Museums and Cultural Properties ProtectionGP0|#21788f65-8908-49e8-9957-45375db8bd4f;L0|#021788f65-8908-49e8-9957-45375db8bd4f|National Security;GTSet|#8accba12-4830-47cd-9299-2b34a43444652017-04-01T04:00:00Z, Mark Tarallo<p>​Domestic terror attack targets are usually not chosen at random, and some populations are targeted more than others. Of all religious groups, Jews continue to be the most targeted in the United States, according to the findings of a new report.   </p><p>The report, Terrorist Incidents and Attacks Against Jews and Israelis in the United States, 1969-2016, examines the FBI’s annual hate crimes report for the years under study. For example, in 2015, 1,354 hate crimes were recorded in the report. Of those, 695 incidents, or 51 percent, targeted Jews. “This is a consistent finding of the FBI report over many years,” writes the report’s author, counterterrorism expert Yehudit Barsky.</p><p>Going deeper, the report catalogs 104 incidents in 2015 to better characterize the attacks. The majority, 51 percent, targeted synagogues, followed by community institutions (14 percent), Jewish persons (13 percent), and educational institutions (10 percent). In terms of means of attack, arson, shootings, and explosive devices were used in about equal frequency. </p><p>Year-over-year, the total number of attacks has been declining, but they have been increasing in severity. “Recent incidents have been increasingly lethal and have…claimed many more victims,” Barsky writes. </p><p>And the threat has been revived several times in the last few years. In October 2015, the Islamic State (ISIS) militant group directed its followers worldwide to kill Jews. ISIS’ Al-Masra Foundation issued a video, The Slaughter of the Jews, which called for followers to “Stab the Jew with a knife or run over him with a car; poison him; bring back explosives, the [use of] explosive belts and IEDs; burn their faces and their houses.”</p><p>Then in 2016, ISIS published an article in its Al-Naba publication that called for followers to help Palestinian Muslims by fighting Jews around the world: “killing them, destroying their property, and harming their interests in any way they can.”</p><p>The report also includes some lessons learned and related recommendations for future security. Jewish targets sometimes serve as precursors to larger attacks. The perpetrators of the 1993 World Trade Center bombing, for example, were previously involved in anti-Jewish attacks. </p><p>And in many of the incidents, the attackers conducted preoperational surveillance. For example, in 2014, neo-Nazi Frazier Glenn Miller carried out preoperational surveillance at two Jewish organizations that he later attacked. </p><p>“This phase of a typical attack cycle is the most likely point for detection, and thus recognizing it can avert or minimize an impending attack,” Barsky writes. “Training and engagement of community members is thus essential.” </p><p>While the U.S. Department of Homeland Security announced that it would step up efforts to support Jewish communities, others are working at the grassroots. </p><p>For example, the concept of the training and engagement of community members is at the heart of operations at Community Security Service (CSS), the nonprofit group that sponsored the report and whose mission is the protection of the people, institutions, and events of the American Jewish community. CSS started in 2007 with a small group of volunteers. It now has more than 3,500. </p><p>“The differentiator is—it is an entirely volunteer organization,” says Don Aviv, CPP, PCI, PSP, who is COO and director of physical security at Interfor International and a founding member of CSS. Aviv is also vice chairman of the ASIS Inter­national Security Services Council.</p><p>CSS serves as a security partner for various Jewish institutions and events, ranging from the National Menorah lighting in Washington, D.C., to an annual sit-down dinner of roughly 6,000 rabbis held in conjunction with a religious conference in Brooklyn. CSS also helps protect smaller events such as weekly services and Shabbat dinners across the country, according to Jason Friedman, the executive director of CSS, who is also an attorney and U.S. Navy officer.</p><p>The founding philosophy of CSS is that security should be rooted within the community. “The idea was, no one can protect your community better than yourself,” Aviv says. And so volunteers from the community are trained in the basics of security, including practices such as recognizing threats and devising a system to report threats or other incidents.</p><p>The training includes aspects like scenario-based exercises and helping volunteers maintain a higher level of security awareness by checking their surroundings daily. An important component is helping volunteers develop a level of comfort with being part of the security effort. “It comes down to motivating the individual member to be a part of their community” in an “empowering and enfranchising” way, Aviv says. </p><p>Community members are treated as partners in security to be worked with, not as people to be ordered around by those leading the security effort. “We don’t enter into a community without being invited. We’re not forcing our way in,” Aviv explains. </p><p>The other key aspect of CSS’s model is that security is achieved through a partnership among community members and volunteers, contract security, and law enforcement. This is accomplished through training and by building up a framework of interaction for all stakeholders.</p><p>For example, community members are advised that, if they decide to use contract security, they should not just hire security officers and then walk away and expect them to take care of everything: “You’re putting too many expectations on their shoulders,” Friedman says. Instead, by working with them, the community will receive a better return on its investment. </p><p>Similarly, volunteers embedded in the community will communicate with law enforcement officers, so that the officers know the community’s concerns and issues and do not have to “parachute in” blindly. “We’re a force multiplier for federal and local law enforcement,” Aviv says.  </p><p>While CSS is dedicated to protecting the Jewish community, its cooperative community-based model of security is replicable for use by other populations as well, Aviv says. “At the end of the day, the threats facing us are similar to those facing other groups,” he says. ​</p>

