Transportation to HurtGP0|#cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8;L0|#0cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8|Physical Security;GTSet|#8accba12-4830-47cd-9299-2b34a43444652017-11-01T04:00:00Z, Mark Tarallo<p>​Smuggling is a serious crime, but when the cargo being smuggled is human, the crime can go beyond serious, into the realm of the tragic.</p><p>A particularly horrid example of this came about last July, when authorities found the gruesome results of a criminal smuggling enterprise: 39 undocumented immigrants, nine dead (a tenth died later) and the rest needing hospitalization, lying in a tractor-trailer parked at a Walmart in San Antonio, Texas. The trailer had contained an estimated 70 to 200 illegal aliens total during its journey, according to court records.  </p><p>A few weeks later, U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) officials reported that the San Antonio incident was only one of four that had occurred in nearby areas, all within a few weeks’ time. Although the other three did not involve loss of life, they were still disquieting; in one of the incidents in July, border agents in Laredo, Texas, found 72 people from Mexico, Ecuador, Guatemala, and El Salvador locked inside a trailer. Border security leaders pledged to fight the problem. </p><p>“This horrific crime…ranks as a stark reminder of why human smuggling networks must be pursued, caught and punished,” ICE Acting Director Thomas Homan said after the San Antonio incident. “[ICE] works year-round to identify, dismantle, and disrupt the transnational criminal networks that smuggle people into and throughout the United States. These networks have repeatedly shown a reckless disregard for those they smuggle.” </p><p>How do these human smuggling operations work? Often, the process begins a few months before the smuggling, in a country such as Mexico, Guatemala, or Honduras, where sizable numbers of people are looking to emigrate, according to an investigation and review of court documents by the Associated Press. Those seeking to cross the border get to the Mexican–U.S. border region, and then cross by foot or river raft. They are then picked up by a tractor trailer somewhere past the border. The stressful traveling conditions make them vulnerable—dehydration, hyperthermia, and asphyxiation have been among the causes of death in truck cases.</p><p>One analyst, the U.K.-based global risk firm Verisk Maplecroft, warns companies that an increase in human smuggling activity could have ramifications for supply chain security. “Under the Trump administration, businesses with supply chains that rely on low-skilled, temporary migrant labour will face increasing risks of modern slavery in their workforce,” the firm says in one of its risk reports for 2017.</p><p>Verisk Maplecroft outlines the risk involved as follows. The construction of a U.S.–Mexico border wall, or stricter enforcement of deportation rules, will not reduce the appeal of migration for thousands of Latin Americans. But it could increase trafficking costs and deepen migrant worker debt, making migrants more vulnerable to exploitation. Suppliers in agriculture, construction, manufacturing, hospitality, and transport would be most exposed to supply chain risk. </p><p>Emigration-related schemes are not the only form of human smuggling that ICE and its allies are fighting. Human trafficking for the purposes of coerced sex trade operations also continues—a practice that groups like Truckers Against Trafficking (TAT) are trying to help eradicate. </p><p>The group, a 501c(3) nonprofit, takes an all-hands-on-deck approach and partners with members of the trucking and truck stop industries, law enforcement officers, and trafficking survivors to fight human trafficking. The group’s educational efforts include a 36-minute video that offers an overview of the trafficking issue, as well as four-hour training sessions for law enforcement officers such as the state highway patrol, according to Kylla Lanier, deputy director and cofounder of TAT.</p><p>Included in this training are case studies from officers who stopped a truck for a violation, and then upon closer inspection detected a trafficking incident. In the case studies, officers give a breakdown of the indications that tipped them off, and offer advice and best practice guidance for other officers. </p><p>For example, the passengers in the truck may exhibit some telling signs and behaviors, Lanier explains. “If the passengers are young, are they afraid to look at you? Are they acting like normal kids, or are they looking really scared?” she says. Sometimes, the passengers may have branding tattoos or bruises from physical abuse, and may be carrying many hotel key cards. Officers who speak with the driver and passenger separately sometimes find out that their respective stories do not match, or even make much sense. </p><p>Traffickers also exploit locations as well as victims, she adds. They