeney notes, money can get pulled away from video surveillance within a municipality’s budget if there’s an emergency such as a snowstorm that takes precedence. </p><p>He says whatever size deployment a city or law enforcement agency begins with, keeping its ultimate goal in mind is key to successful expansion. “The challenge for all parties involved in the beginning phase is making sure they understand the ultimate goal of the system in the future so that they can sign accordingly, and so that everything they put in will allow that growth.” ​</p><h4>Education</h4><p>Experts say schools are increasingly turning to video and audio surveillance to deter threats and also increase the amount of time being spent on education. One use of video surveillance technology in the education environment, for example, is corroborating incidents such as a child being bullied. Louroe Electronics provides an audio component to video cameras that adds an extra layer of monitoring.</p><p>“If a teacher tells the child’s parents, ‘your kid is acting up in class,’ the first thing they’re going to say is ‘not my little angel, she would never do that,’” says Cameron Javdani, director of sales and marketing at the audio company. “But if you can send it home with an audio clip of her picking on another student or some kind of incident that happened, it’s a lot more powerful and you can address the specifics of the situation, rather than this nebulous term of ‘bullying.’”</p><p>A combination of audio and video surveillance within schools can also allow students who are sick and have to miss class the opportunity to catch up on the day’s lessons. “There’s a huge secondary benefit to security equipment being used but serving a use that’s not security,” notes Javdani.  </p><p>Education administrators see video as a way to not only enhance security, but also improve the educational experience, which Sweeney says should be their primary focus. For example, a school being evacuated due to a bomb threat may lose eight hours of classroom time because authorities can’t clear the area where the device is supposedly located. But if video surveillance can help give an all-clear sooner, schools may get hours back in the teaching day.</p><p>The placement of surveillance cameras can also vary depending on the education environment, adds Sweeney, who says that a primary school may want more cameras pointed at doors and playgrounds, while high schools tend to want more cameras overall. “Once you migrate into the middle school and secondary education, that’s where you see the cam­eras really grow full scale into the facility,” he says. “Hallways, stairwells, cafeterias–all the areas where the students are for the most part, [whenever] there’s a very high student-to-adult ratio.”  </p><p>Another notable trend in the education space for video surveillance is shared infrastructure, says Sweeney, who explains he’s seen several schools using the same IT backbone for their video networks. “We’ve seen customers who are okay with sharing infrastructure that have a very well-thought-out, very clear IT policy….to allow the systems to use the same network hardware, but still remain completely isolated from traffic and all the other networking standpoints,” he says. ​</p><h4>Retail</h4><p>Surveillance remains a critical aspect of retail security for deterring and solving thefts, but experts say that stores are turning to surveillance to enhance marketing techniques, such as product placement, says Andrew Elvish, vice president of marketing at Genetec. Elvish notes that a company can use video and heat mapping to show which display cases in a store get the most traffic and visibility. That way, they can justify charging vendors more for shelving their products in those locations. </p><p>Retailers are also monitoring product sales with video management systems (VMS) that are connected to point-of-sale (POS) terminals. If they’re trying to find the video of a certain item being sold, they can click on the line item within their sales report and the VMS will jump to the video at the time and date it was vended. “You can click and go directly to the view of that product being scanned through the POS system,” he notes. “It’s not a super fancy Star Trek analytic, it’s just finding two pieces of data that are very meaningful and more powerful when you put them together.”​</p><h4>Trends</h4><p>The surveillance industry is on track to grow to nearly $49 billion by 2020, according to a January 2015 report from Grand View Research. Research by ASIS International indicates that 62 percent of organizations are increasing their video surveillance budgets in 2015 and 2016, while only 3 percent are decreasing budgets. “It’s getting ubiquitous, almost like a utility, and I think the cost is no longer going to be prohibitive,” says Robert Fuchs, marketing manager of surveillance technology at Plustek USA. In fact, many experts say that so many new manufacturers have entered the market, especially from Asia, and have reduced costs so much, that cameras have been “commoditized.” </p><p>Sweeney notes that the K-12 space will continue to expand on its use of surveillance. “I think the growth of video as a tool in that space is going to be something to keep an eye on,” he says. “You’re going to see a big push for visitor management, some form of a real-time check of visitors, not only of identification but also a formal log electronically of who came in.” </p><p>In the municipal market, Sweeney says having surveillance feeds at all times in law enforcement vehicles is a real possibility. Portability for police is something Plustek USA sees as a growth area. For example, during special events or in high-risk areas, law enforcement can mount a temporary camera. “They can just put a small camera on a pole and have it pointed in a direction. It doesn’t pull