Leisure and Hospitality

 

 

https://sm.asisonline.org/Pages/No-Vacancy-for-Human-Traffickers.aspxNo Vacancy for Human TraffickersGP0|#3795b40d-c591-4b06-959c-9e277b38585e;L0|#03795b40d-c591-4b06-959c-9e277b38585e|Security by Industry;GTSet|#8accba12-4830-47cd-9299-2b34a43444652019-07-01T04:00:00ZMichael Haggard and Jason Brenner<p>​In July 2018, a study conducted by the non-governmental organization (NGO) Polaris revealed that 80 percent of forced commercial sex acts occur at a motel or hotel. Not only were the properties utilized for the actual sex crimes, but traffickers also used them to hold their victims in captivity. Budget motels were identified as the venue of choice for these crimes in 2000—and remain popular for such purposes even today. </p><p>Human trafficking can only be described as one of the most deplorable exploitations of globally vulnerable and highly at-risk individuals. Every year, the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) presents Congress with a report on the <a href="https://www.hsdl.org/?abstract&did=799834" target="_blank">National Strategy to Combat Human Trafficking</a>. The federal definition for human trafficking purposely includes commercial sex exploitation, and states have adopted similar language in statutes criminalizing these actions. Despite legislative attempts, global human trafficking generates an estimated $150 billion annually, with commercial sexual exploitation accounting for $99 billion, according to the International Labor Organization’s 2014 report <em><a href="https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_norm/---declaration/documents/publication/wcms_243391.pdf%3b%20%E2%80%9CDisorder%20at%20Budget%20Motels%2c%E2%80%9D%20https://ric-zai-inc.com/ric.php?page=detail&id=COPS-P068" target="_blank">Profits and Pove​rty: The Economics of Forced Labour​</a>.</em></p><p>Sex trafficking victims’ accounts identified security failures and inadequacies that allowed the victims to either remain captive—in some cases for years at a time—or meet with traffickers and customers at the budget motel. Victims were also subject to roughly 10 to 20 violators per day, who paid traffickers to have sex with the victims. Each time, the trafficker, victim, and violators entered and left the premises undetected.  </p><p>In the context of human trafficking cases and budget motels, tremendous efforts to tackle this epidemic have been made over the past couple of decades. The annual DOJ report details the federal government’s efforts and proactive steps to combat the global human trafficking criminal network; but even with the department prosecuting these cases for more than 20 years, more prosecutions, heftier penalties levied upon traffickers, and improved services for victims did not occur until the enactment of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000. Seven years after the law’s ratification, the DOJ formed the Human Trafficking Protection Unit (HTPU) under the Criminal Section of the Civil Rights Division, tasked with consolidating the expertise under one umbrella and taking on multijurisdictional and international prosecutions. </p><p>However, until recently, budget motel operators and the hotel industry, whether silent or simply ignorant of these matters, remained largely on the sidelines, excluded from federal and legislative efforts to curb human trafficking—making it difficult to thwart the continued exploitation of these victims. </p><h4>The Missing Lin​​k</h4><p>Year after year, budget motels are the preferred venue for human trafficking. The National Human Trafficking Resource Center, which hosts a confidential hotline service (<a href="https://humantraffickinghotline.org/" target="_blank">NHTH</a>) for victims and survivors, reported 6,656 phone calls on the hotline, emails, and online tips received from 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2016. Of those calls, 2,386 of them provided enough information to identify an instance of potential trafficking. Of the 2,181 cases of identified sex trafficking, 1,755—more than 80 percent—involved a hotel or motel.</p><p>According to the NHTH, an NGO funded by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, even though budget motels are frequently selected by traffickers, motel owners may or may not be aware of how their businesses are used to perpetuate these crimes.</p><p>A number of studies show that these crimes occur most frequently at motels, thanks to the anonymity of the industry’s business model, which includes a lack of policies and procedures to document criminal incidents. As a result, the most overt and heinous crimes are permitted to occur on these motel properties.</p><p>For example, in May 2018, three men were charged in Florida for human trafficking. Police responding to a call about a man with a gun outside a Super 8 motel room ultimately discovered two women being trafficked and sold for sex.