Leisure and Hospitality

 

 

https://sm.asisonline.org/Pages/How-to-Learn-from-Las-Vegas.aspxHow to Learn from Las VegasGP0|#cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8;L0|#0cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8|Physical Security;GTSet|#8accba12-4830-47cd-9299-2b34a43444652018-02-01T05:00:00Zhttps://adminsm.asisonline.org/pages/holly-gilbert-stowell.aspx, Holly Gilbert Stowell<p>​The Las Vegas massacre on October 1, 2017, surpassed the 2016 Orlando Pulse Nightclub tragedy as the deadliest mass shooting in recent U.S. history. Fifty-eight people lost their lives and hundreds were injured when a gunman rained down automatic weapon fire from the 32nd floor of a hotel suite on concertgoers below.</p><p>Months later, investigators are still struggling to piece together a motive for the tragedy. They classify the shooter as a nondescript, wealthy retiree who spent tens of thousands of dollars gambling at casinos on the very strip he attacked. But these clues offer little insight as to why he would carry out such a deadly rampage. </p><p>In the wake of the tragedy, security professionals must grapple with the known facts surrounding the event, and investigators continue to  revise the timeline of events as details emerge. However, as reported by CBS News, the assailant managed to take nearly two dozen weapons contained in luggage to his room via a freight elevator in the Mandalay Bay Resort and Casino.</p><p>A do not disturb sign hung on the door of his suite for 72 hours after he reportedly checked into the hotel on September 28. He shot out of two windows from the hotel tower after shattering them with a hammerlike device, according to The New York Times. </p><p>The assailant also shot a hotel security guard, who was responding to an open-door alarm on the same floor, around the time he began firing on the crowd.</p><p>Whether or not the hotel and Live Nation Entertainment, Inc.—the event company hosting the concert—met their legal duty of care during these circumstances has yet to be determined, and several lawsuits have been filed by victims. </p><p>Difficult questions regarding security have been raised by the shooting, including whether hotels should apply airport-­style screening measures to guests as they enter the property, and whether it's possible to spot suspicious behavior in guests before an incident occurs.</p><p>As investigators continue to probe into the specifics of the massacre, hospitality, event, and gaming security experts all agree: While the circumstances in the Las Vegas shooting are unlikely to happen the exact same way again, the event underscores the importance of having strong security policies and procedures, staff training, and appropriate technological tools to combat future threats.</p><p><strong>Event safety. </strong>The October shooting ravaged a section of the Las Vegas strip called Vegas Village, which has become a popular spot for festivals and other live events. The gunman attacked concertgoers at the sold-out Route 91 Harvest Festival, which featured country music performers. The event was growing in popularity, and attracted about 25,000 people a day last year, the Los Angeles Times reported. </p><p>Steven Adelman is an attorney at Adelman Law Group, PLLC, and vice president of the Event Safety Alliance, a nonprofit he helped form after a stage collapsed at the Indiana State Fair in 2011, killing seven people. He emphasizes that the Las Vegas shooting and the circumstances surrounding it are unlikely to repeat themselves, and calls the incident a "black swan" event. </p><p>"A black swan is a highly unusual, impactful event—and in retrospect people suddenly think it was inevitable," Adelman says. "Las Vegas fits that profile. There had never been a shooting at a live event venue from a great ele­vation or from an adjacent building."  </p><p>While the University of Texas clock­tower shooting in 1966 in Austin harkens closely to the positioning of the shooter, experts say it does not make what happened from the 32nd floor of the Mandalay Bay Hotel and Casino foreseeable. </p><p>"If we had been talking on September 30, the day before this happened, and you had asked me what the most reasonably foreseeable threat at a live event space is, based on what's happened over the last year…it probably would have involved a truck," he says, referencing the vehicular terrorist attacks that have occurred in cities including Barcelona, New York City, and Stockholm. </p><p>While Vegas may not have been preventable, Adelman underscores the best practices that can be applied to event safety moving forward. </p><p>"When there is an adjacent building to a live event, where someone potentially has a perch over a site where people are gathered, law enforcement and security should have eyes on that building," he notes. "In fact, the smarter trend, if it's in one's control, is to just clear the building." </p><p>At a major event in Phoenix just weeks after the shooting, event organizers did exactly that. Law enforcement cleared a nearby parking structure and used the building to have a crow's nest vantage point over the event. </p><p>"That's the kind of positive learning experience that can be applied from a horrific event like the Vegas shooting," Adelman adds.