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https://sm.asisonline.org/Pages/Gaming-Security-Patrons-Players-And-Cheats.aspxGaming Security: Patrons, Players, And CheatsGP0|#cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8;L0|#0cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8|Physical Security;GTSet|#8accba12-4830-47cd-9299-2b34a43444652018-12-01T05:00:00ZAlan Zajic, CPP<p>​The surveillance of casinos has changed dramatically since legalized gaming was introduced in 1931 in Nevada as a way to entertain workers for the Hoover Dam project. It has progressed from the lone pit boss, who watched over the games with his own eyes, to catwalks with agents watching games through binoculars and one-way mirrors, to the period of reel-to-reel video tape, VHS analog technology, and now—the digital video phenomenon.</p><p>Walk into any casino property in the United States and look up—you will quickly take note of dozens, if not hundreds, of cameras overlooking the gaming floor. </p><p>And not all cameras are affixed overhead. They’re skillfully placed in tables, pointed at slot machines, and peering out of ATMs to keep track of the various activities happening at a gaming property. In charge of these numerous devices is the surveillance department, tasked with watching out for any suspicious activity, from cheating and advantage play to employee theft. </p><p>“Just about every one of our cases involves surveillance,” says James Taylor, deputy chief of enforcement with the Nevada Gaming Control Board, the body in charge of regulating surveillance operations at casino properties in the state. “That’s why we have a good success rate at the district attorney’s office—because it’s hard to say, ‘I didn’t do it,’ when we have a video showing that you absolutely did it.”</p><p>But catching a thief is not as simple as capturing it on video. Casino environments are highly regulated by the state, and oftentimes tribal governing bodies, and must adhere to internal controls and a wealth of policies and procedures to remain compliant. </p><p>Casino surveillance bodies are working more than ever with other departments, law enforcement, and even competitor properties to ensure they are maintaining an environment of safety and security for their customers. Surveillance departments are also becoming more involved in risk management by investigating accidents by employees or patrons. By conducting a post-incident investigation using the video surveillance technology, casinos are often able to capture valuable digital video evidence involving incidents and accidents that may prove invaluable for claims management and potential litigation.</p><p>In this article, members of the ASIS International Gaming and Wagering Protection Council and Taylor discuss how surveillance is helping casinos adhere to regulations, stop nefarious activity by patrons and employees, and protect assets. </p><p><strong>Patrons.</strong> Gaming properties are playgrounds for their patrons—but not everyone who walks onto a casino floor has intentions of winning fairly. </p><p>While surveillance analysts carefully monitor incoming video to see what guests are up to, the wealth of cameras is physically impossible for operators to manage around the clock. This is where analytics come into play, says Donald Childers, vice president of surveillance and loss prevention at Cherokee Nation Entertainment in Catoosa, Oklahoma, and a member of the ASIS Gaming and Wagering Protection Council.</p><p>“While we monitor as much as we can in real time, we also try to be as surgical as we can with our resources,” Childers says, noting that analytics can help surveillance zero in on certain times, dates, and locations of repeated problems. “That allows us to really focus our resources on trying to find answers to the questions we have.” He says analytics can help them determine the typical time of day a guest may try to get away with cheating, or what games they’re more likely to try to take advantage of. </p><p>As Taylor explains, cheaters and advantage players are not the same. “Advantage play is just that, taking advantage of the game whether it be a slot machine or a table game,” he says. “There are flaws, there are weak dealers out there, and there are statistical advantages that certain players can come up with in their head.” </p><p>As a law enforcement body, the Gaming and Control Board only gets involved with cheating activity, though casinos will likely ban advantage players when discovered. “Cheating is really committing an act of fraud in a casino, and a lot of our arrests are in those categories,” Taylor says. “Whether it’s someone that added money to what they think is a winning hand, or take money away from a losing hand, or they switch cards or bend cards or mark cards—any of the various cheating methods, it’s all captured on the surveillance cameras.” </p><p>While cheaters are a prime target for surveillance, Childers says the day-to-day nefarious activities are a concern as well. “We’re also just as focused on people who are walking around the casino looking for someone to snatch a ticket from, or steal a purse from, or someone who drops their car keys, and now they’re going to take their car out of the parking lot,” he notes. </p><p>Surveillance and analytics allow casinos to remain in compliance with the U.S. Internal Revenue Service (IRS) by uniting video with cash-dispensing machine activity. Customers can use these ATM-like machines to collect their winnings by inserting their tickets. “One of the big problems that casinos have had ever since we started deploying these has been, ‘How do we safeguard against anybody who’s trying to circumvent Title 31—reporting with the IRS?’” </p><p>As Childers notes, the IRS requires that guests report casino winnings as income. “We have different thresholds where casinos will start gathering information on patrons through requirements by the IRS and FinCEN [Financial Crimes Enforcement Network],” he explains.