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However, there was one problem: The giant, industrial-sized generators FEMA was delivering were intended to power community centers, firehouses, and shelters—not individual houses. </p><p>“We saw those conversations and wanted to help set expectations,” explains Shayne Adamski, senior manager of digital engagement with FEMA. “We wanted folks to know how we were being helpful, so we posted a photo of one of the generators and commented about how it would be used in an impacted area. Once folks saw that, they realized they weren’t individual generators that a person could go pick up at Home Depot and have running in their backyard.”</p><p>Adamski cites this example as a way FEMA leverages social media during a disaster. Indeed, people are increasingly turning to social media during emergency events to gather immediate information, and checking social media websites is becoming an alternative when traditional forms of communication have been less effective. Most of the messages transmitted through social media are from nontraditional media sources, such as FEMA. However, the medium has allowed traditional news agencies to leverage public experiences—every smart-device user in the world has the potential to be an information broadcaster.</p><p>Social media has completely changed the way people engage with one another and, more importantly, how businesses connect with potential clients and customers. Social media has become the one common denominator that the world’s wired citizens understand and use on a daily basis. The preferred online applications may change from country to country, but ability to reach mass numbers of people quickly has been accomplished through social media.       </p><p>The ASIS International Crisis Management and Business Continuity Council conducted a survey on how social media is being used in emergency management. The resulting study, Social Media Is Transforming Crisis Management, concludes that many security professionals around the world are using some aspect of social media for emergency notification, keeping stakeholders engaged, and making critical documents more accessible.</p><p>The study confirms that social media is establishing its place in emergency operations planning and execution. However, emergency operations professionals require additional training to learn how to best create alert messaging; 52 percent of respondents have not used social media for an emergency event and 25 percent have never used social media at all.</p><p>Security professionals realize that additional learning will be required to fully embrace and exploit social media in crisis management situations. More than 75 percent of those surveyed agreed that more knowledge is required to expand social media to a wider audience in emergency operations. </p><p>However, many survey participants said they were reluctant to embrace social media. Several respondents expressed the need to preserve the old ways of doing things to ensure that the widest possible audience, including those people with no access to social media or newer technology, receives critical crisis management information. </p><p>Many federal agencies, such as FEMA, have been developing comprehensive social media strategies to communicate with citizens in emergencies. The U.S. Department of Homeland Security’s (DHS) Science and Technology Directorate has established working groups to provide guidance and best practices to emergency preparedness and the response community. </p><p>However, even with the millions of people who are flocking to social media sites, the government has yet to establish an emergency management platform, and security professionals are struggling to fully embrace social media as well, according to the ASIS study. </p><p>Below are six steps for companies to consider when using social media during a disaster. FEMA’s Adamski notes that security professionals should keep in mind that although social media is not a comprehensive solution—not everyone is on the same channels—taking advantage of multiple outlets helps get information out to a wider audience.​</p><h4>Technology </h4><p>Social media is being used in one of two ways during emergencies: to disseminate information and receive feedback, and as a systematic tool to conduct emergency communications. Although security managers may be reluctant to rely on social media for emergency communication, social media use during disasters is gaining traction.</p><p>However, some hesitancy is prudent because it is taking some communities decades to navigate new technology platforms—adopting Twitter as a communications device, for example. Managers should be mindful of their responsibility for employees during an emergency and ensure that advances in technology are included in procedures and processes. During an emergency in which social media is used to provide announcements and updates, there is an opportunity to include a wider audience than that reached by a simple public address system, but this requires planning.</p><p> For example, if smart devices are expected to act as one of the methods to facilitate a conduit between the company and employees, the details must be established and tested in advance. If specific phone numbers, media accounts, or Web pages are used to send out announcements, it is important that the contact details are identified and the people sending out the messages understand exactly what must be done.</p><p>Adamski explains that security managers should consider their audiences when deciding what platforms to communicate with. To reach employees, for example, a public social media channel may not be the best option. “Look at what tools or channels their customers are on,” Adamski says. “Not everybody is necessarily on one social media channel. If you’re trying to get on every single social media channel, you’re stretched too thin, and your core audience may not even be on that channel.”</p><p>Collaborative techniques are required, and building partnerships between emergency management professionals and individuals involved in the response will require new alliances to be successful. It is desirable to include local and regional governmental resources, nearby companies that may share the risk of an emergency, any organizations involved in a mutual agreement of understanding to provide resources during an emergency, any contractor or vendor relationships, and all of the various internal elements within the company. All of this must take place well before an emergency so that trust is developed and agreements are established among the stakeholders. Within the company, it may be necessary to break out of the silo environment and work collaboratively to establish plans and processes designed to facilitate a stronger response to an emergency.