</p><p>Also, having a no-weapons policy is a simple way to at least deter people carrying guns, Adelman says, but he concedes that enforcing that policy is another matter. When possible, event organizers should limit the points of ingress and egress for attendees, and deploy magnetometers at each of those points. </p><p>"Make sure that applies equally to the production people, and even the talent who are doing set-up," he adds. "Make sure the artists and their entourage all go through these magnetometers and security guard scrutiny while we're at it, because they can have weapons, too." </p><p>Adelman adds that the special event industry could spend all its time and resources focusing on trying to prevent black swan events, and he emphasizes that the key is to triage the reasonably foreseeable risks. </p><p>"You should spend your finite amount of resources addressing the risks that are most likely to happen at whatever venue or event it is that one is talking about," he says. "That's the reasonable thing to do." </p><p><strong>Hotel security. </strong>There is no one-size-fits-all approach for hotels when it comes to their security programs, says Russell Kolins, chair of the ASIS International Hospitality, Entertainment, and Tourism Security Council. </p><p>"Each hotel has its own culture of management, its own corporate attitude, so each hotel is going to address its properties differently than their neighbors next door," Kolins adds. </p><p>This means that each property or hotel chain must constantly reinforce whatever safety protocols it has in place across management, staff, and guests. </p><p>Many hotel properties have policies on weapons, which vary from state to state. Nevada is an open-carry state, though most casinos don't allow patrons carrying a gun to enter the property. Hotels have typically allowed hunters with weapons permits to carry guns to their rooms or store them in lockers. Kolins says a weapons check would have to be conducted on every guest and bag to enforce these policies. </p><p>"If someone wants to get a weapon up to their room, they are going to do it, unless you're inspecting every single bag and every single piece of luggage, including clothing bags," Kolins says. "It's not going to be absolutely controlled." </p><p>Technology already plays a major role in hotels, says Stephen Barth, a professor of hospitality law at the Conrad N. Hilton College of Hotel and Restaurant Management at the University of Houston. </p><p>"Hotels employ a variety of technological measures to enhance security and the smooth flow of business for guests," he says. "We've got significant technology that's helped a lot—being able to track guests that go in and out, making sure a key is changed from guest to guest."</p><p>Barth, founder of hospitalitylawyer.com, argues that adding on more technology for security purposes wouldn't necessarily be rejected by guests, if it's obvious it keeps them safer. </p><p>"Technology for sure needs to be involved in these conversations," he says. "What if every hotel window had a sensor on it so that if the glass was broken, the hotel would know immediately what floor and which room it was in?" </p><p>Management may hesitate initially to go to such measures, but Barth argues that security should keep it in mind as a possible option. "There's going to be resistance, no doubt, but it does seem to me that there is potential," he says. </p><p><strong>Training. </strong>Security experts agree that hotel staff, including housekeeping, engineers, bellhops, and front desk workers are the most likely ones to observe unusual behavior among guests. </p><p>Therefore, training those workers thoroughly and consistently will help reinforce what they can look for as suspicious or possibly harmful behavior. </p><p>"There needs to be ongoing training, so that there is an awareness given to the employees to be the actual eyes and ears for security and management of a property," Kolins says. </p><p>While metal detectors and individual bag checks may be a far-flung approach, staff can be trained on behavioral cues to look for in guests, such as the way someone walks when they may be carrying a weapon. </p><p>"I think the trend now for all the hotels is going to be to take the See Something, Say Something campaign and make it effective," says Darrell Clifton, CPP, executive director of security at Eldorado Resorts in Reno, Nevada, and a member of the ASIS Hospitality, Entertainment, and Tourism Security Council. "Right now it's kind of a shotgun approach. If it's working right, you get 10,000 pieces of data and 9,999 of them are useless, and it's hard to comb through all that."  </p><p>Instead of just repeating the See Something, Say Something mantra, he says that managers should sit down with employees and tell them exactly what to look for, and what to do with that information. </p><p>"Frankly, the housekeepers know what's suspicious better than I do because they see all the different people that come into the hotel," Clifton notes. "They know what looks right and what doesn't look right." </p><p>When it comes to room inspections, Kolins suggests hotels conduct safety checks at least every other day, even if a do not disturb sign is on the door. These check-ins give hotel staff the opportunity to verify that the various sensors in the room are operating properly, such as smoke detectors and carbon monoxide monitors.