</p><p>And as recently as February 2019, <em>The Palm Beach Post</em> reported on a woman responsible for sex-trafficking girls in South Florida. The woman admitted to living in area short-term rentals and motel rooms with more than five underage girls, one of whom was likely only 13 years old. </p><p>Other incidents take years and coordination between multiple agencies to uncover, such as with a trafficker arrested in 2017, who lured young women for at least two years with the promise of work in Florida. Instead, using threats of physical harm, he forced the women into sex trafficking. The trafficker paid for multiple rooms on the same date and, by one victim’s account, used a hotel room as a classroom to educate a victim on how to sell her body for sex. The trafficker secured a room above the first floor to avoid attention and obtained a second key to the room so as to enter and collect the money. </p><p>In addition to the global initiative to combat human trafficking, the DOJ’s Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS) aimed to assist state and local law enforcement, providing information and grant resources to combat violent crime in localized areas throughout the country. In 2005, COPS researched and developed guidelines for local law enforcement and municipalities, including one that specifically addresses issues at budget motels, <a href="https://ric-zai-inc.com/Publications/cops-p068-pub.pdf" target="_blank">Disorder at Budget Motels</a>.</p><p>To create effective guidelines for local law enforcement, COPS focused on a general risk assessment of budget motels. The results showed that the main contributing factors attributed to budget motels included: disturbances; domestic violence; theft; auto theft and theft from vehicles; public drinking; vandalism; prostitution; drug dealing and use; fights; clandestine drug-lab operations; sexual assault; and robbery. </p><p>Our law firm experienced the consequences of not having budget motel operators as part of the collaborative effort to combat sex trafficking. We represented two parents in a civil wrongful death suit against a budget motel in Hialeah, Florida, after their 30-year-old daughter was raped, beaten, and murdered by a drunken non-guest who came to the motel for a prostitute. Although the man was visibly intoxicated and not a guest of the motel, the clerk sold him beer and directed him to where he might find a prostitute. The same clerk did not assist the victim, Yaimi, to enter the room she was staying in, unable to confirm who rented it. Ultimately, the drunken man killed Yaimi 12 minutes after the clerk refused to help her.</p><p>The motel operator in Yaimi’s case, who owned a second budget motel about a mile away, had turned a blind eye to human trafficking practices on the properties for years. A few years prior to Yaimi’s murder, law enforcement was called out to one of the properties to investigate a disturbance. The police arrived and discovered two teenage girls forced into sex trafficking at both motels, where they had in fact been recruited.</p><h4>Legislati​​on </h4><p>States have attempted to curb human trafficking by passing legislation and mandating training for budget motel operators, threatening them with fines or forfeiture of their occupational licenses if they do not comply. Some states now hold budget motel operators civilly liable by granting the victims certain rights, including the ability to allege that the operator failed to protect them from forced sex slavery, but the lodging industry could fight back against such laws.</p><p>Alabama passed a law requiring budget motels to train employees on identifying signs of sex trafficking, and imposed civil penalties if they fail to do so with a certain period of time. The law also provides operators with immunity from civil liability if there is a good faith effort to train employees and implement sex trafficking prevention policies.</p><p>Pennsylvania enacted its first law allowing victims the right to sue those who indirectly profit from their trafficking. This led to a lawsuit involving a girl previously forced into sex trafficking when she was 14 years old. The complaint alleged that the girl, held captive in a budget motel for two years, was forced to have sex with men several times a day. The budget motel claimed they were unaware of the girl’s captivity and related status as a sex trafficking victim. Although the case could hopefully lead to a framework for future state legislation, the facts of the case indicate a long road ahead.  ​</p><h4>Resources</h4><p>Despite the commendable efforts by state and federal law enforcement, as well as social services agencies, the front line needs to be reinforced. Taking the initiative to raise awareness is crucial. Fortunately, there are a number of resources available to security professionals in the hospitality industry, ones that could further erode the current state of this criminal industry.</p><p>Using federal grants, the Office for Victims of Crime (OVC) and the Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA) created the Enhanced Collaborative Model Task Force in 2010. However, local task forces are not enough; the locales in which commercial venues are targeted by traffickers for the actual commercial sex act need to become a part of the collaboration.</p><p>“There is no easy fix, but combating modern-day slavery starts with awareness,” Marriott’s Chief Global Human Resources Officer David Rodriguez said. The hotel group recently finished implementing and training half a million of its employees in how to recognize human trafficking. Working in conjunction with Polaris, the same NGO studying the financial scope of human trafficking, Marriott’s project took about two years to complete. </p><p>Despite the difference in room rates between Marriott and budget motels, the hotel’s decision to incorporate policies and use resources available to hospitality businesses proved useful. The Marriott program successfully led to the arrest and incarceration of a man who was using the lobby of a London branch to meet and groom an underage girl, proving that lodging clients can be part of the solution, but only with the utilization of the available resources. </p><p>The concern over potential civil lawsuits from victims of sex trafficking, or by families of victims like Yaimi, makes budget motel operators wary about voluntary participation. Certain steps can be taken to combat sex trafficking at budget motels that are simply good policies and should be embraced by such venues as a component of their corporate responsibility.