</p><p>But the cash-dispensing machines can’t tell how many tickets are being inserted by one person at a time. “For all the machine knows, it was five different people,” he says. </p><p>The loss prevention department reviews daily reports run on those machines, and if it notices aggregate amounts in a tight timeframe that exceed $3,000, it notifies surveillance. Surveillance reviews the video to confirm whether it was one customer, or multiple customers, removing the cash. The compliance department then evaluates the cases where a customer may be attempting to dodge the IRS. “They will issue a suspicious activity report back to FinCEN if we feel that we have an individual attempting to circumvent the Title 31 process,” he says.</p><p><strong>Employee theft</strong>. Surveillance doesn’t just catch patrons in the act of cheating, theft, or not complying with the IRS—employees are often the subject of investigations. </p><p>“About 20 percent of our arrests are employees,” Taylor says. This is despite the stringent background checks run on all casino workers by both the property and the Gaming Control Board. In Nevada, every casino worker must be registered with the state.</p><p>“We have 90,000 people who are registered gaming employees,” he says, “and every five years they have to re-register with us.” </p><p>Taylor notes that the rate of theft might be influenced by the temptation of working in such a cash-rich environment. “They know there are hundreds of cameras, but they just think, ‘I’m going to get away with it,’” he says of the employees. “And they might get away with it once or twice, and then they get greedy and, before long, they’re taking hundreds of thousands of dollars.”</p><p>Employee theft ranges from fraudulent player card activity to stealing from the food and beverage department. </p><p>Employees working at a bar or restaurant inside the casino may, for example, serve an expensive drink to a customer, but ring it up on the point-of-sale system as a cheaper beverage. “They’re selling you a more expensive cocktail, let’s say an $8 drink,” Childers says. “You pay your eight bucks, but they go back and they ring it up as a $3 draft beer, and then they pocket the difference.”</p><p>There have also been cases where employees use insider knowledge to their advantage. Taylor recounts the case of a worker who created several fraudulent accounts to get thousands of dollars in free play money—money that can’t be cashed out but can be used to garner more winnings.</p><p>“On his lunch break he went into the parking garage and changed into shorts,” Taylor says. “He was wearing a suit one minute on camera, and the next minute he’s wearing shorts and a hat and glasses and a T-shirt. And he goes and plays with all of those cards and wins $3,900 on one day.” </p><p>On Childers’ properties, once the surveillance department has video that possibly incriminates an employee, the accused are put on suspension, pending an investigation. “We comb through all the data we have, and we treat everything—whether it be giving away products to embezzling a tremendous amount of money—with equal attention,” he notes. </p><p>In the case of food and beverage theft, the surveillance department works with food and beverage to sift through the data to determine any wrongdoing. Point-of-sale software overlays the video management system, allowing operators to match up video to any transactions at the register. This integration will help determine how much money the waiter or bartender registered, versus the price of the product they served a guest. </p><p>“These employees think they are going to get away with it, but eventually somebody’s going to see something,” Taylor notes. “The surveillance operator is going to key in on something odd, and they are going to get caught.” </p><p><strong>Partnerships</strong>. Gaming surveillance professionals emphasize that their work is not done in silos, but in partnership with other departments, local and federal law enforcement—even other casinos. </p><p>“We try to work very closely with local law enforcement on identifying potential threats or possible threats that might negatively impact the casino operations,” says Tony Borges, surveillance director at Pechanga Resort in Temecula, California, and a member of the ASIS Gaming and Wagering Protection Council. </p><p>For example, at Pechanga, surveillance works closely with the public safety department to track people with arrest warrants who may be entering the property. </p><p>“Even though our main objective here is gaming and to be really focused on gaming crimes and unlawful acts that happen on the gaming floor, we are still mandated to be looking for the criminal element in general,” Borges says. “That’s where it pays off to be working closely with the public safety department.”