very much energy and they can have a couple of pairs of eyes looking at the events, not drawing attention, and take it back down,” Fuchs notes. </p><p>Surveillance technology vendors and integrators point to a number of existing or emerging trends in the industry that are shaping the way solutions are designed and installed. One such trend is unification of systems. “People don’t really want to focus on managing a whole bunch of different software applications when something bad is happening or they’re in a sense of panic,” says Elvish. “We see that in large-scale corporations; we see it in city, municipal, and state; we see it across the board in our end users–the idea of bringing together the core systems is really going to define where we’re going in this industry.” </p><p>VMS devices traditionally link with an organization’s cameras and can provide analytics so end users can easily search for needed footage. But Elvish says that uniting even more systems into the VMS platform is a growing trend. The system may also be tied to things like access control, license plate recognition, and intercoms, as well as sensors such as smoke alarms throughout an organization. With these unified systems, whenever an incident occurs, information is quickly available, and cameras can be pointed at the area of interest so operators can respond appropriately.  </p><p>Elvish recalls an incident that occurred at Schiphol Airport in Amsterdam, Eur­ope’s fifth-busiest airport in terms of passengers. Schiphol deals with a range of security issues every day. After a customer had a heart attack in a terminal, security was able to bring together a number of different tools to improve its response. A unified system “brings together the camera, it brings together the notification over the communication system–even two-way radio for mobile security officers and pushing SMS text messages to those mobile officers–and then to start that process of, okay, did you notify the local police force? Did you notify the ambulance? Did you get this form signed by the ambulance when they left? It seems like such a natural thing but it’s extraordinarily complex,” Elvish explains. </p><p>One popular new technology is the 4K camera, which provides ultra-high definition for video recording, about 4 times more than normal HD. “The trend toward these high megapixel cameras, like 4K cameras, that’s going to put a massive amount of stress on customers’ IP networks, in a good way,” adds Elvish, who says the quality of the cameras will be a major benefit for companies. He notes that marketplace solutions that accelerate GPU (graphic processing unit) transmission will help end users meet the challenge of higher load on their existing storage capacity. For example, with a GPU, an organization can increase the number of streams it can show on a single monitor with the same graphics capabilities it had before. </p><p>In the municipal space, Sweeney says there will be a push for more mobile video surveillance access for police. “In the municipal piece you’re going to see the growth of video surveillance continue, probably with the objective of trying to get that video out to the edge…</p><p>I think you’re going to see some push and some ability to get video out to those responders in their vehicles,” he says. </p><p>Elvish adds that in terms of storage, companies will be turning more to the cloud than to local devices. “We’re going to see the movement from edge to cloud architecture, and if we thought encryption and security were important from edge to core within your own security network, once you start moving edge to cloud then you really need to lock down that data,” he notes. </p><p>Javdani of Louroe adds that surveillance should be viewed as a preventive tool, not merely a retroactive one. “A lot of people in the industry, and I don’t know why, have this mentality of ‘we want to catch someone in the act,’” he notes. “You don’t want to catch them, you want to deter or prevent the criminal because it’s operationally better, and it saves a lot of headaches.” </p>GP0|#cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8;L0|#0cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8|Physical Security;GTSet|#8accba12-4830-47cd-9299-2b34a4344465 Offers Hands-on Training for New Hires<div><br></div><div><p>​​It's no secret–the U.S. Transportation Security Administration (TSA) has been heavily criticized​ for long lines at passenger screening areas in airports. And with summer travel approaching, the agency is under-the-gun to address the issue. <span style="line-height:1.5em;">But tr</span><span style="line-height:1.5em;">ansportation security officers have to do more t</span><span style="line-height:1.5em;">han simply process passengers in a timely manner. Detecting prohibited items, including weapons and possibly explosives, is at the top of the priority list.</span><br></p><p>The TSA says that's why it started a training academy at a Federal Law Enforcement​ Training Center in Glynco, Georgia. Established in January of this year, the TSA Academy is the agency's effort to standardize training for new​​ly hired transportation security officers.</p><p><em>Security Management</em>'s Holly Gilbert Stowell got an inside-look at the academy and what trainees learn over the two-week period, from explosives detection to a roleplay in a mock airport screening area.​​​</p></div><p></p><div class="ms-rtestate-read ms-rte-wpbox"><div class="ms-rtestate-notify ms-rtestate-read 7771bac8-d988-429b-9f2a-f41b989289b8" id="div_7771bac8-d988-429b-9f2a-f41b989289b8" unselectable="on"></div><div id="vid_7771bac8-d988-429b-9f2a-f41b989289b8" unselectable="on" style="display:none;"></div></div><div><br></div>GP0|#21788f65-8908-49e8-9957-45375db8bd4f;L0|#021788f65-8908-49e8-9957-45375db8bd4f|National Security;GTSet|#8accba12-4830-47cd-9299-2b34a4344465