</p><p>The ECPAT-USA is an NGO that has been working to end the commercial, sexual exploitation of children for more than 25 years. The group focuses on promoting corporate responsibility by providing resources for training staff to look for signs of sex trafficking. The organization offers businesses and their security professionals a checklist that meshes with a company’s existing overall security plan.</p><p>The ECPAT-USA Anti-Trafficking Hotel Checklist has two categories: management and associates. Some of the items impact various businesses differently. For instance, a large hotel chain may not have an issue with implementing a no-cash policy for room rentals, but a large percentage of budget motels’ revenue consists of cash payments, giving such venues’ operators concerns over implementing a similar policy. As a compromise to this policy, budget motel operators could instead require photo IDs upon registering for a room and maintain a copy. Another suggested policy is running daily cash room rental reports.</p><p>Security professionals should train associates on how to monitor guests and take action if one or more of the following occurs: guests who specifically request rooms near exits; guests with visitors who stay in the vehicle; multiple guests visiting the same room; and guests who refuse to show government-issued photo identification or register their visitors. </p><p>On the management side of anti­-trafficking policies, ECPAT-USA calls for mandatory vehicle information and photo ID at check-in; strategic placement of security cameras to capture guests walking in and out of the lobby and in the parking areas; establishing law enforcement contacts in anti-human-trafficking task forces and allowing access to the premises to investigate; and blocking Internet access to popular websites for online sex ads. </p><p>Budget motel operators provide rooms at low cost and on an hourly basis. This is a reality that is unlikely to change. Leaders and security professionals working against human trafficking should aim at making these businesses partners in the fight against sex trafficking in a way that is workable with their business model and transforming them into the last line of defense to prevent incidences of sex trafficking.  </p><p><em>Michael Haggard is the managing partner for The Haggard Law Firm, specializing in negligent security, wrongful death, unsafe premises, and pool drowning. Haggard continuously lobbies for permanent solutions and change through local, statewide, and federal legislation. JASON BRENNER is a partner and has worked for The Haggard Law Firm since 2010. Brenner has worked on cases dealing with negligent security, auto accidents, wrongful death, and personal injury. </em></p>

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https://sm.asisonline.org/Pages/Bag-Checks-At-Hotels-Unlikely-To-Become-New-Normal,-Expert-Says.aspxBag Checks At Hotels Unlikely To Become New Normal, Expert Says<p>​In the aftermath of the Las Vegas shooting that killed 59 people and wounded more than 500 others, many are wondering if hotels will change their security policies and procedures. </p><p>One area of concern is if hotels will begin implementing bag checks because gunman Stephen Paddock was able to smuggle 23 firearms, along with other equipment, into his suite at Mandalay Bay to carry out Sunday’s massacre.<br></p><p>The Wynn resort in Las Vegas—located on the opposite end of the Vegas Strip from the Mandalay Bay resort—introduced security guards on Monday afternoon to screen visitors with metal-detector wands. It also implemented a bag check, which created a 10-minute wait to get inside the facility. <br></p><p>This is unlikely to become the new normal for hotel security in the near future, however, says Russell Kolins, CEO of the Kolins Security Group and chair of the ASIS International Hospitality, Entertainment, and Tourism Security council.<br></p><p>“Hotels are in the business of selling privacy—they’re offering hospitality and selling privacy,” Kolins explains, adding that hotels would likely start to lose business if they began checking bags—especially in locations like Las Vegas. <br></p><p>“In Vegas especially, what happens in Vegas stays in Vegas,” Kolins says. “People bring items they don’t want other people to see.”<br></p><p>At airports, travelers are subject to bag searches—as well as body scans—because they are a different kind of target than a hotel. Travelers also have no expectation of privacy while on a plane, except for in the bathroom, unlike in a hotel where travelers expect privacy within their room, Kolins says.<br></p><p>One policy that might need to be revisited following the shooting, however, is how hotels handle checking rooms that have a “Do Not Disturb” sign on the door. <br></p><p>Paddock checked into the Mandalay Bay on Thursday and kept a “Do Not Disturb” sign on his hotel door throughout his stay. This meant hotel cleaning staff did not enter his room, <a href="https://www.nytimes.com/2017/10/03/us/las-vegas-gunman.html?hp&action=click&pgtype=Homepage&clickSource=story-heading&module=a-lede-package-region&region=top-news&WT.nav=top-news&_r=0" target="_blank">according to a hotel worker who spoke to The New York Times,​</a> because housekeeping is only allowed to enter a room with such a sign on it if a security guard is present.