</p><p>"I think the biggest change with that will be reinforcing that policy, more than creating a new one, for most hotels," Clifton notes, adding that most hotels have policies to check rooms every other day or more often, but have not enforced them consistently. </p><p>As of January, four Disney hotel properties had done away with the do not disturb sign, The New York Times reported, swapping it out for a "room occupied" sign and alerting guests that staff may check on the room. In December, Hilton revised its policy to still allow the signs but will conduct a staff-led alert system if it stays up for more than 24 hours. </p><p>The data collected at these check-ins, as well as any other security concerns reported to management, should all be kept in a log. </p><p>"The security industry is data-driven, and it's very important to record anything that gets reported," Kolins notes. "And on a periodic basis, whether it's a weekly basis or bimonthly basis, the reports should be part of an incident log." </p><p>Down the road, these data points can be connected and lead to an impending threat or other incident, he says. </p><p><strong>Duty of care.</strong> The Las Vegas shooting raises the question of duty of care—the reasonable level of protection a venue is legally obligated to provide its guests—and whether or not Mandalay Bay and Live Nation met that standard. </p><p>A victim who survived the shooting has already filed a lawsuit, and there is the potential for more litigation. In the suit filed against MGM, which owns Mandalay Bay, the plaintiff argues that the hotel failed to "maintain the Mandalay Bay premises in a reasonably safe condition," according to court documents. </p><p>From a legal standpoint, Adelman says the hotel property or venue hosting an event has an obligation to provide a reasonably safe environment for its guests under the circumstances.</p><p>Experts say a number of factors come into play in the legal process, including whether the hotel followed its own security policies and procedures. </p><p>"I think most juries and most judges would argue, at least until now, that the event was not foreseeable in the United States," Barth says.</p><p>Given the fact that the shooter brought in a cache of weapons and fired from a hotel suite, Barth says the property's policies and procedures will come into question. </p><p>"Responding to a particular incident is a part of the duty of care in places of public accommodation like hotels," Barth notes. "So, you would want to consider, what was their protocol for an active shooter situation? Did they have training, what was their communication system setup, what was supposed to happen, and did they in fact follow their training?" </p><p>He adds that the facts surrounding the Vegas shooting as investigators understand them are not necessarily unusual. </p><p>"This fellow in Vegas specifically requested a particular room. In and of itself, that happens all the time in a hotel," Barth says. He adds that people travel to Las Vegas to gamble or party, and often stay up all night and sleep during the day. "This fellow also had a do not disturb sign on his door for 72 hours. Again, that in and of itself is not a big deal, particularly in Vegas." </p><p>The large containers the weapons and other items were stored in wouldn't necessarily sound the alarm bells, he notes. In a city like Las Vegas, convention exhibitors frequently bring large containers to their rooms, and guests who gamble may be protecting valuables such as cash. </p><p>The duty of care applies equally to event venues as it does to hotels, Adelman says. "The main duty for providing a safe and secure environment generally falls on the shoulders of the venue," he points out, noting that the venue should know what its biggest risks are, and what resources are available to address those risks. </p><p>He adds that, when necessary, the location can contract with a private security company or with law enforcement to take on some of the security responsibilities. </p><p>All properties should take an all-hazards approach to security, paying just as much attention to the threat of a natural disaster as an active shooter. "The threat you prepare for probably isn't going to be the precise threat that actually appears on your doorstep," Barth says.  </p><h4>Gaming Community Reacts to Vegas Tragedy​<br></h4><p>Casinos are no strangers to security. With swaths of surveillance cameras, guards, and cash-protection measures, these venues are used to large volumes of people toting valuables. Most gaming properties have no-guns policies, and uniformed and plainclothes security officers keep careful eyes on the property. </p><p>Guests at casinos are looking for privacy and comfort, so hospitality professionals must strike a balance between providing security and making sure their clients feel at ease. </p><p>"Most security has to be unobtrusive, yet effective," says Dave Shepherd with the Readiness Resource Group and a member of the ASIS International Gaming and Wagering Protection Council. "We're not trying to prevent people from crossing a border or boarding an airplane. We have to be very cognizant of the rights of people as they are coming onto the properties." </p><p>In the wake of high-profile incidents, an opportunity arises to engage the C-suite, says Alan Zajic, CPP, with AWZ Consulting and chair of the Gaming and Wagering Protection Council. </p><p>"Any security director knows that when an event like what happened in Las Vegas occurs, your bosses are going to be asking you what you intend to do," he says. "That's the greatest opportunity to say, 'I need a commitment out of you to be able to put some of these programs into place and help protect our employees and our guests.'"</p><p>He explains that gaming properties should prioritize training employees on situational awareness, and proposes a technique. </p><p>"You observe something and investigate it until you understand it," he notes. "If you observe something unusual about a person, you should watch for a while until you understand whether it's legitimate. And if it's not, you investigate."</p><p>These types of training programs are going to become more prevalent in the industry, Zajic says, adding that airport level screening would be too burdensome for hotels and guests alike.</p><p>"Should there be screening or metal detectors inside bell rooms?" he asks. "Those are all kneejerk reactions that I'm not sure are going to float. People are going to be resistant to the invasion of their privacy."​​​</p>