​</p><h4>Devising Strategy</h4><p>Emergency operations professionals may require additional training to learn how to best create alert messages and ensure that communication lines are established with citizens before, during, and after the crisis. A good starting point for developing a social media emergency response strategy is to adhere to the traditional four phases of emergency management: prevention and mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery. </p><p>Although FEMA has a dedicated staff for crisis communication, Adamski says that businesses can often train an existing staff member to wear multiple hats and manage social media communications, even if it’s something they only work on for 10 percent of their time. </p><p>“Maybe that staff member does a lot of training before disasters, so that person can conduct their day-to-day responsibilities, and wear the emergency hat if necessary,” Adamski explains. “You’ve got to look at the internal organization and operation and skillset and where things can be moved around, and find out what’s best for that individual organization. Sometimes you’d be surprised how you can come up with good, creative solutions.”</p><p>Adamski also stresses the importance of training multiple people to use social media during a crisis, so that there are backup personnel who can be put on shifts during ongoing emergencies.</p><p>Emergency managers will need to create social media platforms they intend to use, and then popularize those sites so the public knows to turn to them in times of crisis. “Practice on those channels and use them before an emergency, so the first time you’re using them is not during an emergency,” Adamski advises.</p><h4>Managing Expectations</h4><p>Adamski refers to the 2012 derecho situation as a time when managing expectations became as important as standard crisis communications. A challenge FEMA often faces is educating people on its role during a disaster, and the organization turns to social media in an emergency to explain to affected communities how it’s helping, Adamski notes.</p><p>Focusing on one unified message will help maintain the ability to manage information. While crisis managers cannot control individual citizens’ input, the messages being relayed from authoritative sources must be consistent, reliable, and trustworthy. Multiple resources are needed to combine data streams that will ultimately improve data management. Creating in-depth feedback protocols will be necessary to understand developments and concerns from residents actively being affected by the crisis.      </p><p>Ron Robbins, who manages FEMA’s National Business Emergency Operations Center (NBEOC), says that another key to maintaining a unified message is engaging with other businesses and agencies that might be affected by the same emergency. Members of the NBEOC, for example, sign agreements to share information when they are faced with situations where the private sector may have operations that could be affected.</p><p>“You have to practice what mechanism you’re going to use and who your touch points are going to be,” Robbins explains. “There’s a lot of different angles you can work at this, and it’s paramount for everybody to understand who and what is needed to communicate, and to practice that.” </p><p>For example, when the NBEOC is activated, Robbins says FEMA starts reaching out to its partners, sharing situational awareness and information to organizations that may not have robust operations center capabilities. </p><p>“We try to be forward-leaning about what’s happening to keep our partners aware so that they can communicate with their employees and make decisions at their levels for what they’re going to do to initiate plans on their end,” Robbins explains.​</p><h4>Engaging the Community</h4><p>It is becoming increasingly common for people to connect with public officials by asking questions or posting information online when an event occurs, and for expecting emergency operation agencies to be just as responsive by replying to feedback or answering a question. </p><p>The ASIS study found that 55 percent of police departments surveyed actively use social media in performance of their duties, and it’s no longer uncommon to see law enforcement officers taking tips and answering questions on their Facebook or Twitter pages. </p><p>Adamski says that he engages in what he calls social listening, which he compares to attending a town hall meeting: he takes a passive role and listens to conversations and concerns from the public, but can also answer questions or point someone in the right direction for accurate information.</p><p>Positive, regular interaction with the public via social media will also encourage people to trust and rely on that organization’s social media presence during a crisis. Adamski says that regardless of what people may ask on FEMA’s social media sites, it’s important that they see someone responding to their questions.</p><p>“Sometimes, we’ll have someone posting on our wall saying, ‘hey, this is what I did this weekend to get myself and my family prepared,’ and we’ll reply back to that person thanking them for sharing,” Adamski says. “It’s so they know they’re not just sharing their information to a hollow account that isn’t monitored.”​</p><h4>Managing Misinformation</h4><p>One of the toughest dilemmas society has is balancing the huge amounts of data available with the trustworthiness of that data. Multiple resources are needed to combine data streams that will ultimately improve data management. </p><p>Rumor control is a regular part of crisis management on social media, Adamski notes. “If we see a rumor, we’ll coordinate with folks at a joint field office that’s open and say, ‘Hey, we saw this online, is it true, is it not, is there some validity to it? Is it a complete blatant rumor or did someone get a part of it wrong?’”</p><p>Whether bad actors are maliciously spreading invalid information or a simple misunderstanding has spiraled out of control, FEMA’s goal is to run the rumor into the ground and make sure only accurate facts are being shared, especially considering how quickly information can travel across the Internet. During bigger emergencies, FEMA may create a subpage on its official website that people on social media can refer to and share. </p><p>During the Texas floods in May and June, FEMA created a subpage dedicated to the disaster to provide accurate, consistent information, Adamski says. It helped regional FEMA employees disseminate up-to-date information right away. For example, right after the worst of the flooding occurred, reports surfaced that people impersonating FEMA employees were trying to collect citizens’ personal information. The subpage helps people know how FEMA is interacting with the community and what steps to take next.