will look for rest stops and other areas that are not well lit, without visible security, and which have a captive audience of drivers rolling through. “That’s where they will bring their victims to,” she explains. TAT works with truck stop industry partners to help make their facilities more safe and secure. </p><p>TAT also works closely with sex trafficking survivors; the group has two on staff. Survivors are key in the antitrafficking movement, because they can change perceptions about the sex trade. </p><p>Prostitution is “a vicious evil system” that has been whitewashed as a victimless crime, Lanier says, in part through unrealistic portrayals like the movie Pretty Women. In reality, the vast majority of those in the trade are being prostituted against their will, in hotels, motels, and rest areas, and are “cruelly raped and beaten within an inch of their lives,” she explains.</p><p>“It’s not the oldest profession,” Lanier says, “it’s the oldest oppression.” One study found that the rate of post traumatic stress disorder among prostitutes is equal to that of war veterans, she adds. </p><p>Given this, having the survivor’s voice in the issue is vitally important, because they can discuss the victim’s experience and point of view and “what’s going on behind the scenes,” Lanier explains. So, when people assume the survivor turned to prostitution to support a drug habit, the survivor can tell them it was just the opposite—being forced into the sex trade made the victim turn to drugs and alcohol. </p><p>Such compelling stories from survivors have helped the antitrafficking cause spread awareness, and the cause has made inroads. And on the legislative front, other advocacy groups such as Polaris pressured the U.S. House of Representatives into reauthorizing the Trafficking Victims Protection Act, which was created in 2000, in July 2017. </p><p>But in the end, demand for prostitution needs to be reduced so that further inroads can be made, and that will take “a societal paradigm shift,” Lanier says. ​</p>

Transportation to Hurt News June 2017 Evolution of Airport Attacks on Asia Officer Shoots Man At Dallas Love Field Airport’s-Staying-Over.aspx2016-06-01T04:00:00ZWho’s Staying Over? Offers Hands-on Training for New Hires Review: Protecting Transportation at the Border Deadline Derailment European Train Travel a Transit Security Project Managed Inclusion Program to be Phased Out Problems for Security and Beyond Savvy Storage Solution War on Human Trafficking Safety Fluid Situation Aviation Security: Predicting and Preventing Further Threats, Second Edition

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So no matter what city or property patrons visit, of the disposable income that people bring to the gaming industry, it appears that the food and beverage revenue is becoming at least as important to casinos as the gaming revenue. </p><p>To more closely monitor losses and possible theft in the food and beverage departments, security teams can leverage an effective point-of-sale control solution that is integrated with a hotel and casino’s surveillance recording system, which identifies errors in procedures and theft.</p><p>With a point-of-sale (POS) terminal, you basically have a cashier device of some type, such as a register. That transmits data to the server, where the data is analyzed and stored. Depending on what the food and beverage management team wants and what their parameters are, the POS generates reports. For example, if you’re talking about a bar, you have data on who the employee is, the time of day, what drink was ordered, what drink was served, what food was ordered, and what food was served. The solution takes that data and overlays it with the video of that POS terminal. You can go back and see what the employee is actually ringing up, and what their actions are compared to what the electronic data is coming out of that POS–and hopefully they are going to match. If you see any anomalies in the data, then you can go back and watch what actually happened, which is very helpful in catching any improper actions, mistakes, or thefts.</p><p><br></p><p><strong><em>Q. Some thieves have learned to steal thousands of dollars by hacking and cheating slot machines. How can these incidents be avoided? </em></strong></p><p><strong>A. </strong>In 2009, virtually all gambling was outlawed in Russia, so the casinos there had to sell their slot machines to whoever would buy them. A lot of their machines wound up in organized crime groups. In 2011 the casinos in Europe started noticing certain brands of slot machines that were losing large amounts of money, but no physical cheating was noticed. That led to the theory that maybe the cheaters had figured out a way to predict slot machine behavior. </p><p>It was later discovered that cheaters were uploading footage of slot machines  to technical staff in Russia. Someone would analyze the video, calculate the machine’s spin pattern, somehow