Surveillance

 

 

https://sm.asisonline.org/Pages/Subway-Surveillance.aspxSubway SurveillanceGP0|#cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8;L0|#0cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8|Physical Security;GTSet|#8accba12-4830-47cd-9299-2b34a43444652017-11-01T04:00:00Zhttps://adminsm.asisonline.org/pages/holly-gilbert-stowell.aspx, Holly Gilbert Stowell<p>​For small business profitability, it’s the little things that make a difference, and keeping tabs on employees can help prevent shrinkage. According to Subway franchise owner Kim Jordan, protecting her assets means that every bag of chips and loaf of bread must be accounted for. “The only way we can make money as a franchise is by keeping our labor expenses down…and by keeping our food costs down,” says Jordan, who owns six of the sandwich franchise stores in Alabama. </p><p>Because employees often work solo shifts in the store, Jordan has experienced food theft, which drives up business costs.  </p><p>“The greatest loss to my business is employee theft, whether it may be someone walking out the door with a case full of steak, stealing products, or giving away products,” she explains. </p><p>While Jordan knew that video surveillance would help, the infrastructure for individual security systems at each store would have been burdensome from a financial and management perspective, she says. That’s when she turned to Hokes Bluff, Alabama-based security integrator Lee Investment Consultants, LLC, to determine the best solution for preventing the theft and robbery plaguing the restaurant. <img src="/ASIS%20SM%20Callout%20Images/1117%20Case%20Study%20Stats%20Box.jpg" class="ms-rtePosition-2" alt="" style="margin:5px;width:430px;height:244px;" /></p><p>After evaluating a number of manufacturers, the decision was made to choose two camera models and a video management system from Hanwha Techwin America. With this system, the end user can view live video remotely or from individual store locations, and easily review recorded footage. </p><p>The install at the first store location was completed in May 2015, and over the next year and a half the other stores were outfitted. The last installation, at the store located inside a Walmart, was completed in November 2016. </p><p>To keep infrastructure costs down, the integrator provides long-term video storage at its hosting facility. It keeps footage for 30 days for the Subway stores before overwriting it. </p><p>Given the limited bandwidth Subway restaurants use mainly for their point of sale (POS) systems, local SD recording has been a major benefit of the system. For redundancy purposes, recording is performed right on the device using an SD card, and the video is uploaded overnight to the storage servers. </p><p>Most store locations have two cameras–one pointed at the sandwich line and register, and another pointed at the back portion of the store where the coolers are. One of the larger stores has three cameras, and the Walmart location only has one camera at the entrance. </p><p>“We’ve had problems where employees are voiding out transactions at the register,” Jordan says. “Once employees get clever with the computer system, they might void out an order they just transacted…and stuff that money in their pocket.” </p><p>Now the problem with employee theft at the register has gone down, Jordan says, because they can view the cameras which are pointed at the POS terminals. “We can go back and view the video at the time that void was made, so we can see if the transaction is legitimate or not.”</p><p>Many of her individual store managers have access to the camera feeds, and Jordan entrusts them with reporting any cases of theft or unwanted employee behavior.</p><p>For example, one of her managers performed an inventory check and realized several bags of sandwich sauce were missing. Suspecting one employee in particular as the culprit, that manager decided to watch a live video feed the next time that employee was working. </p><p>“She just sat there...and actually watched the employee sneaking out the front door with the sauces,” Jordan says. The employee was immediately fired. “If someone’s going to steal a bag of sweet onion teriyaki sauce, they’re not trustworthy.” </p><p>The cameras have also led to the arrest of employees in more serious incidents. “A few months ago a customer had come in and had left her wallet behind, so my manager put it in a filing cabinet and told an employee that was coming in it was there,” she explains. “And when the lady came to pick up her wallet, she had a credit card and cash that was missing.” </p><p>Video revealed that the employee who knew where the wallet was had stolen a credit card, and used it to buy a bag of chips in the store. The security integrator helped Jordan upload the footage onto a thumb drive to take to the police. “We got a warrant, and they arrested her for using that credit card,” Jordan tells Security Management. “We could not have proved it if it weren’t for the cameras.” </p><p>Even more recently, Jordan noticed about $5,000 was missing from the franchises’ bank deposits that a manager was supposed to be putting in the bank. “Our cameras provided the evidence that she did get the deposits out of the safe and walked out of the store with them,” Jordan says. The manager was arrested and charged with felony embezzlement.</p><p>“I never give someone a second chance to steal,” Jordan says. “To me if they steal a bag of chips or give a sandwich to a friend, then they’ll take home five sandwiches for themselves when they get the chance.” </p><p>The return on investment from a business perspective has also been huge, Jordan notes. “At one location, our food cost for months had been above 40 percent,” she notes. “After we got those cameras, within a week our food cost came down within the margin we needed.” </p><p>The cameras have also led to a greater sense of security among her workers. “I have had employees say they feel safer because of the cameras,” she notes. “Especially with some younger employees, 16 or 17 years old, it’s been a comfort to their parents having the cameras when their child is closing alone.”</p><p><em>For more information: Tom Cook, tom.cook@hanwha.com, www.hanwhasecurity.com, 201.325.2623 ​</em></p>