</p><p>“We coordinate internally, we make sure we’re all on the same page, and we make sure we put the right information out there,” Adamski says. “Depending on the rumor, we may ask our partners to share the information—one message, multiple channels.” ​</p><h4>Challenges</h4><p>The ASIS study pinpointed three barriers that security professionals encounter when trying to develop a social media presence. These are a lack of personnel or time to work on social media, a lack of policies and guidelines, and concerns about trustworthiness of collected data. </p><p>“Look around and find out what companies are around you that are doing great things in communities and states,” says Robbins. “There’s a lot of activity, a lot of things going on that maybe companies aren’t aware of, that could be available bandwidth for them to piggyback on and could help get at some of those challenges that they are having in an expeditious manner.” He also recommends that private sector organizations apply to become members of FEMA’s NBEOC to take advantage of organization-to-organization emergency communications that can then be passed on to the public.</p><p>Social media is having a positive impact on emergency managers, but a clear reluctance exists to accept social media protocols wholesale. This technology is dependent on professional security managers and leaders who have the technical know-how to enhance operations internally, externally, and with key stakeholders. </p><p>Purposeful education programs are necessary if social media is going to be used wholesale in emergency management. The key to success is to ensure that those involved in presenting the information are experienced and knowledgeable. For example, the ASIS International Crisis Management and Business Continuity Council conducts an annual workshop on crisis management plan and program development. The council integrates social media techniques into the crisis communication phase of the workshop to help participants master the conceptual skills associated with this emerging technology.</p><p>The emergency operations industry should have a responsibility to create new methodologies, applications, and data strategies that will enhance overall contingency operations. Social media is making a positive difference in emergency operations, but has far to go before being completely transformed into common practice as a tool for emergency managers.</p><p>--<br></p><p><em><strong>James J. Leflar, Jr., CPP</strong>, CBCP (Certified Business Continuity Professional), MBCI (Member of the Business Continuity Institute), is a consultant for Zantech IT Services. Leflar is a former chair of the ASIS International Crisis Management and Business Continuity Council. He is also coauthor of Organizational Resilience: Managing the Risks of Disruptive Events—A Practitioner’s Guide. </em></p>GP0|#28ae3eb9-d865-484b-ac9f-3dfacb4ce997;L0|#028ae3eb9-d865-484b-ac9f-3dfacb4ce997|Strategic Security;GTSet|#8accba12-4830-47cd-9299-2b34a4344465 to Build a Better Security Space<p>​Like many campus law enforcement agencies, the University of North Carolina at Greensboro (UNCG) Police Department spent years relegated to locations that were not conducive to providing quality service.</p><p>The department was housed in four separate locations that were formerly a bank, a dentist’s office, a cannery, and a warehouse that had served as a hardware distribution facility. For the 36 sworn police officers and 28 nonsworn staff, being spread across multiple locations made daily communications and operations burdensome.</p><p>The need for a new, unified facility had been apparent for years, but it always seemed to be “next on the list.” A convergence of events, however, moved the need to the top of the list in 2011 as the university began an expansion into an area previously thought to be inaccessible because it was on the other side of a large rail corridor to the south of campus.</p><p>The expansion included a pedestrian underpass connecting the two sides of campus and a student recreation center that would require the demolition of the old cannery building, one of the department’s four sites.</p><p>University administration believed that a new police facility on the south side of campus, next to the new underpass, would be a visual assurance of safety. Additionally, the old dentist’s office had originally been purchased as a transition space for departments whose facilities were under renovation. Having the police department in that transitional space was adversely affecting other campus projects.</p><p>Finally, the need became most apparent when conducting critical incident response exercises. No space on campus satisfied the needs of the university during times of crisis. Several exercises, including active shooter, tornado strike, and hazardous material spills, resulted in the same after-action item: the university needed a space designed for critical incident response.</p><p>Selecting an architect was the most critical part of the new facility planning. During the interview process for designers, the university looked to a firm with experience in designing public safety facilities. </p><p>The university spoke with a variety of clients about ADW Architects of Charlotte, North Carolina, including state construction officials. What impressed the university most was the reputation the firm had for spending time with the employees who would work in the new facility, and mapping out their daily operations. </p><p>While other firms interviewed provided presentations, only ADW spoke from experience about needs assessments of public safety agencies.​</p><h4>Programming</h4><p>The first step in the design process was programming—the process of determining space needs for each individual function in the organization and how to use that space most effectively. The process helped determine how much space the UNCG Police Department needed to conduct its business most effectively. </p><p>To begin programming, a design team was created. Representatives from the police department, the designer, purchasing, the agency construction and design staff, and a university technology team served as the core decision makers in the design process.