Museums and Cultural Properties

 

 

https://sm.asisonline.org/Pages/Safety-in-Shared-Spaces.aspxSafety in Shared SpacesGP0|#cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8;L0|#0cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8|Physical Security;GTSet|#8accba12-4830-47cd-9299-2b34a43444652017-09-01T04:00:00Zhttps://adminsm.asisonline.org/pages/holly-gilbert-stowell.aspx, Holly Gilbert Stowell<p>​Coworking spaces  are on the rise around the globe. These flexible work settings allow people without a traditional office building to still enjoy many of the amenities that come along with having a dedicated work environment. </p><p><em>The 2017 Global Coworking Survey</em>, conducted by Deskmag, along with SocialWorkplaces.com, found that there are an estimated 13,800 active coworking spaces worldwide, hosting more than 1 million people. </p><p>This represents a major increase from five years ago, when just 2,070 coworking spaces were used by 81,000 people globally. COCO, a coworking company based in St. Paul, Minnesota, offers several different levels of membership and types of space, so clients are only paying for the amount of time they need and space they require, says Megan Dorn, director of operations at COCO. </p><p>“Our idea in doing that was to be with our clients as they grow—from the beginning of their business, to hiring employees, to maybe needing private offices—which we also have,” she says. “So that’s what makes us a little bit different than your typical coworking space.” </p><p>When the company started in 2010, it had to distribute physical keys to its members, “which is a nightmare as you’re trying to grow,” she notes, and a security concern if a key was ever lost. </p><p>Because COCO normally leases its space in a larger building, it needed a security solution that was as flexible as the working environment it provides. “We usually have to find ways—when we’re opening a space or acquiring a space—to work with the building to find ways to get our security system installed,” Dorn explains. </p><p>When COCO acquired a new space in Chicago last May, the existing security system was a door locked by a PIN code, which the building never changed. The PIN code was distributed to a large number of people.</p><p>“The space got broken into a week before we acquired it. Laptops were stolen, and people were really on edge,” she notes. “So as soon as we came in to the Chicago space, one of our top priorities was to get a really solid access and security system in place.” </p><p>COCO turned to Brivo’s OnAir, a cloud-based access control system that easily integrated into the company’s membership dashboard, called Bamboo. Using Brivo, COCO can easily distribute keycards to its clients and manage membership usage and levels. </p><p>To set up the system, Brivo representatives come to COCO’s space and add card readers to the appropriate doors. They also set up schedules and the different access levels for membership types.</p><p>COCO has one membership accountant who works out of the company’s headquarters and oversees assigning new members a keycard number through Brivo. “It’s all digital, so it can be done remotely,” she notes. </p><p>A community manager at the member’s location—the lead COCO employee for that site—can then log on to Brivo and see which card number has been assigned for that client, add the number to their member profile in Bamboo, and distribute it. </p><p>Changing, granting, and revoking access levels, as well as keeping track of when members come and go throughout the building, are all managed through the Brivo platform. </p><p>“Say you want to upgrade a member from part-time to full-time. We’re able to just go into Brivo and quickly change your access. It’s active the moment that you do it,” she notes. “That’s actually been really helpful for us, given we have all this variability in types of membership.” </p><p>When a member badges in, a wealth of information comes up on the Brivo dashboard for the community manager to see. “Their picture, their name, their membership level, how many times they’ve checked in already that month, it immediately shows up,” she says. “So it tells you in real time exactly who’s in your space and when.”</p><p>The business value of OnAir is immense for COCO, Dorn points out, because the company can tell how often members are actually using the space, and whether they have made payments, as soon as they present their access card to the door reader. </p><p>“Let’s say someone is delinquent on payment. As soon as the member checks in, there’s going to be big red circle with an exclamation point [on the dashboard]–you can’t miss it,” she says. “It’s definitely helped us lower the sheer amount of delinquent payments that we have, and receive that payment.”