interfering with or being able to determine that slot machine model in their pseudo-random number generator, and send a reply back to the cheater. This information would set certain markers for their play, giving them a better-than-average idea of when the machines were going to hit. </p><p>In the United States, law enforcement investigations led to the arrest of one Russian national in California in a casino in July 2014 who was engaging in this sort of cheating. The FBI later indicted all four individuals involved in the ring. </p><p>To give you an idea of the potential losses, the Russian cheaters tried to limit their winnings to less than $1,000 per incident, but a four-person team working multiple casinos could earn upwards of a quarter of a million dollars a week. </p><p>While some responsibility falls on the slot machine manufacturing company, the basic protection effort is still on the casino surveillance and security personnel. It’s up to them to follow up with surveillance observations and review that slot machine play to see if there’s anything that does not match up with the daily slot exception reports, which highlight unusually large losses.  </p><p><br></p><p><strong><em>Q. We’ve seen armed robberies take place at gaming properties over the years, most recently at a casino in Manila where 36 people died. What is being done to combat those incidents? </em></strong></p><p><strong>A.</strong> Armed robberies in the industry are a concern; they don’t happen that frequently, but they are very troubling when they do. In June of this year in Gardena, California, two men followed a victim who had just won a large sum of money from a casino and rammed into the back of his vehicle to create an accident as he left the property. When he pulled into a gas station to look at the damage to his car, they robbed him of his cash winnings and shot him four times. Fortunately, the victim survived. </p><p>And then you have the shooting in Manila. It was an active shooter situation where 36 people died. The motive for that individual? Also robbery. How do we prevent things like that? It’s very difficult. Most of the robberies occur at night, and most of the casino hotels are so large they have multiple entrances and exits. </p><p>For cage [money-handling area] robberies, the training is, give the subjects the money, don’t cause any problems, and hit the holdup alarm when the robber leaves your window. And you want him to get away—you want him to get out of the property, especially if he is armed. We don’t want our security personnel to try to stop them. We notify law enforcement and let them handle it. </p><p>You need to look at the scheduling of your security staff during hours of darkness, and you may want to increase the external patrols during those times. If you have winners who have large amounts of winnings, you may want to encourage them to take a check rather than cash. If they decide to take cash, offer them an escort to their mode of transportation. Most of the time it’s their own personal vehicle, so offer them a security escort to their vehicle. </p><p>If properties don’t already do it, they may want to consider posting a security officer by the cage. A lot of casinos have security podiums for public relations and assistance for guests that are located by the cage and serve as a deterrent. And finally, you can use plainclothes officers to be on the lookout for any unusual activity.</p><p><br></p><p><strong><em>Q. How has the active shooter trend affected gaming security? Are more properties deciding to arm their guards? </em></strong></p><p><strong>A. </strong>One trend is that some gaming regulators are now requiring a copy of a licensee’s active shooter plan. The Mississippi Gaming Commission, for example, recently announced such a policy. Some casino companies are also considering arming some of their security force to be able to quickly react to an active shooter situation, if state law allows it. In many jurisdictions where gaming is a business, the state regulations do not allow security to be armed. </p><p>The approach has some pros and cons, and I would not disagree with any of my peers on what their decisions might be to protect their company. </p><p>Most active shooter situations are over in 11 minutes if it’s not a hostage situation, and in many cases first responders from law enforcement can’t get there that quickly. Sometimes they do, but if you had individuals on site, obviously their response would be much quicker. </p><p>Now your armed response team could contain and neutralize an active shooter, but they also have to be cognizant of what is lawful for a citizen’s reaction to such a violent situation. State laws pretty much dictate when deadly force can be used against an armed suspect. So if you’re going to arm these personnel, you have to be sure to operate within whatever your state law says about using deadly force on an individual.</p><p><br></p><p><strong>Q. What are the pros and cons of arming plainclothes officers?