Leisure and Hospitality

 

 

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https://sm.asisonline.org/Pages/Bag-Checks-At-Hotels-Unlikely-To-Become-New-Normal,-Expert-Says.aspxBag Checks At Hotels Unlikely To Become New Normal, Expert Says<p>​In the aftermath of the Las Vegas shooting that killed 59 people and wounded more than 500 others, many are wondering if hotels will change their security policies and procedures. </p><p>One area of concern is if hotels will begin implementing bag checks because gunman Stephen Paddock was able to smuggle 23 firearms, along with other equipment, into his suite at Mandalay Bay to carry out Sunday’s massacre.<br></p><p>The Wynn resort in Las Vegas—located on the opposite end of the Vegas Strip from the Mandalay Bay resort—introduced security guards on Monday afternoon to screen visitors with metal-detector wands. It also implemented a bag check, which created a 10-minute wait to get inside the facility. <br></p><p>This is unlikely to become the new normal for hotel security in the near future, however, says Russell Kolins, CEO of the Kolins Security Group and chair of the ASIS International Hospitality, Entertainment, and Tourism Security council.<br></p><p>“Hotels are in the business of selling privacy—they’re offering hospitality and selling privacy,” Kolins explains, adding that hotels would likely start to lose business if they began checking bags—especially in locations like Las Vegas. <br></p><p>“In Vegas especially, what happens in Vegas stays in Vegas,” Kolins says. “People bring items they don’t want other people to see.”<br></p><p>At airports, travelers are subject to bag searches—as well as body scans—because they are a different kind of target than a hotel. Travelers also have no expectation of privacy while on a plane, except for in the bathroom, unlike in a hotel where travelers expect privacy within their room, Kolins says.<br></p><p>One policy that might need to be revisited following the shooting, however, is how hotels handle checking rooms that have a “Do Not Disturb” sign on the door. <br></p><p>Paddock checked into the Mandalay Bay on Thursday and kept a “Do Not Disturb” sign on his hotel door throughout his stay. This meant hotel cleaning staff did not enter his room, <a href="https://www.nytimes.com/2017/10/03/us/las-vegas-gunman.html?hp&action=click&pgtype=Homepage&clickSource=story-heading&module=a-lede-package-region&region=top-news&WT.nav=top-news&_r=0" target="_blank">according to a hotel worker who spoke to The New York Times,​</a> because housekeeping is only allowed to enter a room with such a sign on it if a security guard is present.<br></p><p>Requiring a security guard be present to enter rooms with privacy signs is the right move, Kolins says, but hotels should consider changing their policies to require room checks every other day.<br></p><p>“That’s an arbitrary period of time, but I think a policy should be instilled to at least check on the rooms,” Kolins says, adding that hotels would have to make patrons aware of the policy. But such a policy could, potentially, prevent an individual from using a hotel room for an extended period of time to plot a criminal act.<br></p><p>Kolins leads a team of court-certified security experts at his firm. He says he thinks it’s unlikely that Mandalay Bay will be sued for negligence for the shooting because to sue for negligence, plaintiffs must be able to show foreseeability. <br></p><p>“This is unprecedented—nothing like this has ever happened,” Kolins explains. “If something happens the first time, it’s not foreseeable.”<br></p><p>Now that such an attack has happened, though, if a similar attack happens plaintiffs could potentially bring a lawsuit saying it was foreseeable. In response, Kolins says he expects the hotel security industry to begin having seminars and tabletop meetings to determine how they would handle a similar case.<br></p><p>“I think what this has done is show that the slogan ‘expect the unexpected’ is again proven to be true,” Kolins says. “It wasn’t foreseeable because it was unprecedented.”​<br></p>GP0|#cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8;L0|#0cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8|Physical Security;GTSet|#8accba12-4830-47cd-9299-2b34a4344465
https://sm.asisonline.org/Pages/Training-Your-Team.aspxTraining Your Team<p>​</p><p>Whether the action is on the battlefield or the basketball court, you can be certain that the winning team owes its success in large measure to extensive training. Recognizing the importance of training to any team’s performance, the Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center set out to makes its own training program better. </p><p>The existing training program, which the director of protective services felt lacked specificity, consisted of one of the shifts’ veteran officers sitting with the new security employees and covering several department and hospital-specific policies along with administrative topics. Additionally, the new officers would be given several commercially produced security training videotapes to view, after which they were required to complete the associated tests. Following the completion of the tapes and review of the policies and administrative procedures, officers would go through brief hands-on training for certain subjects such as the use of force and pepper spray.