Museums and Cultural Properties Learned from the Notre Dame FireGP0|#3795b40d-c591-4b06-959c-9e277b38585e;L0|#03795b40d-c591-4b06-959c-9e277b38585e|Security by Industry;GTSet|#8accba12-4830-47cd-9299-2b34a43444652019-04-17T04:00:00ZDoug Beaver, CPP<p>​The Notre Dame Cathedral fire’s destruction impacts the cultural arts community, as well as the world at large. While this iconic structure and Paris’ symbolic center took centuries to build, a fire on 15 April horribly damaged the medieval Catholic cathedral in a matter of hours. </p><p>While firefighters focused on containing the fire’s spread, frantic rescue efforts were launched by the culture ministry and others to safeguard the cathedral’s masterpieces and relics. These irreplaceable artifacts include the cathedral’s renowned 18th century organ (with more than 8,000 pipes), and the crown of thorns said to have been worn by Jesus during his crucifixion—one of the world’s most priceless relics, which was brought to Notre Dame in August 1239. The ministry is transferring other works across Paris to the Louvre where they will be dehumidified, protected, and eventually restored.<br><br>Although currently considered an accident related to renovations, an ongoing investigation aims to determine the cause of the fire. In the meantime, however, security practitioners should ask if best practices were in place to prevent and respond to the incident.<br><br>Frédéric Létoffé, the co-president of a group of French companies that specialize in work on older buildings and monuments, spoke to <em><a href="" target="_blank">The New York Times </a></em>and said Notre Dame had fire detectors that functioned continuously and was equipped with dry risers—empty pipes that firefighters can externally connect to a pressurized water source. <br><br>Létoffé added that the cathedral did not have automatic sprinklers in the wooden framework of its roof, where the fire started, and that its attic space was not compartmentalized with fire-breaking walls, which could have prevented a blaze from spreading.<br><br>Notre Dame’s rector, Monseigneur Patrick Chauvet, said on 16 April that fire monitors routinely inspected the cathedral. “Three times a day they go up, under the wooden roof, to make an assessment,” he told radio station <a href="" target="_blank">France Inter.</a><br><br>The Notre Dame fire is not a unique incident. Several cultural heritage sites around the world were either completely or partially destroyed by fires, including The National Museum of Brazil in Rio de Janeiro in 2018, La Fenice opera house in Venice in 1996, the Gran Teatre del Liceu in Barcelona in 1994, and Windsor Castle in Windsor in 1992. <br><br>Not only cultural institutions but all facilities should have a risk management plan in place. Risk can be defined as “the chance of something happening that will have a negative impact on our objectives.” Security professionals must consider both the chances of happening and expected impact. The impact of risks can be expressed in terms of the expected loss of value to the heritage asset.<br><br>Although terminology is often interchanged, there are five basic steps in the risk management process: <br></p><ol><li><p>Identify the risks (potential causes)</p></li><li><p>Analyze the risks (probability of occurrence)</p></li><li><p>Evaluate the risks (magnitude, priority)</p></li><li><p>Solutions (select best options)</p></li><li><p>Monitor (risk management is an ongoing process)</p></li></ol><p>Security managers of cultural properties should consider the following questions as they conduct their risk analysis and develop their risk management plan: </p><ol><li><p>What are the possible imminent risks to a cultural property?</p></li><li><p>What are the risks of highest probability?</p></li><li><p>Which of those are expected to cause greater and wide-ranging damages?</p></li><li><p>Do damages differ from one cultural property to another?</p></li><li><p>Do these damages suddenly occur or are they accumulative over time?</p></li><li><p>How can these damages be well understood and assessed for sound decision making relevant to mitigation and prevention?</p></li><li><p>What are the priorities, given available human capital and budgets?</p></li></ol><p>To mitigate the risk of fire at their respective institutions, security professionals need plans in place for minimizing legacy loss and finding ways to protect valuable cultural heritage. Particularly in the cultural environment, they need to strive to find innovative ways to prevent fires and avoid, where possible, fire-fighting techniques that might cause inadvertent destruction of the artifacts they are seeking to protect.<br><br>As evidenced by the scores of Parisians and tourists who watched, cried, sang, and prayed for Notre Dame during the fire, cultural heritage is not just about monuments or traditions, but about the people who identify with the underlying culture. When security professionals understand this concept, they can help reduce invaluable losses and effectively manage the economic consequences.<br><br><em>Doug Beaver, CPP, is the chair of the ASIS International Cultural Properties Council and director of security at the National Museum of Women in the Arts in Washington, D.C.</em></p><p></p>

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SCN attempts to rectify that issue by forging relationships with law enforcement.</p> <p>The group receives sensitive information on threats to the Jewish community around-the-clock, which it then disseminates to its members. Goldenberg adds that the SCN is the first nongovernmental organization to have a memorandum of understanding with the New York City Police Department.</p> <p>The group is also working with the Department of Homeland Security to coordinate its house of worship training. The most important step a house of worship can take is to train its staff to handle threatening situations and to ensure that they are able to operate any security equipment the building has, says Goldenberg, who was part of a south Florida undercover strike force for several years.</p> <p>Training is all the more important in this field given that many house of worship security force members are volunteers and may not have law enforcement backgrounds.