</p><p>When a member badges in, Brivo also alerts the community manager if that person hasn’t been in the space very often that month. </p><p>“If we can find a member who we consider at-risk, who hasn’t been using the space, and we’re alerted to that we can reach out to them, invite them to an event, or try whatever we can to reengage them,” Dorn says. </p><p>COCO is also in the initial stages of using Brivo MobilePass, which lets COCO staff remotely lock and unlock doors via a smart device, for members who want to access the space after-hours but forget their keycard. </p><p>Because of how easily it can deactivate and reactivate access, COCO also encourages members who leave the company to keep their keycards. </p><p>“The goal is to try to get the member to come back. So if you have that card and you come back, you’re already set up in our system, all we have to do is reactivate the card and then we’ll also waive any setup fees,” Dorn says. </p><p>She notes the combination of security and business insights from Brivo has been tremendous for COCO. </p><p>“Brivo as a security system has helped us go from being a group of people working out of a space to a full-fledged company,” she says. “It really helps us manage all of the different types of membership and the stages of business they’re in.” </p><p><em>For more information: Nicki Saffell, sales@brivo.com, www.brivo.com, 301.664.5242 ​</em></p>

Museums and Cultural Properties

 

 

https://sm.asisonline.org/Pages/Safety-in-Shared-Spaces.aspx2017-09-01T04:00:00ZSafety in Shared Spaces
https://sm.asisonline.org/Pages/Protecting-Fine-Art-and-Other-Industry-News.aspx2017-09-01T04:00:00ZProtecting Fine Art and Other Industry News
https://sm.asisonline.org/Pages/Securing-Sacred-Spaces.aspx2017-08-01T04:00:00ZSecuring Sacred Spaces
https://sm.asisonline.org/Pages/Javits-Embraces-High-Tech-Hospitality.aspx2017-08-01T04:00:00ZJavits Embraces High-Tech Hospitality
https://sm.asisonline.org/Pages/UN-MUSEO-DEL-MUNDO-Y-PARA-EL-MUNDO.aspx2017-06-03T04:00:00ZUN MUSEO DEL MUNDO Y PARA EL MUNDO
https://sm.asisonline.org/Pages/Communal-Protection.aspx2017-04-01T04:00:00ZCommunal Protection
https://sm.asisonline.org/Pages/Surveillance-is-Instrumental.aspx2017-02-01T05:00:00ZSurveillance is Instrumental
https://sm.asisonline.org/Pages/A-Museum-of-the-World-and-for-the-World.aspx2017-01-01T05:00:00ZA Museum of the World and for the World
https://sm.asisonline.org/Pages/Culture-in-Crisis.aspx2016-11-01T04:00:00ZCulture in Crisis
https://sm.asisonline.org/Pages/Soft-Target-Trends.aspx2016-09-01T04:00:00ZSoft Target Trends
https://sm.asisonline.org/Pages/A-New-Mandate-for-the-Modern-Library.aspx2016-07-01T04:00:00ZA New Mandate for the Modern Library
https://sm.asisonline.org/Pages/Book-Review---Religions-Institutions.aspx2016-06-01T04:00:00ZBook Review: Keeping Religious Institutions Secure
https://sm.asisonline.org/Pages/All-Secure-on-Set.aspx2016-06-01T04:00:00ZAll Secure on Set
https://sm.asisonline.org/Pages/Book-Review---Library-Security.aspx2016-06-01T04:00:00ZBook Review: Library Security
https://sm.asisonline.org/Pages/Protection-on-Display.aspx2016-05-01T04:00:00ZProtection on Display
https://sm.asisonline.org/Pages/Smithsonian-To-Host-Conference-on-Cultural-Property-Protection.aspx2016-04-26T04:00:00ZSmithsonian to Host Conference on Cultural Property Protection
https://sm.asisonline.org/Pages/IFCPP-Symposium-Focuses-on-Collaboration.aspx2015-11-04T05:00:00ZIFCPP Symposium Focuses on Collaboration
https://sm.asisonline.org/Pages/Artful-Engagement.aspx2015-07-06T04:00:00ZArtful Engagement
https://sm.asisonline.org/Pages/Dynamically-Securing-Cultural-Heritage.aspx2014-03-01T05:00:00ZDynamically Securing Cultural Heritage
https://sm.asisonline.org/Pages/cultural-property-security-protecting-museums-historic-sites-archives-and-libraries-0012870.aspx2013-11-01T04:00:00ZCultural Property Security: Protecting Museums, Historic Sites, Archives, and Libraries

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https://sm.asisonline.org/Pages/negligent-security-0012815.aspxCourt Case: Negligent Security<div class="body">  </div><p class="body">The family of a civilian contractor who was killed during the terrorist attack against the Marriot Islamabad hotel in 2008, filed a negligent security lawsuit claiming that Marriot failed to protect its guests and employees. A federal appeals court has dismissed the lawsuit on the grounds that the case must be brought in Pakistan, where the attack occurred.</p><div class="body"><ul><li><a href="/ASIS%20SM%20Documents/DiFederico_v_Marriott%20International.pdf">DiFederico_v_Marriott International.pdf</a></li></ul></div><p> </p> GP0|#28ae3eb9-d865-484b-ac9f-3dfacb4ce997;L0|#028ae3eb9-d865-484b-ac9f-3dfacb4ce997|Strategic Security;GTSet|#8accba12-4830-47cd-9299-2b34a4344465
https://sm.asisonline.org/Pages/Artful-Engagement.aspxArtful Engagement<p>​<span style="line-height:1.5em;">Pulling off Michigan Avenue, walking up the stairs between the two roaring bronze lions, and entering the marble interior of The Art Institute of Chicago can be an intimidating experience. This multi­building museum is home to American Gothic, Nighthawks, A Sunday on La Grand Jatte, the Thorn Miniatures, and thousands of other priceless masterpieces that attract 1.5 million visitors annually. And despite Ferris Bueller’s apparent ease navigating the institute during his infamous day off, the museum can overwhelm first-time visitors.</span></p><p>Yet in 2014, the institute was ranked the number one museum in the world by Trip Advisor. That puts it above household names such as the Louvre, the Uffizi, the Prado, the Guggenheim, and the Met. This ranking is due, in part, to the institute’s top-notch customer service, which is embraced by the security department, says Thomas Henkey, director of operations for the safety and security department. “Our department’s really taken the lead because we interact with the patrons so much in the galleries,” Henkey says. “We are the face of the museum. And we take that very, very seriously.”