</p><p>Once they completed these tests and training sessions, the officers would then begin their on-the-job training. Officers have historically stayed in the on-the-job phase of training between three and five weeks, depending on how quickly the officers learned and were comfortable with command center operations. When the officers completed their training program, they had to pass the protective services cadet training test as well as a test on command center procedures.</p><p>Training council. To help devise a better training program, the security director chose several members of the staff to sit on a training council. The group, which included the director, three shift managers, and the shift sergeants, met to discuss the current training program and what could be done to enhance it.</p><p><br>Through discussions with new employees, the council learned that the existing program was boring. The council wanted to revitalize the training to make it more interesting and more operationally oriented. The intent was to emphasize hands-on, performance-oriented training. The council also wanted to improve the testing phase so that the program results could be captured quantitatively to show the extent to which officers had increased their knowledge and acquired skills. <br> <br>Phases. The council reorganized training into four phases: orientation, site-specific (including on-the-job), ongoing, and advanced. Under the new program, the officers now take a test both before training, to show their baseline knowledge, and after the training, to verify that they have acquired the subject matter knowledge; they must also successfully demonstrate the proper techniques to the instructors.</p><p>Orientation training. The orientation training phase begins with the new employees attending the hospital’s orientation during their first day at the facility. The security department’s training officer then sits down with the new officers beginning on their second day of employment. This training covers all of the basic administrative issues, including what the proper clock-in and clock-out procedures are, when shift-change briefings occur, and how the shift schedules and mandatory overtime procedures function.   </p><p>The training officer also administers a preliminary test to the new officers that covers 12 basic security subjects including legal issues, human and public relations, patrolling, report writing, fire prevention, and emergency situations. New employees who have prior security experience normally score well on the test and do not need to view security training tapes on the subjects. The officers must receive a minimum score of 80 percent to receive credit for this portion of the training. If an officer receives an 80 percent in most topics but is weak in one or two subjects, that officer is required to view just the relevant tapes, followed by associated tests.</p><p>All officers, regardless of the amount of experience, review the healthcare-specific tapes and take the related tests for the specific subjects including use of force and restraint, workplace violence, disaster response, bloodborne pathogens, assertiveness without being rude, and hazardous materials. Also included in the orientation training phase are classes covering subjects such as pepper spray, patient restraint, defensive driving, and the hospital’s protective services policies.</p><p>Site-specific training. During site-specific training, officers learn what is entailed in handling specific security reports. The shift manager, shift officer-in-charge, or the training officer explains each of the reports and has the new employee fill out an example of each. Examples of reports covered in site-specific training include incident reports, accident reports, field interrogation reports, fire reports, motorist-assist forms, ticket books, safety-violation books, broken-key reports, work orders, bomb-threat reports, and evidence reports.</p><p>On-the-job training is also part of the site-specific training phase. The new employee works with a qualified security officer for a period of two to three weeks following the first week of orientation training with the departmental training officer. The new employee works through all of the various posts during this time. At least one week is spent in the command center. The site-specific phase of training culminates with both the security officer cadet training exam and the command center exam, which were also given in the original program.</p><p>Ongoing training. The ongoing training includes refresher training in which shift managers have their officers review selected films covering healthcare security and safety subjects. The training occurs during shift hours. The officers also receive annual refresher training covering topics such as using pepper spray and employing patient-restraint methods.</p><p>Another type of ongoing training, shift training, is conducted at least weekly. Managers conduct five-to ten-minute meetings during duty hours to refresh the security staff on certain subjects, such as customer service. These sessions are not designed to deal with complex topics. Managers can tie these sessions to issues that have come up on the shift.