</p><p>The partnership between surveillance and law enforcement also came into play during the October 1, 2017 shootings that left 58 people dead when a gunman opened fire from the Mandalay Bay Resort and Casino. </p><p>The shooter, Stephen Paddock, was a frequent gambler at various Las Vegas properties. Investigators turned to Taylor and his team at the Nevada Gaming Control Board and asked if they could collect the video evidence casinos had on the shooter. </p><p>“We went to every casino and got any video they had of him—any interaction, report, any gaming record they had—and did a full analysis of him and his girlfriend,” Taylor says. “We put that together along with the FBI.” </p><p>The mandates for regulators have evolved over the last few years in Nevada, Taylor notes. In 2015, for example, the state gave the Gaming Control Board direct regulation of the nightclub industry. </p><p>“When nightclubs began popping up on the strip, there were a lot of problems with underage drinking, drug use, over-intoxicated people…just a lot of problems,” Taylor says. “And our agents started doing undercover operations at nightclubs,” he says, including buying drugs from employees. </p><p>Now that nightclubs are fully under the regulators’ scope, the Gaming Control Board’s duties have expanded to include running background checks on nightclub employees and registering them. “It’s kind of a new thing, and it just shows the changing environment of Las Vegas,” he says.  </p><p>One of the regulators’ biggest jobs remains settling cash disputes—for example, if a customer says a slot machine was supposed to pay them $250,000, but only gave them $2,500. “We do $30 to $40 million a year in disputed money in our casinos, so it is a big part of our job,” Taylor says.</p><p>Overall, casino surveillance departments are benefiting from advancements in technology by allowing for increased performance and the ability to focus on those risks for soft target environments. They are no longer siloed, but are partnering with other departments and law enforcement to stop crime before it happens, or conduct thorough investigations after the fact. </p><p>As demonstrated in this article, gaming surveillance professionals are becoming analysts and true investigators. Working in conjunction with other departments and taking advantage of analytics, Childers notes surveillance has expanded its capabilities well beyond reviewing video.</p><p>“People think surveillance is a dark room with people staring into cameras all day long,” Childers notes. “But it’s a marrying of the data with the resources that we have.”</p><div><br></div><div>__</div><div>​<br></div><h2>Gaming Surveillance Technology Trends<br></h2><div><br></div><div><div>Technological advances are benefiting many aspects of gaming, and surveillance operators are taking advantage of cutting-edge cameras, analytics, situational awareness platforms, and more to protect patrons and employees and comply with regulations. </div><div><br></div><div>Robert Prady, CPP, PSP, is a member of the ASIS International Gaming and Wagering Protection Council. As a field sales engineer with Axis Communications Inc., Prady works with end users in gaming to ensure that their technology from all vendors works together to support the surveillance operations. “Interoperability is one of the bigger challenges our customers face, because there are hundreds of technology manufacturers out there,” Prady notes. </div><div><br></div><div>With the various vendors, he notes it’s important that the technologies used throughout the industry—from video management systems to cameras to DVRs to sensors—work together harmoniously to paint a picture of what’s happening on the casino properties. </div><div><br></div><div>“It has to integrate, and a lot of times there are hiccups between one manufacturer’s interface and a different one,” Prady says. “And being able to actually make it work, I spend a good amount of time helping the customers with that.” </div><div><br></div><div>The amount of information coming in from various sensors around the casino can be overwhelming for customers, Prady notes, and he emphasizes that technological requirements for casinos and any products they choose should be carefully considered to best serve the customer. </div><div><br></div><div>“We need to focus on the right information to give to the investigators…not an overwhelming amount, but just the right information—what’s really important,” Prady notes. “In a casino, that’s going to be tracking the money, tracking the assets, tracking the safety of the customers—that’s the information that needs to be prioritized.” </div><div>One technological advancement that has been a challenge for casinos is exploring video, especially if they’re required to turn over large amounts of it. “It takes twice as long to export it as to record it,” Prady explains. “Let’s say you need a week’s worth of video exported; it’s going to take you two weeks to export a week’s worth of video.” </div><div>In the past, the video was recorded on tapes or discs and could be turned over to police. With data stored in servers and the cloud, the exporting process can be burdensome for casinos. </div><div><br></div><div>“That’s something that needs to be planned for—how are you going to handle exporting all of your video at once if you have a major incident on a property?” he says. “It’s a planning exercise that’s good to do.” </div><div><br></div><div>Overall, Prady says the evolution of technology in the industry has helped streamline the gaming environment from a security and surveillance standpoint. </div><div><br></div><div>“Now we have cameras that can literally be as small as my thumb and we can place the cameras down in the furniture,” he says. “Cameras can be placed inside the gaming tables and out of the ceiling, with angles of view that we could never have before.”</div>​<br></div>