</p><p>Members of the design team spent many hours with various members of the department. They followed officers on assignments and observed the arrest process. They sat with communications personnel to note how dispatchers interacted with the public, the officers, and each other. They shadowed detectives as they interviewed suspects and conducted case follow-up. And they tracked evidence through collection, initial storage, processing, and final storage.</p><p>The programming process provided the first opportunity for input by the department on design. A detailed report on each room included the square footage, number of outlets, necessary data and phone ports, lighting, and probable furnishings. </p><p>It was critical at this stage to involve those employees who would be occupying or controlling specific areas because decisions made early on would influence actions during construction. </p><p>For instance, the type and placement of furniture in a conference room might determine the location of floor boxes for electric and data outlets. An office would need a carpet, while a canine kennel would need a nonslip, epoxy floor. Based on input, the individual programming reports were adjusted to reflect final room and space configurations.</p><p>Another important part of programming included visiting recently constructed facilities that served a similar function. One of the main advantages of this process was to discover what the agency would have done differently. An evaluation of the positive aspects of their design is important, but the list of “I wish we had…” items helps designers avoid mistakes.</p><p>Additionally, visiting recently constructed facilities allowed for an evaluation of the most current technology. During a visit to the police department in Apex, North Carolina, the design team observed an interview room recording system activated by the use of a key. The team had already discussed the concept of using card access throughout the new UNCG Police facility. Discussions with the Apex department’s vendor revealed that they were introducing a card-activated system that could integrate UNCG’s card access technology.</p><p>The result of the programming process was a list of spaces that were needed to perform daily operations along with the space needed for each one. The initial estimate of the building needs was 31,000 square feet, but university construction officials stepped in and required that 4,000 square feet be eliminated to match the budget. This reduced the final area of the facility to 27,000 square feet.​</p><h4>Design</h4><p>After programming was complete, the architects turned individual room reports into a building concept. For architects, the process is more “art meets engineering,” but to everyone else, there is a sense of mystery as to how all the pieces are put together to create an aesthetically pleasing design. </p><p>A significant part of the process was the input of the governing body and the senior management of the university. Designers at this stage must navigate an often politically charged environment while maintaining the original overall concept.</p><p>For example, designers did not want to have “UNCG Police” on the façade of the building because that did not conform with university specifications. The Board of Trustees for the university, however, wanted the nature of the building clearly visible to the public. The end result was backlit lettering with “UNCG Police” on both the east and west rooflines. </p><p>It was at this point in the process that interior design and furniture selection took place. Most architects have experienced interior-design professionals on the payroll, and they should be consulted because this can be—by far—the most confusing and mentally taxing part of the process. The combinations of colors and finishes were almost infinite. </p><p>The design team asked the interior designer to select two to four schemes and present them. This took the form of design boards that had small samples of paint colors, tiles, carpet, and counter tops. The department then selected the most desirable interior and made modifications based on that design.​</p><h4>Construction</h4><p>The next step was to begin the bidding process—required under North Carolina law—and select a construction company. To allow maximum flexibility in budgeting, the bid asked for pricing on several “add-alternate” items. These add-alternate items were above minimum bid, but were preferred by the designers. Some examples included polished block walls instead of plain block walls or poured terrazzo flooring instead of tile. UNCG was fortunate that all add-alternate items were included in the final bid and covered by the original budget.</p><p>In construction, the phrase “timing is everything” is true. Ground was broken on the construction site in December with a plan to schedule most of the concrete and masonry work during the summer months. </p><p>But the first scoop of earth from the backhoe brought bad news; the initial site testing missed significant soil contamination. Research uncovered that the site had once been a petroleum distillery. The resulting delay put masonry and concrete work in the cold winter months, and cleanup cost $600,000 in soil removal and remediation. </p><p>This one oversight led to a one-year delay in construction. An important lesson learned was to insist on the most detailed soil testing available before beginning construction.</p><p>Once construction begins, the most important advice to any chief or department head is to be there, on site, every day. If you are not there, decisions will be made without your input that may have repercussions in daily operations.</p><p>When you are on site, pay attention to every detail. Once a concrete floor is poured, it is difficult to go back and install a floor box with electricity. Blueprints are created with best practices in engineering, but there are times when those designs are not practical for operations. Observation during construction is the best way to catch those inconsistencies between form and function, such as when wiring conduit and air ductwork needed to occupy the same space. </p><p>After construction begins, changes can be made to the design, but there will be a cost. Construction companies charge a premium for change orders. Construction budgets contain contingency funds for changes, but those funds are limited. A cost-benefit analysis must take place when considering change orders.