</p><p>Advanced training. Advanced training includes seminars, management courses, and sessions leading to professional designations and certifications. Qualified personnel are urged to attend seminars sponsored by several professional societies and groups such as ASIS International, the International Healthcare Association for Security and Safety, and Crime Prevention Specialists. Staff members are also encouraged to attain the Crime Prevention Specialist (CPS) certification, the Certified Protection Professional (CPP) designation, and the Certified Healthcare Protection Administrator (CHPA) certification.</p><p>Staff members are urged to pursue special interests by obtaining instructor certification such as in the use of pepper spray or the use of force. This encouragement has already paid off for the hospital. For example, the department’s security systems administrator has trained officers on each shift in how to exchange door lock cylinders, a task that would previously have required a contractor. Officers are currently being trained to troubleshoot and repair CCTV, access control systems, and fire alarm equipment problems.</p><p>Training methods. A special computer-based training program was developed to help quantify and track the success in each of the training modules. Additionally, a program was developed to present training subjects during shift changes.</p><p>Computer training. Security used off-the-shelf software to create computer-based training modules and included them in the site-specific training and ongoing training phases, both of which occur during shift hours. The training council tasked each shift with creating computer-based training modules for the various security officer assignments on the hospital’s main campus and off-campus sites. These training modules cover life safety, the research desk, the emergency department, exterior patrols, foot and vehicle patrols, and the command center.</p><p>The training council asked officers to participate in the creation of the computer-based training modules. The officers produced the training modules during their respective shifts when it did not interfere with other responsibilities.  </p><p>The group participation paid off. For example, the officers who created the command center and the emergency-department training modules not only spent several hours discussing what information should be included in the modules, but then allowed their creativity to flow by using the software to make these modules interactive. These particular modules include test questions of the material, and the program will respond appropriately to the employees as they answer the questions correctly or incorrectly. The volunteers also created tests for before and after an officer goes through each of the computer modules to track the effectiveness of the training.</p><p>Shift-change training. A major question with ongoing training is how to fit it into the officer’s routine. For most industries using shift work, difficulties arise when trying to carve out enough training time without creating overtime. The training council decided to take advantage of downtime that occurs as officers come to work ready for their shift to begin. They are required to show up six minutes before the shift. This time is now used for training.</p><p>The shift-change training is used to cover specific topics—already covered in some of the training phases—that can be easily encapsulated into a six-minute program. For example, some topics include departmental policies, radio communication procedures, command center refresher sessions, self-defense subjects, confronting hostile people, proper report writing, and temporary restraint training. By implementing the shift-change training sessions on a weekly basis, the department created an additional five hours of training per year for each officer.</p><p>One of the security supervisors created a six-minute training binder to house all of the lesson plans. Each shift supervisor uses the same lesson plan so that the training is consistent across the shifts. As with all other training, the before-and-after tests are given to quantitatively document changes in subject knowledge or skills.</p><p>Results. After implementing the training program, the training council wanted to check the initial results to see whether the training was effective. There were numerous quantifiable measurements that the council could use to evaluate the new training program, such as tracking the rate of disciplinary actions from the previous year to the current year. However, since the council desired to have a quick assessment of the training program changes, it decided to compare the after-training test scores to the before-training test scores for the computer-based training modules as well as the scores of the six-minute training tests. </p><p>To the council’s surprise, the initial tabulated scores resulted in an average before-training test score of 93 percent and an after-training test score of 95 percent. The council also found in many of the officers’ tests that they missed the same questions on both the before and after tests.