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https://sm.asisonline.org/Pages/Bag-Checks-At-Hotels-Unlikely-To-Become-New-Normal,-Expert-Says.aspxBag Checks At Hotels Unlikely To Become New Normal, Expert Says<p>​In the aftermath of the Las Vegas shooting that killed 59 people and wounded more than 500 others, many are wondering if hotels will change their security policies and procedures. </p><p>One area of concern is if hotels will begin implementing bag checks because gunman Stephen Paddock was able to smuggle 23 firearms, along with other equipment, into his suite at Mandalay Bay to carry out Sunday’s massacre.<br></p><p>The Wynn resort in Las Vegas—located on the opposite end of the Vegas Strip from the Mandalay Bay resort—introduced security guards on Monday afternoon to screen visitors with metal-detector wands. It also implemented a bag check, which created a 10-minute wait to get inside the facility. <br></p><p>This is unlikely to become the new normal for hotel security in the near future, however, says Russell Kolins, CEO of the Kolins Security Group and chair of the ASIS International Hospitality, Entertainment, and Tourism Security council.<br></p><p>“Hotels are in the business of selling privacy—they’re offering hospitality and selling privacy,” Kolins explains, adding that hotels would likely start to lose business if they began checking bags—especially in locations like Las Vegas. <br></p><p>“In Vegas especially, what happens in Vegas stays in Vegas,” Kolins says. “People bring items they don’t want other people to see.”<br></p><p>At airports, travelers are subject to bag searches—as well as body scans—because they are a different kind of target than a hotel. Travelers also have no expectation of privacy while on a plane, except for in the bathroom, unlike in a hotel where travelers expect privacy within their room, Kolins says.<br></p><p>One policy that might need to be revisited following the shooting, however, is how hotels handle checking rooms that have a “Do Not Disturb” sign on the door. <br></p><p>Paddock checked into the Mandalay Bay on Thursday and kept a “Do Not Disturb” sign on his hotel door throughout his stay. This meant hotel cleaning staff did not enter his room, <a href="https://www.nytimes.com/2017/10/03/us/las-vegas-gunman.html?hp&action=click&pgtype=Homepage&clickSource=story-heading&module=a-lede-package-region&region=top-news&WT.nav=top-news&_r=0" target="_blank">according to a hotel worker who spoke to The New York Times,​</a> because housekeeping is only allowed to enter a room with such a sign on it if a security guard is present.<br></p><p>Requiring a security guard be present to enter rooms with privacy signs is the right move, Kolins says, but hotels should consider changing their policies to require room checks every other day.<br></p><p>“That’s an arbitrary period of time, but I think a policy should be instilled to at least check on the rooms,” Kolins says, adding that hotels would have to make patrons aware of the policy. But such a policy could, potentially, prevent an individual from using a hotel room for an extended period of time to plot a criminal act.<br></p><p>Kolins leads a team of court-certified security experts at his firm. He says he thinks it’s unlikely that Mandalay Bay will be sued for negligence for the shooting because to sue for negligence, plaintiffs must be able to show foreseeability. <br></p><p>“This is unprecedented—nothing like this has ever happened,” Kolins explains. “If something happens the first time, it’s not foreseeable.”<br></p><p>Now that such an attack has happened, though, if a similar attack happens plaintiffs could potentially bring a lawsuit saying it was foreseeable. In response, Kolins says he expects the hotel security industry to begin having seminars and tabletop meetings to determine how they would handle a similar case.<br></p><p>“I think what this has done is show that the slogan ‘expect the unexpected’ is again proven to be true,” Kolins says. “It wasn’t foreseeable because it was unprecedented.”​<br></p>GP0|#cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8;L0|#0cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8|Physical Security;GTSet|#8accba12-4830-47cd-9299-2b34a4344465
https://sm.asisonline.org/Pages/Training-Your-Team.aspxTraining Your Team<p>​</p><p>Whether the action is on the battlefield or the basketball court, you can be certain that the winning team owes its success in large measure to extensive training. Recognizing the importance of training to any team’s performance, the Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center set out to makes its own training program better. </p><p>The existing training program, which the director of protective services felt lacked specificity, consisted of one of the shifts’ veteran officers sitting with the new security employees and covering several department and hospital-specific policies along with administrative topics. Additionally, the new officers would be given several commercially produced security training videotapes to view, after which they were required to complete the associated tests. Following the completion of the tapes and review of the policies and administrative procedures, officers would go through brief hands-on training for certain subjects such as the use of force and pepper spray.</p><p>Once they completed these tests and training sessions, the officers would then begin their on-the-job training. Officers have historically stayed in the on-the-job phase of training between three and five weeks, depending on how quickly the officers learned and were comfortable with command center operations. When the officers completed their training program, they had to pass the protective services cadet training test as well as a test on command center procedures.