</p><p>Other than purchasing a ticket from museum personnel at the front desk, interactions with security officers are often the only contact visitors have with the institute’s staff while visiting. “Their impression of our facility and of this fantastic place is going to come through those officers,” Henkey explains. “So it’s important that they know what they’re doing.” </p><p>Over the past year, the institute has put together an extensive in-house training program that teaches frontline staff and security officers how to interact with customers so they have a positive experience at the institute the moment they step into the lobby. ​</p><h4>Baseline </h4><p>The security team is made up of 50 in-house officers and supervisors who work directly for the institute. Approximately 175 additional officers are contracted through Securitas and make up the institute’s daytime gallery staff and special events security. </p><p>“We spend a lot of time out there being visible in the galleries, interacting with other departments, advocating for the safety of the art, the safety of the visitors, and the safety of the staff—those are our real priorities,” Henkey explains.</p><p>Along with patrolling the galleries and keeping an eye on the art, security officers tend to receive a variety of questions. Where’s the nearest rest­room? What time does the café open? Where’s that painting with the people with the pitchfork?</p><p>Security officers could answer these questions, but they hadn’t necessarily received training on how to give directions to patrons in a way they could be most easily understood. Additionally, there could be confusion about how to engage a visitor who wasn’t adhering to a museum policy, without making them feel threatened or intimidated. For example, officers didn’t know how to approach a visitor wearing a backpack and ask him to either check it at the front desk or wear it on his front so it doesn’t strike the artwork, without causing offense or confusion about why this is a museum policy.</p><p>In 2014, the institute decided to remedy this issue by developing a customer service program. It sought inspiration through the models developed by other organizations. However, it didn’t find a method that reached the level the institute wanted. </p><p>Instead, it hired Chase Rogers to be its new manager of employee training and development. As Rogers puts it, he was hired to create a uniform “customer service, visitor engagement program, and training for all of our frontline staff.” </p><p>Rogers worked with senior leadership, held employee focus groups, and surveyed visitors to identify ways that each staff position—from the ticket desk to the café—could contribute to customer engagement and service.</p><p>“My big thing was to create a program…where if you have a badge, if you’re an employee at the art institute or represent the art institute, you know how to engage with our visitors,” Rogers says. “You know how to direct them to the correct places. You know how to really create that warm environment with them.”</p><p>Rogers used these findings to create a multiple phase training process that teaches customer engagement built around the institute’s core service values: engage, listen, and execute.</p><h4>Phases</h4><p>Training focuses on specific skills, such as navigating the facility. The most common questions visitors ask are where things are located within the multibuilding institute. For instance, people generally want to know where the nearest restroom is, so staff members are trained to know where the closest facility is and how to explain how to get there.</p><p>Staff are also trained to answer questions from patrons who don’t always accurately describe what they are looking for, such as when people ask to see the painting of the unhappy looking people. Employees are taught how to determine that the patron is asking to see American Gothic without making that person feel stupid for not knowing the proper name of the painting they are looking for.</p><p>“We have a lot of visitors and patrons who are new to the museum, and the last thing we want to do is make them feel like they don’t know what art is, or what the museum’s about,” Rogers explains. “So we want to make it a welcoming and warm environment for them…so our security officers are learning how to answer those questions.” </p><p>This also ties into training staff to identify visitors who look confused and to help them, something that’s especially important with international visitors who may not be fluent in English. To engage with these individuals, staff are taught how to explain how to get somewhere using very basic terminology and body language.</p><p>For people from a foreign country, “it can be hard to have that verbal communication, so another part of that is nonverbal communication, and [staff] are getting trained on the nonverbal communication styles and what to look for,” Rogers adds.