Surveillance

 

 

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https://sm.asisonline.org/Pages/Surveillance-and-Stereotypes.aspxSurveillance and Stereotypes<p>​Juveniles make up 40 percent of the shoplifters in the United States. Shoplifters, in total, contribute to billions of dollars of loss each year, according to the National Association for Shoplifting Prevention’s 2014 report <em>Shop­lifting Statistics.</em></p><p>To combat adolescent shoplifting, according to the report, retailers depend on private security officers combined with other security measures, including security cameras, observation mirrors, and radio-frequency identification (RFID) tags. </p><p>The key to apprehending juveniles during or after shoplifting, however, is to correctly determine whom to surveil. Security personnel often rely on a combination of common underlying physical characteristics—race, gender, and age—and behavioral indices—glancing at clerks nervously, assessing security measures, and loitering—to distinguish shoppers from potential shoplifters. </p><p>Are these surveillance decisions a result of bias? To find out, the authors conducted original academic research funded by the John Jay College of Criminal Justice of the City University of New York on how stereotypes play into who is suspected of shoplifting, how that suspect is dealt with, and what private security can do to limit discriminatory practices.​</p><h4>Existing Data</h4><p>A 2003 Journal of Experimental Psychology article, “The Influence of Schemas, Stimulus Ambiguity, and Interview Schedule on Eyewitness Memory Over Time,” which discussed research findings and lawsuits against retailers, concluded that stereotypes of juvenile shoplifters may unduly influence security officers to target juveniles on the basis of their physical characteristics, rather than their behaviors.</p><p>Over the past 20 years, the media has reported on cases in which the retail industry engaged in discriminatory practices. This is known as consumer racial profiling (CRP), “the use of race and or ethnicity to profile customers.” According to a 2011 study in the Criminal Justice Review, “Public Opinion on the Use of Consumer Racial Profiling to Identify Shoplifters: An Exploratory Study,” officers sometimes use CRP to determine which juvenile shoppers are potential or actual thieves. </p><p>Most people develop negative stereotypes about juvenile thieves through exposure to various types of media, particularly when they reside in areas that contain few minorities. The media has the unique ability to both shape and perpetuate society’s beliefs about which juveniles typically commit offenses through its selective coverage of crimes. </p><p>It is also common for the media to portray adolescents—particularly boys—as criminals. Biases are then used, whether consciously or unconsciously, in the private sector by retailers and security officers to target shoppers, and in the public sector by those in the legal system, including law enforcement officers, prosecutors, judges, and even legislators, to arrest and prosecute thieves.</p><p>The consequences of applying discriminatory practices can be seen in the private sector through lawsuits against retailers. Ethnic minority shoppers purport that they were targeted through excessive surveillance—and even through false arrests. </p><p>Researchers have shown that this automated bias occurs even when observers were trained to focus on behavioral cues, and it persists despite findings that shoplifting occurs across racial and ethnic groups, according to the 2004 Justice Quarterly article “Who Actually Steals? A Study of Covertly Observed Shoplifters.”</p><p>Stereotypes also affect retailers’ decisions on how to handle shoplifters, either formally by involving the police, or informally. The results of accumulated discrimination, accrued during each step in the legal process—initial involvement of police, decision to prosecute, conviction, and sentencing—continue in the legal system. This is evidenced by the disproportionate number of African- and Latin-American boys shown in the apprehension and arrest statistics of juvenile thieves, compared to their representation in the population, according to Our Children, Their Children: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Differences in American Juvenile Justice, a book published by the Chicago University Press. ​</p><h4>Current Research</h4><p>To test the premise that there is a widespread stereotype of the typical juvenile thief and shoplifter, our research team obtained information from young adults in two diverse areas:  97 psychology-major college students in a small city in the U.S. state of Kansas, and 156 security and emergency management majors at a college in a large city in New York state. </p><p><strong>Shoplifter profile. </strong>The psychology-major students were 83 percent European American. The rest of the students were represented as follows: 5 percent African American, 2 percent Asian American, 1 percent Latin American, and 9 percent of mixed or unknown descent.</p><p>The security and emergency management major students—72 percent of whom were male—came from a variety of backgrounds: 31 percent European American, 37 percent Latin American, 19 percent African American, 9 percent Asian American, and 2 percent Middle Eastern American.