</p><p>Training council. To help devise a better training program, the security director chose several members of the staff to sit on a training council. The group, which included the director, three shift managers, and the shift sergeants, met to discuss the current training program and what could be done to enhance it.</p><p><br>Through discussions with new employees, the council learned that the existing program was boring. The council wanted to revitalize the training to make it more interesting and more operationally oriented. The intent was to emphasize hands-on, performance-oriented training. The council also wanted to improve the testing phase so that the program results could be captured quantitatively to show the extent to which officers had increased their knowledge and acquired skills. <br> <br>Phases. The council reorganized training into four phases: orientation, site-specific (including on-the-job), ongoing, and advanced. Under the new program, the officers now take a test both before training, to show their baseline knowledge, and after the training, to verify that they have acquired the subject matter knowledge; they must also successfully demonstrate the proper techniques to the instructors.</p><p>Orientation training. The orientation training phase begins with the new employees attending the hospital’s orientation during their first day at the facility. The security department’s training officer then sits down with the new officers beginning on their second day of employment. This training covers all of the basic administrative issues, including what the proper clock-in and clock-out procedures are, when shift-change briefings occur, and how the shift schedules and mandatory overtime procedures function.   </p><p>The training officer also administers a preliminary test to the new officers that covers 12 basic security subjects including legal issues, human and public relations, patrolling, report writing, fire prevention, and emergency situations. New employees who have prior security experience normally score well on the test and do not need to view security training tapes on the subjects. The officers must receive a minimum score of 80 percent to receive credit for this portion of the training. If an officer receives an 80 percent in most topics but is weak in one or two subjects, that officer is required to view just the relevant tapes, followed by associated tests.</p><p>All officers, regardless of the amount of experience, review the healthcare-specific tapes and take the related tests for the specific subjects including use of force and restraint, workplace violence, disaster response, bloodborne pathogens, assertiveness without being rude, and hazardous materials. Also included in the orientation training phase are classes covering subjects such as pepper spray, patient restraint, defensive driving, and the hospital’s protective services policies.</p><p>Site-specific training. During site-specific training, officers learn what is entailed in handling specific security reports. The shift manager, shift officer-in-charge, or the training officer explains each of the reports and has the new employee fill out an example of each. 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For example, some topics include departmental policies, radio communication procedures, command center refresher sessions, self-defense subjects, confronting hostile people, proper report writing, and temporary restraint training. By implementing the shift-change training sessions on a weekly basis, the department created an additional five hours of training per year for each officer.</p><p>One of the security supervisors created a six-minute training binder to house all of the lesson plans. Each shift supervisor uses the same lesson plan so that the training is consistent across the shifts. As with all other training, the before-and-after tests are given to quantitatively document changes in subject knowledge or skills.</p><p>Results. After implementing the training program, the training council wanted to check the initial results to see whether the training was effective. There were numerous quantifiable measurements that the council could use to evaluate the new training program, such as tracking the rate of disciplinary actions from the previous year to the current year. However, since the council desired to have a quick assessment of the training program changes, it decided to compare the after-training test scores to the before-training test scores for the computer-based training modules as well as the scores of the six-minute training tests. </p><p>To the council’s surprise, the initial tabulated scores resulted in an average before-training test score of 93 percent and an after-training test score of 95 percent. The council also found in many of the officers’ tests that they missed the same questions on both the before and after tests.