</p><p>Each of these aspects of training is divided into three phases, such as Communicating with Difficult Visitors; Inclusive Practices, which focuses on diversity and interacting with patrons with special needs; and Coaching for Success, which trains management and frontline leaders to motivate their departments. </p><p>All of the phases are completed by employees annually and are taught in-house using lectures, group work with activities and scenario training, and videos. “We know that every single person has a different way of learning,” Rogers says. “Some just like lectures, some need to have physical interaction, some like visual. So our training has multiple pieces to it.”</p><p>However, Rogers says lectures aren’t always effective. For example,“someone is likely to not take the right info back” out into the workforce after listening to a lecture. This is why the institute relies heavily on hands-on learning where staff participate in role play specific to their environment.</p><p>For instance, a common issue for se­cu­rity officers is how to interact with a patron who wants to enter an area that’s reserved for members only. Through the training, security officers can walk through the scenario together and discuss different methods they’ve used to interact with a patron and how effective that engagement was.</p><p>Not only does this help train officers on how to engage visitors, but Rogers says it also builds team morale and gives officers a chance to learn from each other—something that doesn’t often happen when they’re spread out around the institute during their shifts.</p><p>Out of these discussions, officers can learn new tactics or discuss common problems—like handling the situation with a man wearing a backpack on his back. When it is explained to him that wearing his bag on his back could accidentally damage the artwork by brushing up against something, the visitor is likely to be much more receptive to complying with the museum policy, Roger adds. “When you can explain why we have this policy…it just makes it so much easier” to get individuals to comply with it without escalating the situation, he explains.</p><p>Along with lectures and group work, the institute is also looking to add e-learning as an alternative teaching method. As of press time the system had not been implemented, but Rogers says he’s hoping that e-learning can be used as an introduction and training refresher.</p><p>These e-learning tutorials would be geared towards new security officers and staff to give them a feel for the institute’s culture with a preview of things they’ll learn over the following few months about their job and the institute.</p><p>E-learning can also be valuable as refresher training because it would allow officers to watch videos at their desks or a localized computer in the institute on new training scenarios and as a knowledge check to test themselves on previous training.</p><p>The institute is currently using e-learning to train volunteers at the institute, and Rogers says he hopes to implement it for staff use later in the year.​</p><h4>Training</h4><p>Along with the phased training all staff members receive, departments have more-focused customer service training—called hip-pocket or refresher training—that’s targeted to their specific job function. </p><p>For security officers, this portion targets interacting with visitors. “If your one interaction is with that security officer for a couple of minutes on just how to get somewhere, we look at it as it could either elevate their experience…or decrease it,” Rogers says. </p><p>Because of this, the institute expects its security officers to greet visitors in various ways when they enter the institute. Officers stationed near the entrance to the institute are instructed to say “hello” and “welcome to the institute” when people step inside. </p><p>Those stationed elsewhere are encouraged to nod or smile at visitors so passersby feel acknowledged, without “be­ing over the top or annoying,” Rogers explains. “We don’t want our officers to just stand there and stand guard—that’s why we call them officers and not guards; we have a higher expectation for them.”</p><p>Officers are also trained on developing listening skills, which are especially important when dealing with difficult visitors and customers. “Usually when things escalate, it’s because someone isn’t listening well,” Rogers adds.</p><p>Officers are taught to listen to patrons and to answer their questions, if they can. If a visitor raises a question or concern that an officer can’t answer or help with, Rogers says the officer is encouraged to call his supervisor or manager to handle the situation.</p><p>And the security department is on board, embracing the training as a necessary skill for its officers alongside operational security training. “We are very adamant that our security officers be able to do both,” Henkey says. “Sometimes those two may sound contradictory, but if we implement them correctly we can become the best program in the country.”</p><p>The security department has adopted the customer service training into a two-track approach, so officers are prepared to handle security threats while also being personable. </p><p>“We want to be extremely friendly, but extremely aware of our surroundings and able to escalate [our activities] very quickly—not only to additional security resources, but also to law enforcement if necessary,” Henkey adds.</p><p>This approach is also beneficial for the institute because it helps deter individuals who might be tempted to damage the collection. The more officers engage with patrons, the lower the opportunity for misdeeds.  “You’ll find that most people who are going to do harm to something, especially at our institute, they don’t want to be seen; they don’t want to be noticed,” Rogers explains. </p><p>All of this has led to a change in the way the institute thinks about hiring security officers—from looking for individuals with a military or security background to those who have a customer service mindset. This is “because we see that we can train the security part, but that customer service part is so key that it’s innate in a person,” Rogers says. ​</p><h4>Implementation</h4><p>Key to implementing the customer service training is its continuous cycle. After staff members complete the training, they will be coached on it. “You’re going to have conversations weekly or monthly on pieces of the training and then we will keep evaluating,” Rogers adds.</p><p>So far, the institute has conducted evaluations in the form of employee surveys—or action-planning reports—after completing each phase of training. The action-planning reports comprise evaluations by staff members, answering questions such as: What is the best thing you learned? What are some challenges or opportunities with implementing this training?</p><p>These questions cause staff to think about the training and allow their managers—called coaches—to take that information and use it as a starting point for improvement. For instance, one of the biggest challenges the evaluations have identified for the security department—and the institute as a whole—is the need for better listening skills. This feedback is being taken into account for developing training modules down the road to give staff the tools to develop these skills, Rogers says.</p><p>“We want our security officers to feel empowered, to be ab​le to feel like they know what they’re talking about and to really know and feel confident that if somebody comes to them with a question…they know how to handle that,” he explains.</p><p>And since the training was rolled out in February, managers are already seeing results. In his evaluation, one officer reported that he had worked at other cultural institutions for more than eight years and never had this level of customer service training before. Others told Rogers that they “feel more empowered” as they “understand how they should be interacting with our guests,” he adds.​</p><h4>Future Goals</h4><p>Moving forward, Rogers says the institute plans to offer even more detailed training on specific scenarios that staff might encounter. </p><p>Rogers is working with the security team to identify more of the common issues they deal with on a regular basis. One already-identified issue is being more inclusive when engaging with individuals who are different, from nonnative English speakers to individuals with disabilities. “We do really well with people that understand the museum,” Rogers says, but more can continue to be done for those who are not familiar with the institute and are different from the common group of visitors. </p><p>The institute is also looking at how it can create specific scenarios for its managers to coach to and develop more coaching tools for them. The institute “wants our coaches to be able to help their employees” and wants to “give them the tools and the tactics to help them be able to coach—to know what to expect,” Rogers says.</p><p>Ideally, it would like to do this by training managers to use positive reinforcement with their employees so they can identify what they’re doing well and what still needs improvement. “We just really want to empower our managers,” Rogers adds. “We expect our security officers to be empowered, and we want them to feel empowered that their managers have their back.”</p><p>Additionally, throughout this process, Rogers says the institute found that officers should know more about the collection. It plans to create more training and presentations about the art itself to inform officers why the pieces are so important.</p><p>The institute’s Rhine Education Center, which houses a group of docents and curators that handle school tours and exhibits, will play a major role in this process. Security officers are already being encouraged to listen in on the tours conducted daily in the galleries while they’re on duty. The center will also assist in putting together a presentation about the collection that will become part of the orientation process for all new security officers. </p><p>“So [officers] will be able to know this is why this painting is so important; not only where the painting is, but this is why it is so key,” Rogers explains. He’s also optimistic that this process will help officers learn about pieces in the collection that they might personally like, so they can better answer patrons’ questions when they ask: What should I see?</p><p>The security officers are “employees  here, and so we want them to be able to say what’s inspiring to them,” he adds. “Because if they can talk about that and they’re engaged with it, how much more are they going to be able to engage with others?”</p>GP0|#cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8;L0|#0cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8|Physical Security;GTSet|#8accba12-4830-47cd-9299-2b34a4344465