</strong></p><p><em>A. </em> If your armed security guards are in uniform, that could be a deterrent to an active shooter in and of itself. But if your armed officers are in plainclothes they can blend in with the customers, concealing the fact that they’re armed. One of the disadvantages of such a policy—and this is strictly my opinion—how are your law enforcement first responders going to be able to identify a plainclothes security officer as a friendly with a gun in his hand? For law enforcement personnel responding to an active shooter, their first goal is to neutralize that shooter. And if they come into a property and you’ve got one of your plainclothes security officers standing with a weapon, it’s quite possible they’re going to be neutralized by law enforcement, which is not good.</p><p>You also need to take a look at how your security personnel with weapons are trained to respond. This training has to be thorough, the policies and procedures must be able to withstand legal scrutiny. How are security personnel trained in the use of firearms? What’s the selection process for such officers? Are they retired or former law enforcement personnel, are they military personnel? Finally, what’s your lability if one of your security personnel accidentally shoots an innocent bystander in a situation like that? All these things must be considered when deciding whether to arm officers.   ​</p>GP0|#cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8;L0|#0cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8|Physical Security;GTSet|#8accba12-4830-47cd-9299-2b34a4344465 a Transit Security Project<p>​<span style="line-height:1.5em;">Security is not a revenue generator in public transit, and security projects compete with numerous others within the corporate enterprise for funding. The top 75 transit agencies in the United States spend roughly 4 percent of their operating budget on security personnel and equipment, according to the Federal Transit Administration’s Public Transportation System Security and Emergency Preparedness Planning Guide.</span></p><p>To succeed, security must address this competition by presenting the project in corporate terms, evaluating traditional financial performance measures, such as return on investment and net present value. </p><p>Security should also promote a project’s cost-saving, a powerful method to quantify the value of investing in security. One transit system, the Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority (MARTA), in Atlanta used the cost savings of a camera analytics project to gain approval.</p><p>MARTA has numerous physical assets, including a network of video cameras that surveil 38 rail stations, 532 in-service buses, five bus garages, three rail yards, and other infrastructure located within the jurisdictions of 30 different law enforcement agencies in and around Atlanta.</p><p>The MARTA Police Department (MPD) is the longest-serving transit police agency in the country that is also certified by the Commission on Accreditation for Law Enforcement. The MPD is a full-time, full-service agency with more than 300 sworn officers, including detectives, uniform patrol, explosive detection units, and nearly 50 civilian staff members. </p><p>The MPD has more than 2,000 cameras covering the MARTA system, but found around-the-clock monitoring impractical due to boredom, distraction, and cognitive fatigue. A 24-hour monitoring program would also require additional facilities and manpower. </p><p>The MPD wanted to get the most out of its cameras and, in 2009, it began investigating how analytics could help. The road to implementing this solution required quantifying the value of a new technology amid competing priorities. Security advocates sometimes base their investment requests on the merits of an intangible perception of security, the consequences of not investing, or how the investment supports compliance with industry regulation. </p><p>But the MPD felt that these approaches fell short of providing the necessary comparative analysis. The MPD reasoned that its project would more likely find success if decision makers could easily compare projects seeking investment and evaluate quantifiable benefits that demonstrate a positive return on investment using the same scale.​</p><h4>Quantifying Benefits</h4><p>Security benefits are measured as the difference between the costs before and after project implementation. The cost benefits to MARTA needed to be researched to perform the return on investment analysis. </p><p>The MPD turned to Dr. Kendra C. Taylor, a MARTA consultant and associate vice president at AECOM, to conduct this research and analysis. She reviewed legislative requirements, industry benchmarks, risk assessments, and historic and anticipated costs to provide contextual material. Taylor’s financial analysis of costs was the most critical component because it would provide comparative numbers.