<br></p><p>Requiring a security guard be present to enter rooms with privacy signs is the right move, Kolins says, but hotels should consider changing their policies to require room checks every other day.<br></p><p>“That’s an arbitrary period of time, but I think a policy should be instilled to at least check on the rooms,” Kolins says, adding that hotels would have to make patrons aware of the policy. But such a policy could, potentially, prevent an individual from using a hotel room for an extended period of time to plot a criminal act.<br></p><p>Kolins leads a team of court-certified security experts at his firm. He says he thinks it’s unlikely that Mandalay Bay will be sued for negligence for the shooting because to sue for negligence, plaintiffs must be able to show foreseeability. <br></p><p>“This is unprecedented—nothing like this has ever happened,” Kolins explains. “If something happens the first time, it’s not foreseeable.”<br></p><p>Now that such an attack has happened, though, if a similar attack happens plaintiffs could potentially bring a lawsuit saying it was foreseeable. In response, Kolins says he expects the hotel security industry to begin having seminars and tabletop meetings to determine how they would handle a similar case.<br></p><p>“I think what this has done is show that the slogan ‘expect the unexpected’ is again proven to be true,” Kolins says. “It wasn’t foreseeable because it was unprecedented.”​<br></p>GP0|#cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8;L0|#0cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8|Physical Security;GTSet|#8accba12-4830-47cd-9299-2b34a4344465
https://sm.asisonline.org/Pages/Training-Your-Team.aspxTraining Your Team<p>​</p><p>Whether the action is on the battlefield or the basketball court, you can be certain that the winning team owes its success in large measure to extensive training. Recognizing the importance of training to any team’s performance, the Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center set out to makes its own training program better. </p><p>The existing training program, which the director of protective services felt lacked specificity, consisted of one of the shifts’ veteran officers sitting with the new security employees and covering several department and hospital-specific policies along with administrative topics. Additionally, the new officers would be given several commercially produced security training videotapes to view, after which they were required to complete the associated tests. Following the completion of the tapes and review of the policies and administrative procedures, officers would go through brief hands-on training for certain subjects such as the use of force and pepper spray.</p><p>Once they completed these tests and training sessions, the officers would then begin their on-the-job training. Officers have historically stayed in the on-the-job phase of training between three and five weeks, depending on how quickly the officers learned and were comfortable with command center operations. When the officers completed their training program, they had to pass the protective services cadet training test as well as a test on command center procedures.</p><p>Training council. To help devise a better training program, the security director chose several members of the staff to sit on a training council. The group, which included the director, three shift managers, and the shift sergeants, met to discuss the current training program and what could be done to enhance it.</p><p><br>Through discussions with new employees, the council learned that the existing program was boring. The council wanted to revitalize the training to make it more interesting and more operationally oriented. The intent was to emphasize hands-on, performance-oriented training. The council also wanted to improve the testing phase so that the program results could be captured quantitatively to show the extent to which officers had increased their knowledge and acquired skills. <br> <br>Phases. The council reorganized training into four phases: orientation, site-specific (including on-the-job), ongoing, and advanced. Under the new program, the officers now take a test both before training, to show their baseline knowledge, and after the training, to verify that they have acquired the subject matter knowledge; they must also successfully demonstrate the proper techniques to the instructors.</p><p>Orientation training. The orientation training phase begins with the new employees attending the hospital’s orientation during their first day at the facility. The security department’s training officer then sits down with the new officers beginning on their second day of employment. This training covers all of the basic administrative issues, including what the proper clock-in and clock-out procedures are, when shift-change briefings occur, and how the shift schedules and mandatory overtime procedures function.   </p><p>The training officer also administers a preliminary test to the new officers that covers 12 basic security subjects including legal issues, human and public relations, patrolling, report writing, fire prevention, and emergency situations. New employees who have prior security experience normally score well on the test and do not need to view security training tapes on the subjects. The officers must receive a minimum score of 80 percent to receive credit for this portion of the training. If an officer receives an 80 percent in most topics but is weak in one or two subjects, that officer is required to view just the relevant tapes, followed by associated tests.