https://sm.asisonline.org/Pages/Museum-Quality-Protection.aspxMuseum Quality Protection<p>​</p><p>MUSEUMS AND CULTURAL institutions are many-faceted jewels in the crown of human civilization. They care for and make available to the public priceless art, irreplaceable historical objects, and treasures of stunning worth. Modern museums and cultural properties also act as educational centers and host public events such as dinners, weddings, concerts, fundraisers, and conferences. All of that means that today’s museum security department has a lot to protect; some also operate in a recession-hit world of “do more with less.” They are meeting the challenge with hybrid security forces and strong training programs.</p><p>Hybrid Forces<br>Many museums and cultural properties have seen a drop in revenue, memberships, and donations resulting in hard budget choices.</p><p>“They have to reduce their…recurring expenses, and at most properties, security has one of the largest work forces. When reductions hit, that is where they take place,” says Stevan P. Layne, CPP, president and foundation director of the Denver, Colorado-based International Foundation for Cultural Property Protection (IFCPP), a membership organization for protection professionals at cultural, educational, and public institutions.</p><p>FOR PROPERTIES WITH A wholly proprietary staff, the end result of cost cuts is permanent layoffs of fulltime personnel. This leads to the loss of valuable institutional memory, and it essentially throws away the return on the investment that the museum made in each of those security officers when it spent money hiring and training them. Layne says that according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, the price of hiring and training one entry-level employee is $5,000 to $7,000.</p><p>Properties that use a contract or hybrid force, however, can more easily reduce the size of their security work force without these costs. “When you deal with a contract service, you reduce those charges significantly. You pay a higher hourly rate, but the total cost to the employer is less,” he says. </p><p>However, there is still a strong feeling at most museums and cultural properties that proprietary is better than contract. This favoritism results, Layne thinks, from the importance and value of the collections being protected. “It’s the trust factor—they feel better with permanent employees whom they know and whom they feel are part of the family.” Those individuals are perceived to take ownership of the property and defend it, he states.</p><p>Some properties are trying to find a middle ground. They have decided to keep their proprietary officers guarding the collections while using a contract force for special events. This approach is being adopted even by institutions that have not tightened their belts due to the recession, because having some contract options also makes it easier to temporarily scale up the staff for certain events or as the facility expands.</p><p>This is the case at the Art Institute of Chicago, located in the city’s Grant Park. Drawing about 1.4 million annual visitors, the institute has not cut back on its guard force during the past decade—in fact, it has expanded it. The opening of the new Modern Wing in 2009 made the Institute the second largest U.S. art museum.</p><p>Michelle Lehrman, vice president of protection services there, states that before the opening of the Modern Wing, the institute used mostly proprietary officers and a small number of contract ones. With the construction of the new addition, “We took the opportunity to…reconfigure the entire work force. There were several factors—cost being one, obviously—but also the flexibility of the contract staff in numbers. At that time, we were going to have so many new people, there was also a recruitment need,” she states.</p><p>Although Lehrman does not wish to give more specifics on their breakdown, she says the force is now composed of both contract and proprietary officers totaling more than 200.</p><p>Contractor selection. Museums and cultural properties say that they have to set high standards for their contractors, given the interactions they will have with patrons and others. Some institutions, for example, garner considerable media attention when they hold special events with celebrities and other VIP attendees. The officers on duty must reflect a high degree of professionalism.</p><p>Layne says the institution should “start with a detailed specification with stringent requirements upon the contractor as far as personnel screening procedures and the physical and educational experience qualifications.”</p><p>Physical abilities must be among the qualifications. Guards must be able to remain standing for extended periods. Officers must also be able to assist in evacuations that include the handicapped, elderly, and small children.</p><p>Communication skills are another important aspect of the job. Guards must be able to converse in English well enough to be understood by the public during these emergency situations as well as to understand spoken or written directions and information such as their post orders and the policies of their employer.