</p><p>The first step in quantifying the benefits was to interview stakeholders whose day-to-day operations would be affected by the adaptive technology, including employees who would maintain the system after installation.</p><p>The next step was to explore potential scenarios to determine the types of costs involved. The third step was to collect data to estimate values for costs identified, and the fourth step was to perform analysis to determine the benefit value. This benefit value was used in the calculations for the return on investment.​</p><h4>Analysis</h4><p>The interviews with staff pointed to potential reduced costs associated with railcar vandalism, fare evasion, panhandling, liability, and rail incidents, making them the focus of the analysis. When presenting its findings to MARTA executives, the MPD provided a narrative, explaining each area of potential savings in lay terms with clearly stated costs and benefits.</p><p>Vandalism. Adaptive video technology can send alerts to stop acts of vandalism before they occur by identifying would-be vandals when they enter an area that is off limits. </p><p>For example, one evening, two MARTA railcars were covered extensively in graffiti while in the rail yard. The cars were out of service all day while they were being cleaned. </p><p>According to Ethel Williams, superintendent of railcar appearance at MARTA, the system suffers 20 acts of vandalism on railcars each year. Williams notes that the restorative costs of these incidents include almost a full day of labor and special cleaning supplies. In addition, fences are frequently damaged when the vandals enter the rail yard. Preventing these incidents would save MARTA more than $50,000 per year.</p><p>Fare evasion. In 2014, MARTA announced that fare evaders cost the transit authority an estimated $3.5 million per year.</p><p>Some of the tactics used to ride MARTA without paying include: waiting for a passenger to exit, then slipping through to enter before the gate closes; crowding through in the same direction after only one person taps his or her fare card; and simply pushing through a gate with brute force. </p><p>Adaptive video technology can detect this unusual movement and alert staff, who may review the footage on a smartphone and apprehend the person who evaded the fare.</p><p>The MPD reviewed historical analysis on fare evasion and conservatively estimated that MARTA would reclaim around $200,000 by using the pattern-detection element of adaptive video technology and hiring an officer to stand nearby.</p><p>Panhandling. It is illegal to panhandle on MARTA buses and trains and at MARTA stations. When a person stands out as moving from rider to rider along the platform, the adaptive video technology can send an alert for further investigation by MARTA personnel. </p><p>To quantify the value of having this technology on panhandling prevention, the project team considered the effect of panhandling on passengers’ perception of safety. It also considered the effect on lost ridership using customer feedback from ridership surveys and a study that tied the perception of safety to ridership. </p><p>The MPD estimated that around $50,000 in revenue loss would be prevented by addressing panhandling through the use of adaptive video technology.</p><p>Liability. Liability, in the form of slip-and-fall judgments, may result from wet or dangerous conditions at rail stations or other passenger facilities. In addition, when a passenger slips or falls, MARTA wants to address the matter quickly and accurately. </p><p>The adaptive technology may detect these conditions in advance of an accident and alert MARTA employees to address the condition before it contributes to an injury.</p><p>The MPD worked with Donna Jennings, director of risk management at MARTA, along with the authority’s safety and legal departments to get historical information on incidents where the new technology would have been valuable. </p><p>Using historical data on the costs of judgments and conservative estimates on the reduction in the number of judgments, the MPD was able to identify nearly $25,000 in cost savings.</p><p>Incidents. The greatest potential for cost savings was with the avoidance of rail incidents through alerts from the adaptive video technology. Several past incidents of passengers stumbling, falling, or purposefully jumping into the train right of way were caught on video. </p><p>This video was used forensically, but it has the potential to be used in real time in the future for significant cost savings each year to alert MARTA personnel to stop a train before hitting a fallen patron.</p><p>Potential cost savings include avoidance of legal costs, settlement costs, costs to restore the train and station, lost revenue from buses removed from other service to transport impacted travelers, and lost ridership during and after the restoration period. The up to $2 million annually in identified costs that could be avoided, while significant financially, are negligible compared to the value of a life saved.