</p><p>All officers, regardless of the amount of experience, review the healthcare-specific tapes and take the related tests for the specific subjects including use of force and restraint, workplace violence, disaster response, bloodborne pathogens, assertiveness without being rude, and hazardous materials. Also included in the orientation training phase are classes covering subjects such as pepper spray, patient restraint, defensive driving, and the hospital’s protective services policies.</p><p>Site-specific training. During site-specific training, officers learn what is entailed in handling specific security reports. The shift manager, shift officer-in-charge, or the training officer explains each of the reports and has the new employee fill out an example of each. Examples of reports covered in site-specific training include incident reports, accident reports, field interrogation reports, fire reports, motorist-assist forms, ticket books, safety-violation books, broken-key reports, work orders, bomb-threat reports, and evidence reports.</p><p>On-the-job training is also part of the site-specific training phase. The new employee works with a qualified security officer for a period of two to three weeks following the first week of orientation training with the departmental training officer. The new employee works through all of the various posts during this time. At least one week is spent in the command center. The site-specific phase of training culminates with both the security officer cadet training exam and the command center exam, which were also given in the original program.</p><p>Ongoing training. The ongoing training includes refresher training in which shift managers have their officers review selected films covering healthcare security and safety subjects. The training occurs during shift hours. The officers also receive annual refresher training covering topics such as using pepper spray and employing patient-restraint methods.</p><p>Another type of ongoing training, shift training, is conducted at least weekly. Managers conduct five-to ten-minute meetings during duty hours to refresh the security staff on certain subjects, such as customer service. These sessions are not designed to deal with complex topics. Managers can tie these sessions to issues that have come up on the shift.</p><p>Advanced training. Advanced training includes seminars, management courses, and sessions leading to professional designations and certifications. Qualified personnel are urged to attend seminars sponsored by several professional societies and groups such as ASIS International, the International Healthcare Association for Security and Safety, and Crime Prevention Specialists. Staff members are also encouraged to attain the Crime Prevention Specialist (CPS) certification, the Certified Protection Professional (CPP) designation, and the Certified Healthcare Protection Administrator (CHPA) certification.</p><p>Staff members are urged to pursue special interests by obtaining instructor certification such as in the use of pepper spray or the use of force. This encouragement has already paid off for the hospital. For example, the department’s security systems administrator has trained officers on each shift in how to exchange door lock cylinders, a task that would previously have required a contractor. Officers are currently being trained to troubleshoot and repair CCTV, access control systems, and fire alarm equipment problems.</p><p>Training methods. A special computer-based training program was developed to help quantify and track the success in each of the training modules. Additionally, a program was developed to present training subjects during shift changes.</p><p>Computer training. Security used off-the-shelf software to create computer-based training modules and included them in the site-specific training and ongoing training phases, both of which occur during shift hours. The training council tasked each shift with creating computer-based training modules for the various security officer assignments on the hospital’s main campus and off-campus sites. 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The volunteers also created tests for before and after an officer goes through each of the computer modules to track the effectiveness of the training.</p><p>Shift-change training. A major question with ongoing training is how to fit it into the officer’s routine. For most industries using shift work, difficulties arise when trying to carve out enough training time without creating overtime. The training council decided to take advantage of downtime that occurs as officers come to work ready for their shift to begin. They are required to show up six minutes before the shift. This time is now used for training.</p><p>The shift-change training is used to cover specific topics—already covered in some of the training phases—that can be easily encapsulated into a six-minute program. 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There were numerous quantifiable measurements that the council could use to evaluate the new training program, such as tracking the rate of disciplinary actions from the previous year to the current year. However, since the council desired to have a quick assessment of the training program changes, it decided to compare the after-training test scores to the before-training test scores for the computer-based training modules as well as the scores of the six-minute training tests. </p><p>To the council’s surprise, the initial tabulated scores resulted in an average before-training test score of 93 percent and an after-training test score of 95 percent. The council also found in many of the officers’ tests that they missed the same questions on both the before and after tests.