</p><p>Based on these results, the council decided to make several changes. First, the test questions were reviewed and tougher questions were added. Based on the preliminary test score, the council felt that the questions were not challenging enough and might not indicate how competent the officers were with the subject matter. </p><p>The training council assigned each shift the task of revising the tests for their computer-based training modules as well as the six-minute training tests. The goal was to make the tests more challenging and to obtain more accurate assessments of the effectiveness of the training program. </p><p>The training council also reviewed how the different shifts were conducting the six-minute lessons. Managers noted that the shifts initially followed the schedule of the six-minute subjects from week to week, but then they began to conduct their own lessons without an accepted lesson plan or to forgo training altogether. </p><p>To avoid this problem, the training council determined that the training program needed to be more structured. The group created a schedule to indicate which class would be covered each week. One of the shift supervisors volunteered to take over the six-minute training program and formally structure it so that each shift would conduct training in a consistent manner.</p><p>The training council has plans to further hone the training program in the near future. The council plans to analyze the program us­ing other quantitative evaluative instruments such as an employee survey and a comparison of disciplinary action data from previous years. </p><p>In battle, it is said that an army fights as it has trained. Thus, commanders know the value of training. In the businessworld, though the stakes are different, training is no less critical to the success of the mission.</p><p>Ronald J. Morris, CPP, is senior director of protective services at Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center. Dan Yaross, CPP, is manager of protective services. Colleen McGuire, CPS (crime prevention specialist), is sergeant of protective services. Both Morris and Yaross are members of ASIS International.</p>GP0|#cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8;L0|#0cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8|Physical Security;GTSet|#8accba12-4830-47cd-9299-2b34a4344465
https://sm.asisonline.org/Pages/Q-and-A---Soft-Targets.aspxQ&A: Soft Targets<p>​<span style="line-height:1.5em;">Jennifer Hesterman, Colonel, U.S. Air Force (Retired), discusses her book <em>Soft Target Hardening</em>, which was named the 2015 ASIS Security Book of the Year. Available from ASIS; asisonline.org; Item #2239; 322 pages; $69 (members); $76 (nonmembers).</span><span style="line-height:1.5em;">​</span></p><p><strong><em>Q.</em></strong><em> Why are soft targets increasingly attractive to terrorists?  </em></p><p><strong>A. </strong>Soft target, civilian-centric places that are not typically fortified—such as schools, churches, hospitals, malls, hotels, restaurants, and recreational venues—have little money to spend on security. Frequently, they must balance security, aesthetics, and a positive experience for customers.  </p><p>Terrorists select soft targets because there are many, possibly hundreds, of them in small towns and cities; they are vulnerable, so the odds of success are high and the terror effect is amplified among civilians. The story also stays in the news longer—the soft target attack in San Bernardino received far more coverage for almost twice the length of time compared to the Ft. Hood shooting. Military and government workers are generally seen as more legitimate targets than civilians, so soft targets provide more of the outrage, shock, and fear that terrorists crave.</p><p><em><strong>Q.</strong> What inspired you to write a book on hardening soft targets? </em></p><p><strong>A.</strong> I was living in the Middle East and close to several soft target attacks. I also realized that in the United States after 9-11, we further reinforced hard targets like government buildings and military installations, while soft targets are increasingly in the crosshairs but unprotected. I traveled all over the Middle East and Southwest Asia, and saw how soft targets are protected against attack. I wanted to apply some of these lessons to the civilian sector.  </p><p><em><strong>Q.</strong> Which soft targets are being hardened in the United States?</em></p><p><strong>A.</strong> Schools are further along the spectrum due to the rise of school shootings and stabbings. Mall security is much improved after the Westgate Mall attack in Nairobi, but shopping venues are still extremely vulnerable. Churches have a unique problem due to their open, inviting culture even after the Charleston shooting. Of course synagogues, mosques, and Sikh temples are moving towards a more hardened posture as the result of a rise in domestic terrorist activity. Hospitals usually don’t realize they are targets for terrorist attack or exploitation. Every type of soft target is different and requires tailored hardening tactics. </p><p><em><strong>Q. </strong>What trends should security professionals look out for?</em></p><p><strong>A. </strong>The insider threat is a growing concern. Insider attacks have the greatest possibility of success in terms of destruction of a target and mass casualties. The perpetrator can preposition items, understands the layout of the facility, has unfiltered access, and knows vulnerabilities to exploit. </p><p>We spend a great deal of time in vetting people during the hiring process, but new employees are basically left alone after the onboarding process. Venues like stadiums or concert halls may perform inadequate background checks on seasonal workers. The book discusses added layers of protection such as using behavioral detection techniques, a buddy system where a seasoned worker is paired with a new worker, and rules ensuring that no one is ever alone.</p>GP0|#cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8;L0|#0cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8|Physical Security;GTSet|#8accba12-4830-47cd-9299-2b34a4344465