</p> <p>Some states are requiring that volunteers get licensed or that churches hire only licensed security professionals.</p> <p>Texas, for example, requires that anyone providing volunteer security services under the title “security” be licensed by the state. That law forced Dallas megachurch The Potter’s House last year to professionalize its force, says Sean Smith, who was the security director there when he says the Texas Private Security Bureau told the church it would be fined because the volunteer security team was unlicensed.</p> <p>The church chose to contract its security to an outside company. Smith went through the state licensing program and became senior account manager, with the rest of the security staff coming from the contracted company. </p> <p>“It’s just forcing us to be better,” says Smith, adding that once the church contracted its security out, its liability insurance “dropped tremendously.”</p> <p>Chuck Chadwick, of the National Association of Church Security & Safety Management (NACSSM), thinks crackdowns like the one in Texas are necessary. “Unlicensed security is rampant across the country,” he says.</p> <p>Jim Hashem, chief of staff of Kingdom Life Christian Church in Milford, Connecticut, had his all-volunteer security force trained by an outside company and licensed. Even so, says Hashem, if there is even a hint of violence, his security team is instructed to immediately call 911. The team’s job is only to manage the interim time before the police show up.</p> <p>And they avoid physical confrontation. “[We’ve] trained our people that the best way through a situation is to try to talk your way through it first,” Hashem explains. </p> <p>The Potter’s House sponsors a church security conference called STOPPED (Security Training Offering Policies, Procedure, Education, and Direction), which has brought in actors for demonstrations on how to handle an irate congregation member. That’s more typical than a shooter.  </p> <p>Smith says such comprehensive training is integral to responding effectively. “If all you’ve practiced on is what to do when the guy comes with a gun, then what do you do when the alcoholic comes, and he’s drunk?” he says, adding that “you’re going to see that a hundred times more than what happened in Colorado.”</p> <p class="MsoNormal"><!--[if !supportEmptyParas]--> <!--[endif]--></p> </div>GP0|#cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8;L0|#0cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8|Physical Security;GTSet|#8accba12-4830-47cd-9299-2b34a4344465 Churches Lack Security, Experts Say<div class="body"> <span class="article_date"> <span class="date-display-single">03/10/2009</span> - </span> <p>Experts say smaller churches generally lack security plans that could help identify an attacker beforehand or minimize the damage of an attack, <a href="" target="_blank">the Associated Press reports</a>. </p> <p>The new emphasis comes after the Reverand Fred Winters was gunned down Sunday morning in Maryville, Illinois, while saying mass. The shooter, 27-year-old Jeff Sedlacek, has been charged with Winters' murder as well as aggravated assault for stab wounds inflicted on two parishoners who subdued him after the shooting.</p> <p>The fact that the First Baptist Church had initiated a security and emergency plan six months before the shooting shouldn't dissuade other churches from planning ahead, the church's associate pastor Mark Jones told the AP.</p> <p>Televangelist churches and megachurches with attendance levels around 5,000, however, generally have coordinated security plans and have hired undercover security guards to protect high-profile preachers, according to Dave Travis, managing director of the <a href="" target="_blank">Leadership Network</a>,  which helps church leaders grow their churches. </p> <p>Jeffrey Hawkins, executive director of the <a href="" target="_blank">Christian Security Network</a>, says churches are "soft targets." A survey conducted last year after a church shooting in Knoxville, Tennesee, showed that 75 percent of churches do not have a security plan, while polling of 250 churches conducted by his organization showed a third have already experienced a security incident this year. </p> <p>The Christian Security Network advises churches take an all-hazards approach to their security plan, accounting for everything from low-level crime to natural disasters.</p> <p>And it's not only Christian houses of worship that are taking precautions.</p> <p>Because of anti-semiticism and attacks in Israel, Jewish organizations have long been security conscious.</p> <p>"You don't want iron gates and armed guards, but houses of worship do need to train staff, congregants and ushers to identify and respond to such threats as an emotionally disturbed person," said Paul Goldenberg, national director of the <a href="">Secure Community Network</a> (SCN), a Jewish security organization. </p> <p>According to <em>Security Management's </em>Laura Spadanuta last April, <a href="" target="_blank">SCN has been an innovative leader</a> in securing Jewish houses of worship through public-private partnerships. </p> <p class="rteindent1">The group receives sensitive information on threats to the Jewish community around-the-clock, which it then disseminates to its members. Goldenberg adds that the SCN is the first nongovernmental organization to have a memorandum of understanding with the New York City Police Department.</p> <p class="rteindent1">The group is also working with the Department of Homeland Security to coordinate its house of worship training. The most important step a house of worship can take is to train its staff to handle threatening situations and to ensure that they are able to operate any security equipment the building has, says Goldenberg, who was part of a south Florida undercover strike force for several years.</p> <p>The Council on American-Islamic Relations (CAIR), a Muslim civil rights organization, has also published security guidelines for mosques and worshippers because of an increase in assaults after 9-11. 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