</p><p>Based on these results, the council decided to make several changes. First, the test questions were reviewed and tougher questions were added. Based on the preliminary test score, the council felt that the questions were not challenging enough and might not indicate how competent the officers were with the subject matter. </p><p>The training council assigned each shift the task of revising the tests for their computer-based training modules as well as the six-minute training tests. The goal was to make the tests more challenging and to obtain more accurate assessments of the effectiveness of the training program. </p><p>The training council also reviewed how the different shifts were conducting the six-minute lessons. Managers noted that the shifts initially followed the schedule of the six-minute subjects from week to week, but then they began to conduct their own lessons without an accepted lesson plan or to forgo training altogether. </p><p>To avoid this problem, the training council determined that the training program needed to be more structured. The group created a schedule to indicate which class would be covered each week. One of the shift supervisors volunteered to take over the six-minute training program and formally structure it so that each shift would conduct training in a consistent manner.</p><p>The training council has plans to further hone the training program in the near future. The council plans to analyze the program us­ing other quantitative evaluative instruments such as an employee survey and a comparison of disciplinary action data from previous years. </p><p>In battle, it is said that an army fights as it has trained. Thus, commanders know the value of training. In the businessworld, though the stakes are different, training is no less critical to the success of the mission.</p><p>Ronald J. Morris, CPP, is senior director of protective services at Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center. Dan Yaross, CPP, is manager of protective services. Colleen McGuire, CPS (crime prevention specialist), is sergeant of protective services. Both Morris and Yaross are members of ASIS International.</p>GP0|#cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8;L0|#0cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8|Physical Security;GTSet|#8accba12-4830-47cd-9299-2b34a4344465
https://sm.asisonline.org/Pages/Q-and-A---Soft-Targets.aspxQ&A: Soft Targets<p>​<span style="line-height:1.5em;">Jennifer Hesterman, Colonel, U.S. Air Force (Retired), discusses her book <em>Soft Target Hardening</em>, which was named the 2015 ASIS Security Book of the Year. Available from ASIS; asisonline.org; Item #2239; 322 pages; $69 (members); $76 (nonmembers).</span><span style="line-height:1.5em;">​</span></p><p><strong><em>Q.</em></strong><em> Why are soft targets increasingly attractive to terrorists?  </em></p><p><strong>A. </strong>Soft target, civilian-centric places that are not typically fortified—such as schools, churches, hospitals, malls, hotels, restaurants, and recreational venues—have little money to spend on security. Frequently, they must balance security, aesthetics, and a positive experience for customers.  </p><p>Terrorists select soft targets because there are many, possibly hundreds, of them in small towns and cities; they are vulnerable, so the odds of success are high and the terror effect is amplified among civilians. The story also stays in the news longer—the soft target attack in San Bernardino received far more coverage for almost twice the length of time compared to the Ft. Hood shooting. Military and government workers are generally seen as more legitimate targets than civilians, so soft targets provide more of the outrage, shock, and fear that terrorists crave.</p><p><em><strong>Q.</strong> What inspired you to write a book on hardening soft targets? </em></p><p><strong>A.</strong> I was living in the Middle East and close to several soft target attacks. I also realized that in the United States after 9-11, we further reinforced hard targets like government buildings and military installations, while soft targets are increasingly in the crosshairs but unprotected. I traveled all over the Middle East and Southwest Asia, and saw how soft targets are protected against attack. I wanted to apply some of these lessons to the civilian sector.  </p><p><em><strong>Q.</strong> Which soft targets are being hardened in the United States?</em></p><p><strong>A.</strong> Schools are further along the spectrum due to the rise of school shootings and stabbings. Mall security is much improved after the Westgate Mall attack in Nairobi, but shopping venues are still extremely vulnerable. Churches have a unique problem due to their open, inviting culture even after the Charleston shooting. Of course synagogues, mosques, and Sikh temples are moving towards a more hardened posture as the result of a rise in domestic terrorist activity. Hospitals usually don’t realize they are targets for terrorist attack or exploitation. Every type of soft target is different and requires tailored hardening tactics. </p><p><em><strong>Q. </strong>What trends should security professionals look out for?</em></p><p><strong>A. </strong>The insider threat is a growing concern. Insider attacks have the greatest possibility of success in terms of destruction of a target and mass casualties. The perpetrator can preposition items, understands the layout of the facility, has unfiltered access, and knows vulnerabilities to exploit. </p><p>We spend a great deal of time in vetting people during the hiring process, but new employees are basically left alone after the onboarding process. Venues like stadiums or concert halls may perform inadequate background checks on seasonal workers. The book discusses added layers of protection such as using behavioral detection techniques, a buddy system where a seasoned worker is paired with a new worker, and rules ensuring that no one is ever alone.</p>GP0|#cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8;L0|#0cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8|Physical Security;GTSet|#8accba12-4830-47cd-9299-2b34a4344465