​</p><h4>Transition</h4><p>Making the transition from previous facilities to the new one required a great deal of coordination. Moving a modern public safety agency required considerations for emergency phone lines, alarm monitoring, radio communications, and a host of other critical infrastructure items. The UNCG Police Department created operational plans, much like those drafted for a large-scale event, to structure and schedule the move.</p><p>Even with advanced planning, critical errors can have a profound effect. A scheduling error in the phone company’s computer system caused the department’s phones to go off-line for nearly 16 hours. Emergency text and e-mail messages to the community notified members to call 911 for emergencies. The county 911 center then notified the department of a call over radio or via cell phone.</p><p>To help avoid these problems, a transition team is critical. Key areas, such as field operations, communications, and IT, should all have assigned roles. </p><p>One role that might be overlooked is that of delivery manager. The department was fortunate to have all new furniture purchased for the building. That meant multiple companies making multiple deliveries, each needing set times for installation. </p><p>In addition, the North Carolina State Construction office had strict guidelines for the receipt and inspection of furniture at the university. Every item had to be inspected as it was unpacked and installed to avoid accusations that damages occurred after installation. A secondary check occurred to doc­ument damage that occurred dur­ing installation. </p><p>The transition plan should also prioritize the scheduling of who moves and when. In the UNCG transition, communications personnel moved first, then field operations, and finally, administration and support functions. </p><p>Considerations should be given to the times when equipment becomes operational. For instance, the timing of the switch-over of fire alarm monitoring dictated that communications be the first in line for transition.</p><p>The final transition step was to begin tracking correction items. Defects in construction or flaws in design began to reveal themselves as people begin to occupy the space. </p><p>UNCG used a Google spreadsheet that was shared with the designer and builder to do this. Each entry tracked the location, a brief description of the issue, the party responsible for remediation, the date reported, current status, and the date of completion.​</p><h4>Celebration</h4><p>Once the construction and transition were complete, it was important to mark the occasion. When the building was open for business in 2015, it was a milestone for the agency, its personnel, and the people they serve. It was also an opportunity to thank those involved and challenge the employees to demonstrate that the time, money, and effort spent on the building be repaid with excellent service.</p><p>It is rare to have the opportunity to design and construct a new facility from the ground up. Careful planning and attention to detail will make the process rewarding, and those rewards will be appreciated for many years to come.  </p><p>--<br></p><p><em><strong>James C. Herring, Jr.,</strong> is the chief of police and director of public safety and emergency management at Murray State University in Murray, Kentucky. He retired as chief of police for the University of North Carolina at Greensboro (UNCG). He has a master of public affairs from UNCG and is a member of the faculty in the College of Security and Criminal Justice at the University of Phoenix.</em></p>GP0|#cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8;L0|#0cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8|Physical Security;GTSet|#8accba12-4830-47cd-9299-2b34a4344465 Quality Protection<p>​</p><p>MUSEUMS AND CULTURAL institutions are many-faceted jewels in the crown of human civilization. They care for and make available to the public priceless art, irreplaceable historical objects, and treasures of stunning worth. Modern museums and cultural properties also act as educational centers and host public events such as dinners, weddings, concerts, fundraisers, and conferences. All of that means that today’s museum security department has a lot to protect; some also operate in a recession-hit world of “do more with less.” They are meeting the challenge with hybrid security forces and strong training programs.</p><p>Hybrid Forces<br>Many museums and cultural properties have seen a drop in revenue, memberships, and donations resulting in hard budget choices.</p><p>“They have to reduce their…recurring expenses, and at most properties, security has one of the largest work forces. When reductions hit, that is where they take place,” says Stevan P. Layne, CPP, president and foundation director of the Denver, Colorado-based International Foundation for Cultural Property Protection (IFCPP), a membership organization for protection professionals at cultural, educational, and public institutions.</p><p>FOR PROPERTIES WITH A wholly proprietary staff, the end result of cost cuts is permanent layoffs of fulltime personnel. This leads to the loss of valuable institutional memory, and it essentially throws away the return on the investment that the museum made in each of those security officers when it spent money hiring and training them. Layne says that according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, the price of hiring and training one entry-level employee is $5,000 to $7,000.</p><p>Properties that use a contract or hybrid force, however, can more easily reduce the size of their security work force without these costs. “When you deal with a contract service, you reduce those charges significantly. You pay a higher hourly rate, but the total cost to the employer is less,” he says. </p><p>However, there is still a strong feeling at most museums and cultural properties that proprietary is better than contract. This favoritism results, Layne thinks, from the importance and value of the collections being protected. “It’s the trust factor—they feel better with permanent employees whom they know and whom they feel are part of the family.” Those individuals are perceived to take ownership of the property and defend it, he states.</p><p>Some properties are trying to find a middle ground. They have decided to keep their proprietary officers guarding the collections while using a contract force for special events. This approach is being adopted even by institutions that have not tightened their belts due to the recession, because having some contract options also makes it easier to temporarily scale up the staff for certain events or as the facility expands.