</p><p>The institution should complete due diligence on each contract provider before it is invited to bid if the bids are by invitation. If the bid is public, the due diligence should be done during the decision-making process. The IFCPP recommends that museums require that possible vendors visit the site and discuss the particular property, the guard posts that would be required, and the kinds of special events held. The hiring museum should hold direct interviews with the management of the vendor companies to determine if their management style is compatible with the needs of the institution.</p><p>At the Art Institute of Chicago, Lehrman says that the vendor-selection process led back to the company with which it already had a strong relationship—Securitas USA.</p><p>Securitas contract officers who work at the Institute must meet “specific requirements for our site. We also interview all the candidates before they come on board. Even after they go through all the steps at Securitas, we still have the final say,” states Lehrman.</p><p>The officers’ ability to handle whatever Chicago throws at the Institute is an important aspect of whether they will be approved. “We are a million-square-foot facility in the middle of downtown Chicago, and we’re an encyclopedic museum,” she says. “So the officers are going to have to learn the collection and the layout, and they will also have to deal with every nationality—all of our worldwide visitors and local visitors,” she explains, adding, “Then there are all of the random elements that the city brings—the festivals, and traffic, and other outside things, so it’s ever changing. For example, we just had the NATO Summit. There was [a related] event here, and there were protesters.”</p><p>Training<br>After the selected officers get the basic training with Securitas, they receive museum-specific training on-site. Lehrman says that some new guards have never been to the Institute and know nothing about art. “We start with a museum orientation and an art orientation, then proceed to museum-specific rules and why we have them,” she explains. The officers also receive training from the conservation and curatorial departments.</p><p>The Institute conducts refresher training for both contract and proprietary officers “constantly,” says Lehrman. The day begins for the officers with a roll call, at which some training is often included. There is also annual training on various topics on a seasonal basis. For instance, guards get pickpocket awareness training in November and May—when the property traditionally sees an uptick in these crimes. </p><p>For the past five years, all of the Institute’s security managers and proprietary security officers have gone through IFCPP training. The managers also receive IFCPP certification.</p><p>The IFCPP was founded 14 years ago, explains Layne, as “an educational resource for those people in every level [of museum security] from security officer to top manager. Back then, there was no standardization for training officers, supervisors, and administrators protecting cultural properties.” Today, the IFCPP develops and administers training courses for all levels. It also administers the Certified Institutional Protection Specialist, Certified Institutional Protection Manager, and Certified Institutional Protection Technician designations.</p><p>Officers. The IFCPP training program that the Art Institute requires its officers to attend includes a section on customer service. “We recognize that there is a direct relationship between good customer service and security,” says Layne. One example of this is the security officer as greeter. He notes that Walmart has removed all of its store greeters in an effort to cut costs—a move that Layne predicts will actually cost the retailer more in increased thefts.</p><p>“We always used to hold them up as an example of what you want at your front door—a smiling guy checking out who is coming in. People who want to commit thefts or vandalize want to be anonymous. The entry greeting takes away the anonymity,” he states. And when coupled with officers who say hello to visitors as they move throughout the property, “It gives them the feeling they are being watched and takes away what they perceive as their opportunity to steal or vandalize.”</p><p>Discretion is also important. Officers must learn to conduct all their duties with a quiet demeanor that does not disrupt visitors’ enjoyment of the collections. For example, one of the regular problems in museums is that people get too close to paintings, sculpture, artifacts, or other items. The guards learn how to approach someone, and without seeming angry or aggressive, get them to move back. In fact, it can be an opportunity to act as a friendly educator.</p><p>“It’s a dual role. Yes, we want folks to comply with the policies and procedures, but we really focus on how those are presented to people because we…want them to enjoy the visit and want them to return,” says the Art Institute’s Lehrman. “We don’t just tell people ‘Don’t touch the art.’ We give them the why behind it.”</p><p>The officers learn how to patrol valuable collections, which includes scrutinizing the objects so that they will notice if damage has been done or if any item, such as a tiny object, isn’t where it should be. They are also trained to keep an eye on the visitors—including small children, the handicapped, and other vulnerable individuals—both to render assistance and to make sure they don’t accidently or intentionally harm anything.