</p><p>Based on these results, the council decided to make several changes. First, the test questions were reviewed and tougher questions were added. 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The group created a schedule to indicate which class would be covered each week. One of the shift supervisors volunteered to take over the six-minute training program and formally structure it so that each shift would conduct training in a consistent manner.</p><p>The training council has plans to further hone the training program in the near future. The council plans to analyze the program us­ing other quantitative evaluative instruments such as an employee survey and a comparison of disciplinary action data from previous years. </p><p>In battle, it is said that an army fights as it has trained. Thus, commanders know the value of training. In the businessworld, though the stakes are different, training is no less critical to the success of the mission.</p><p>Ronald J. Morris, CPP, is senior director of protective services at Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center. Dan Yaross, CPP, is manager of protective services. Colleen McGuire, CPS (crime prevention specialist), is sergeant of protective services. Both Morris and Yaross are members of ASIS International.</p>GP0|#cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8;L0|#0cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8|Physical Security;GTSet|#8accba12-4830-47cd-9299-2b34a4344465
https://sm.asisonline.org/Pages/Q-and-A---Soft-Targets.aspxQ&A: Soft Targets<p>​<span style="line-height:1.5em;">Jennifer Hesterman, Colonel, U.S. Air Force (Retired), discusses her book <em>Soft Target Hardening</em>, which was named the 2015 ASIS Security Book of the Year. Available from ASIS; asisonline.org; Item #2239; 322 pages; $69 (members); $76 (nonmembers).</span><span style="line-height:1.5em;">​</span></p><p><strong><em>Q.</em></strong><em> Why are soft targets increasingly attractive to terrorists?  </em></p><p><strong>A. </strong>Soft target, civilian-centric places that are not typically fortified—such as schools, churches, hospitals, malls, hotels, restaurants, and recreational venues—have little money to spend on security. Frequently, they must balance security, aesthetics, and a positive experience for customers.  </p><p>Terrorists select soft targets because there are many, possibly hundreds, of them in small towns and cities; they are vulnerable, so the odds of success are high and the terror effect is amplified among civilians. The story also stays in the news longer—the soft target attack in San Bernardino received far more coverage for almost twice the length of time compared to the Ft. Hood shooting. Military and government workers are generally seen as more legitimate targets than civilians, so soft targets provide more of the outrage, shock, and fear that terrorists crave.</p><p><em><strong>Q.</strong> What inspired you to write a book on hardening soft targets? </em></p><p><strong>A.</strong> I was living in the Middle East and close to several soft target attacks. I also realized that in the United States after 9-11, we further reinforced hard targets like government buildings and military installations, while soft targets are increasingly in the crosshairs but unprotected. I traveled all over the Middle East and Southwest Asia, and saw how soft targets are protected against attack. I wanted to apply some of these lessons to the civilian sector.  </p><p><em><strong>Q.</strong> Which soft targets are being hardened in the United States?</em></p><p><strong>A.</strong> Schools are further along the spectrum due to the rise of school shootings and stabbings. Mall security is much improved after the Westgate Mall attack in Nairobi, but shopping venues are still extremely vulnerable. Churches have a unique problem due to their open, inviting culture even after the Charleston shooting. Of course synagogues, mosques, and Sikh temples are moving towards a more hardened posture as the result of a rise in domestic terrorist activity. Hospitals usually don’t realize they are targets for terrorist attack or exploitation. Every type of soft target is different and requires tailored hardening tactics. </p><p><em><strong>Q. </strong>What trends should security professionals look out for?</em></p><p><strong>A. </strong>The insider threat is a growing concern. Insider attacks have the greatest possibility of success in terms of destruction of a target and mass casualties. The perpetrator can preposition items, understands the layout of the facility, has unfiltered access, and knows vulnerabilities to exploit. </p><p>We spend a great deal of time in vetting people during the hiring process, but new employees are basically left alone after the onboarding process. Venues like stadiums or concert halls may perform inadequate background checks on seasonal workers. The book discusses added layers of protection such as using behavioral detection techniques, a buddy system where a seasoned worker is paired with a new worker, and rules ensuring that no one is ever alone.</p>GP0|#cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8;L0|#0cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8|Physical Security;GTSet|#8accba12-4830-47cd-9299-2b34a4344465