​</p><h4>Success</h4><p>Part of the cost of doing business is protecting assets. The project team was able to make the case that the quantifiable benefits of investing in adaptive video technology to prevent intentional and accidental damage were justified. The return on investment proved to exceed investment costs by a factor of two or three, with a payback period of less than two years. </p><p>This type of analysis helped decision makers compare this investment with other opportunities in the portfolio. The conclusion was favorable for security, and the system integration began in 2012 and is ongoing. </p><p>--</p><p><em><strong>Aston Greene</strong> is the commander of MARTA’s Emergency Preparedness Unit.</em></p>GP0|#28ae3eb9-d865-484b-ac9f-3dfacb4ce997;L0|#028ae3eb9-d865-484b-ac9f-3dfacb4ce997|Strategic Security;GTSet|#8accba12-4830-47cd-9299-2b34a4344465 Security Threats<p>​2017 has seen an ebb and flow of terrorist attacks carried out by a variety of groups, from Islamist extremists to lone wolves inspired by an extremist ideology to far right- and left-wing attacks.</p><p>A wave of natural disasters pushed emergency responders to their limits and tested the mettle of organizational crisis plans around the world. Global politics are heating up, bringing with them waves of populism and protests. </p><p>Unfortunately, these national security threats do not seem to be winding down any time soon. Perhaps the most immediate threat to individuals and organizations continues to be terrorism, which ranges from its roots in Iraq and Syria to the Western countries trying to stop it. </p><p>While ISIS continues to lose physical ground—undercutting its ultimate goal to replace borders with a "global caliphate" that wages war against disbelievers—its influence continues to grow, especially through powerful online recruiting tactics and the encouragement of do-it-yourself attacks. </p><p>"The core group of the Islamic State is going to continue to conduct terrorism—even after they lose their physical caliphate, they'll continue to conduct attacks in Iraq and Syria and probably contiguous countries in the region," explained Scott Stewart, vice president of tactical analysis at Stratfor. "And then there are the grassroots guys, and that's what we're seeing in the West. More of these inspired, sometimes kind-of-directed attacks."</p><p>As long as ISIS continues to gain recruits to work toward its ultimate goal, the terrorist organization will continue to grow stronger. </p><p>"We need to try to suppress these groups as much as we can and curtail their availability to dispatch their professional terrorist cadre to places like the United States or Europe, but at the same time we do need to worry about their ideology," Stewart said. "Quite frankly, I believe we can't kill our way out of this problem. Until we can stem the flow of new recruits, it's going to be a losing battle."</p><p>To defeat ISIS's online influence, Stewart said it will take a global push using all resources available, from intelligence and military to financial and diplomatic efforts. Countering the extremist rhetoric is key to undercutting their recruiting abilities, but Stewart acknowledged that that is a role for Muslim-majority countries. </p><p>"The hard part is that it's very difficult for the Americans or French to do that because we don't have a lot of stock ideologically in the Muslim world, so it really has to be something that our Muslim partners are doing."</p><p>While right-wing extremism has garnered attention in the United States—especially following the Charlottesville, Virginia, vehicle attack—Stewart noted that these political extremes are a problem in Europe as well. </p><p>"We see nationalism and strong anti-immigrant sentiment, and that often will show itself in shootings, beatings, and violence," he said. At the same time, right-wing attacks get negative reactions from the anarchist, far-left wing extremists, resulting in counterviolence. </p><p>"Those two extremes tend to feed off each other," Stewart explained. "We've seen this happen in the past—there's a cycle and it seems we're entering another high point where it's increasing again."</p><p>Stewart said it is prudent to keep an eye on Russia as it continues to protect itself from perceived threats by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). </p><p>"From Russia's perspective, what they're doing is understandable because they've felt very threatened," he explained. "The idea of NATO moving into countries like Georgia and Ukraine, into the Baltics, that threatens them and removes their buffer. That drives a lot of this behavior—they will do whatever they can to push out those areas. They don't want to have enemies right at their doorstep."</p>GP0|#21788f65-8908-49e8-9957-45375db8bd4f;L0|#021788f65-8908-49e8-9957-45375db8bd4f|National Security;GTSet|#8accba12-4830-47cd-9299-2b34a4344465