</p><p>This is the case at the Art Institute of Chicago, located in the city’s Grant Park. Drawing about 1.4 million annual visitors, the institute has not cut back on its guard force during the past decade—in fact, it has expanded it. The opening of the new Modern Wing in 2009 made the Institute the second largest U.S. art museum.</p><p>Michelle Lehrman, vice president of protection services there, states that before the opening of the Modern Wing, the institute used mostly proprietary officers and a small number of contract ones. With the construction of the new addition, “We took the opportunity to…reconfigure the entire work force. There were several factors—cost being one, obviously—but also the flexibility of the contract staff in numbers. At that time, we were going to have so many new people, there was also a recruitment need,” she states.</p><p>Although Lehrman does not wish to give more specifics on their breakdown, she says the force is now composed of both contract and proprietary officers totaling more than 200.</p><p>Contractor selection. Museums and cultural properties say that they have to set high standards for their contractors, given the interactions they will have with patrons and others. Some institutions, for example, garner considerable media attention when they hold special events with celebrities and other VIP attendees. The officers on duty must reflect a high degree of professionalism.</p><p>Layne says the institution should “start with a detailed specification with stringent requirements upon the contractor as far as personnel screening procedures and the physical and educational experience qualifications.”</p><p>Physical abilities must be among the qualifications. Guards must be able to remain standing for extended periods. Officers must also be able to assist in evacuations that include the handicapped, elderly, and small children.</p><p>Communication skills are another important aspect of the job. Guards must be able to converse in English well enough to be understood by the public during these emergency situations as well as to understand spoken or written directions and information such as their post orders and the policies of their employer.</p><p>The institution should complete due diligence on each contract provider before it is invited to bid if the bids are by invitation. If the bid is public, the due diligence should be done during the decision-making process. The IFCPP recommends that museums require that possible vendors visit the site and discuss the particular property, the guard posts that would be required, and the kinds of special events held. The hiring museum should hold direct interviews with the management of the vendor companies to determine if their management style is compatible with the needs of the institution.</p><p>At the Art Institute of Chicago, Lehrman says that the vendor-selection process led back to the company with which it already had a strong relationship—Securitas USA.</p><p>Securitas contract officers who work at the Institute must meet “specific requirements for our site. We also interview all the candidates before they come on board. Even after they go through all the steps at Securitas, we still have the final say,” states Lehrman.</p><p>The officers’ ability to handle whatever Chicago throws at the Institute is an important aspect of whether they will be approved. “We are a million-square-foot facility in the middle of downtown Chicago, and we’re an encyclopedic museum,” she says. “So the officers are going to have to learn the collection and the layout, and they will also have to deal with every nationality—all of our worldwide visitors and local visitors,” she explains, adding, “Then there are all of the random elements that the city brings—the festivals, and traffic, and other outside things, so it’s ever changing. For example, we just had the NATO Summit. There was [a related] event here, and there were protesters.”</p><p>Training<br>After the selected officers get the basic training with Securitas, they receive museum-specific training on-site. Lehrman says that some new guards have never been to the Institute and know nothing about art. “We start with a museum orientation and an art orientation, then proceed to museum-specific rules and why we have them,” she explains. The officers also receive training from the conservation and curatorial departments.</p><p>The Institute conducts refresher training for both contract and proprietary officers “constantly,” says Lehrman. The day begins for the officers with a roll call, at which some training is often included. There is also annual training on various topics on a seasonal basis. For instance, guards get pickpocket awareness training in November and May—when the property traditionally sees an uptick in these crimes. </p><p>For the past five years, all of the Institute’s security managers and proprietary security officers have gone through IFCPP training. The managers also receive IFCPP certification.</p><p>The IFCPP was founded 14 years ago, explains Layne, as “an educational resource for those people in every level [of museum security] from security officer to top manager. Back then, there was no standardization for training officers, supervisors, and administrators protecting cultural properties.” Today, the IFCPP develops and administers training courses for all levels. It also administers the Certified Institutional Protection Specialist, Certified Institutional Protection Manager, and Certified Institutional Protection Technician designations.</p><p>Officers. The IFCPP training program that the Art Institute requires its officers to attend includes a section on customer service. “We recognize that there is a direct relationship between good customer service and security,” says Layne. One example of this is the security officer as greeter. He notes that Walmart has removed all of its store greeters in an effort to cut costs—a move that Layne predicts will actually cost the retailer more in increased thefts.</p><p>“We always used to hold them up as an example of what you want at your front door—a smiling guy checking out who is coming in. People who want to commit thefts or vandalize want to be anonymous. The entry greeting takes away the anonymity,” he states. And when coupled with officers who say hello to visitors as they move throughout the property, “It gives them the feeling they are being watched and takes away what they perceive as their opportunity to steal or vandalize.”