</p><p>Another area of training is how to conduct package inspections and metal detection, if they are used at the property. Layne says that the trend is for more detailed inspections as well as inspections for all exiting employees.</p><p>The course also teaches basic first-aid techniques, such as how to assist someone who has fallen or is having a seizure; CPR; and for at least a select portion of the officers, training in the use of an automated external defibrillator.</p><p>MOAB. A key section of the course is on dealing with upset and aggressive people. Layne says that the reality of the situation is that security officers suffer a greater risk of assault than the average worker. “There is a significant amount of risk, particularly if they have no training in how to respond,” he states. </p><p>“As part of the basic officer training,” explains Layne, “IFCPP includes a minimal amount of self-defense.” It does not go beyond that because employers are reluctant to have their officers given any type of hands-on training that might lead to some physical interactions that would expose the museum to lawsuits.</p><p>But, as Layne explains, the employer can also be held liable “if a hands-on incident happens and the guard had no training and failed to act or if someone was injured.” So officers learn at least what they would need to know to be able to escape or to deescalate a situation.</p><p>IFCPP is currently introducing a half-day workshop on the Management of Aggressive Behavior (MOAB)model. Layne says that MOAB teaches officers not to use hands-on management of aggressive persons unless it is an absolute last resort. It focuses instead on how officers can calm down angry people, defuse aggressive behaviors, and avoid violence by verbal and nonverbal communication. It also includes personal defense skills for use if no other option remains.</p><p>Layne gives an example of the kind of deescalation tactics MOAB teaches. “At many cultural properties, part of the way they finance operations is renting out halls. When alcohol is served, people can get out of hand.” The standard advice that officers are given is that they should call the police. “But what do you do until they get there? [MOAB] tells the officer to take a customer-friendly approach: enlist the aid of others responsible—friends, sponsors, chaperones—and have them try to settle things down,” explains Layne.</p><p>The Art Institute’s Lehrman says the daily roll call refresher training segments can be used to reinforce the aggressive-behavior-management training. “We do role-playing scenarios and when the officers encounter something or when we’ve had an incident, we also use those situations as examples in training for everyone,” he says.</p><p>Supervisors. The IFCPP’s supervisory-level training also includes training in how to manage aggressive behavior, because they have found that most supervisors have never received that type of instruction. “Just because they were in law enforcement or the military doesn’t mean they automatically know how the employer wants situations to be deescalated,” says Layne.</p><p>There is also the same classroom roleplaying of a variety of possible scenarios used in the officer’s training to manage aggressive or otherwise impaired people. Layne gives one example from the roleplaying training where one trainee portrays a drunk person trying to enter a museum, and the supervisor must intervene. Then the scenario is changed to the person entering having Alzheimer’s. Layne says that participants find the experience more powerful “than a book or a slide or a lecture.”</p><p>Supervisors also receive training on how to supervise and how to conduct on-the-job training of incoming officers. The curriculum includes site-specific on-the-job training for the supervisors concerning the collections, special events, and other operational areas.</p><p>Executives. The executive-level course covers the hiring, preemployment screening, and training processes, as well as how to handle terminations. Museum security executives also learn about the technology used to secure a cultural institution, including access controls, alarms, fire protection, video surveillance, and other security that directly protects exhibited items. They also learn how to select vendors for all of these technology categories.</p><p>“They have to have an in-depth knowledge of the technology because the cost of these systems is astronomical,” states Layne. He adds that the course also provides information about resources available to these professionals outside of the classroom.</p><p>Executive-level training includes a fair amount of role-playing. This is because the executives need to understand the kind of situations that officers and supervisors encounter so that they will understand why such training is necessary, says Layne.</p><p>The protection of cultural properties requires a guard force—proprietary, contract, or hybrid—that has a high level of specialized training. And that training will pay off in multiple ways. Lehrman says of the training her officers receive, “It gives them a sense of accomplishment and professionalism.”</p><p>Ann Longmore-Etheridge is an associate editor of Security Management and editor of ASIS Dynamics.<br></p>GP0|#3795b40d-c591-4b06-959c-9e277b38585e;L0|#03795b40d-c591-4b06-959c-9e277b38585e|Security by Industry;GTSet|#8accba12-4830-47cd-9299-2b34a4344465