</p><p>Discretion is also important. Officers must learn to conduct all their duties with a quiet demeanor that does not disrupt visitors’ enjoyment of the collections. For example, one of the regular problems in museums is that people get too close to paintings, sculpture, artifacts, or other items. The guards learn how to approach someone, and without seeming angry or aggressive, get them to move back. In fact, it can be an opportunity to act as a friendly educator.</p><p>“It’s a dual role. Yes, we want folks to comply with the policies and procedures, but we really focus on how those are presented to people because we…want them to enjoy the visit and want them to return,” says the Art Institute’s Lehrman. “We don’t just tell people ‘Don’t touch the art.’ We give them the why behind it.”</p><p>The officers learn how to patrol valuable collections, which includes scrutinizing the objects so that they will notice if damage has been done or if any item, such as a tiny object, isn’t where it should be. They are also trained to keep an eye on the visitors—including small children, the handicapped, and other vulnerable individuals—both to render assistance and to make sure they don’t accidently or intentionally harm anything.</p><p>Another area of training is how to conduct package inspections and metal detection, if they are used at the property. Layne says that the trend is for more detailed inspections as well as inspections for all exiting employees.</p><p>The course also teaches basic first-aid techniques, such as how to assist someone who has fallen or is having a seizure; CPR; and for at least a select portion of the officers, training in the use of an automated external defibrillator.</p><p>MOAB. A key section of the course is on dealing with upset and aggressive people. Layne says that the reality of the situation is that security officers suffer a greater risk of assault than the average worker. “There is a significant amount of risk, particularly if they have no training in how to respond,” he states. </p><p>“As part of the basic officer training,” explains Layne, “IFCPP includes a minimal amount of self-defense.” It does not go beyond that because employers are reluctant to have their officers given any type of hands-on training that might lead to some physical interactions that would expose the museum to lawsuits.</p><p>But, as Layne explains, the employer can also be held liable “if a hands-on incident happens and the guard had no training and failed to act or if someone was injured.” So officers learn at least what they would need to know to be able to escape or to deescalate a situation.</p><p>IFCPP is currently introducing a half-day workshop on the Management of Aggressive Behavior (MOAB)model. Layne says that MOAB teaches officers not to use hands-on management of aggressive persons unless it is an absolute last resort. It focuses instead on how officers can calm down angry people, defuse aggressive behaviors, and avoid violence by verbal and nonverbal communication. It also includes personal defense skills for use if no other option remains.</p><p>Layne gives an example of the kind of deescalation tactics MOAB teaches. “At many cultural properties, part of the way they finance operations is renting out halls. When alcohol is served, people can get out of hand.” The standard advice that officers are given is that they should call the police. “But what do you do until they get there? [MOAB] tells the officer to take a customer-friendly approach: enlist the aid of others responsible—friends, sponsors, chaperones—and have them try to settle things down,” explains Layne.</p><p>The Art Institute’s Lehrman says the daily roll call refresher training segments can be used to reinforce the aggressive-behavior-management training. “We do role-playing scenarios and when the officers encounter something or when we’ve had an incident, we also use those situations as examples in training for everyone,” he says.</p><p>Supervisors. The IFCPP’s supervisory-level training also includes training in how to manage aggressive behavior, because they have found that most supervisors have never received that type of instruction. “Just because they were in law enforcement or the military doesn’t mean they automatically know how the employer wants situations to be deescalated,” says Layne.</p><p>There is also the same classroom roleplaying of a variety of possible scenarios used in the officer’s training to manage aggressive or otherwise impaired people. Layne gives one example from the roleplaying training where one trainee portrays a drunk person trying to enter a museum, and the supervisor must intervene. Then the scenario is changed to the person entering having Alzheimer’s. Layne says that participants find the experience more powerful “than a book or a slide or a lecture.”</p><p>Supervisors also receive training on how to supervise and how to conduct on-the-job training of incoming officers. The curriculum includes site-specific on-the-job training for the supervisors concerning the collections, special events, and other operational areas.</p><p>Executives. The executive-level course covers the hiring, preemployment screening, and training processes, as well as how to handle terminations. Museum security executives also learn about the technology used to secure a cultural institution, including access controls, alarms, fire protection, video surveillance, and other security that directly protects exhibited items. They also learn how to select vendors for all of these technology categories.</p><p>“They have to have an in-depth knowledge of the technology because the cost of these systems is astronomical,” states Layne. He adds that the course also provides information about resources available to these professionals outside of the classroom.</p><p>Executive-level training includes a fair amount of role-playing. This is because the executives need to understand the kind of situations that officers and supervisors encounter so that they will understand why such training is necessary, says Layne.</p><p>The protection of cultural properties requires a guard force—proprietary, contract, or hybrid—that has a high level of specialized training. And that training will pay off in multiple ways. Lehrman says of the training her officers receive, “It gives them a sense of accomplishment and professionalism.”</p><p>Ann Longmore-Etheridge is an associate editor of Security Management and editor of ASIS Dynamics.<br></p>GP0|#3795b40d-c591-4b06-959c-9e277b38585e;L0|#03795b40d-c591-4b06-959c-9e277b38585e|Security by Industry;GTSet|#8accba12-4830-47cd-9299-2b34a4344465