</p><p>Participants in both locations were asked to guess the common physical characteristics of a typical juvenile shoplifter—age, gender, ethnicity or race, and socioeconomic status. </p><p>The stereotypical juvenile shoplifters described by both the Kansas and New York respondents were remarkably similar: male, aged 14 to 17, and from lower- to middle-class families of African-American, Latin-American, or European-American descent. The two samples also indicated that the stereotypical thief was likely to have short or medium length brown or black hair and an identifying mark—such as a piercing. </p><p>These findings show commonality in the prevalence of certain physical characteristics, despite the diversity of the two groups of respondents, and demonstrate that American society has a well-developed juvenile shoplifter stereotype.</p><p><strong>Decision processes. </strong>After determining the stereotype, the research team considered whether juvenile shoplifter stereotypes affected respondents’ decisions. The goal was to determine the degree to which the respondents believed that physical characteristics influenced the security guards’ decisions regarding whom to surveil, and what consequences to apply when a youth was caught stealing.</p><p>The New York respondents read a brief scenario describing a juvenile shoplifter as either male or female and from one of five backgrounds: European American, African American, Asian American, Latin American, or Middle Eastern American. However, the description of the overt behaviors by the juvenile was the same for every scenario—selecting and returning shirts in a rack, glancing around the store, and stuffing a shirt into a backpack.</p><p>Respondents provided their opinions about the degree to which the security officer in the scenario relied on physical characteristics in surveilling a juvenile, and whether the retail manager and security officer should impose informal or formal sanctions on the shoplifter. Researchers reasoned that respondents should draw identical conclusions for surveillance and sanctions if they were simply evaluating the juvenile shoplifters’ behaviors, but that students would have different recommendations for these choices if their racial or ethnic stereotypes were activated.</p><p>Respondents who indicated a preference for applying informal sanctions did so more frequently for girls of African-American and Middle Eastern-American descent. These respondents also assessed that the officer described in the scenario based his or her surveillance decisions on physical characteristics. No other gender differences for race or ethnicity were notable when considering reliance on physical characteristics.</p><p>Stereotypes also affected decisions on how to sanction the shoplifter. Respondents were given the option of implementing one of four informal sanctions: speak to the juvenile, call parents to pick up the juvenile, get restitution, or ban the youth from the store. Their selection of the least severe sanction—talk to the juvenile—was doled out at a higher rate for boys than for girls of each ethnicity except European Americans, which did not differ.</p><p>The moderate level sanction—call the youth’s parents—was selected more for girls than for boys of African and Latin descent. The most severe level sanction—ban the youth from the store—was selected more for boys than for girls of African descent. However, it was selected more for girls than for boys of Asian, European, and Middle Eastern descent.<img src="/ASIS%20SM%20Callout%20Images/0417%20Feature%202%20Chart%201.jpg" class="ms-rtePosition-2" alt="" style="margin:5px;width:510px;" /></p><p>Respondents who indicated a preference for applying formal sanctions attributed physical characteristics to the guards’ surveillance decision for girls more than for boys of Latin descent; gender differences were not apparent for the other ethnicities. </p><p>Respondents were also given five formal sanctions for the youths: involve the police, prosecute the theft as larceny, impose a fine, give the youth diversion or community service, or put the incident on the youth’s criminal record. Their selection of the least severe sanction—involve the police—was endorsed more for boys than for girls of Asian, European, and Latin descent, but more for girls than for boys of African descent. No gender difference was apparent for youths of Middle Eastern descent.</p><p>The most severe sanction—diversion or community service—was preferred more for boys than for girls of African descent. A small percentage of respondents endorsed a criminal record for the theft of a shirt, but only for girls of African and European descent and for boys of Middle Eastern descent.</p><p>Finally, a comparison of our data revealed that respondents believed informal—rather than formal—consequences should be imposed for girls rather than for boys of Asian and European descent, and for boys rather than for girls of Latin descent. ​<img src="/ASIS%20SM%20Callout%20Images/0417%20Feature%202%20Chart%202.jpg" class="ms-rtePosition-2" alt="" style="margin:5px;width:519px;" /></p><h4>Lessons Learned</h4><p>Our findings clearly demonstrate that people have stereotypes about juvenile shoplifters. They also showed that people unconsciously use the typical physical characteristics of gender and race or ethnicity associated with their criminal stereotypes to make decisions and recommendations, such as whom to surveil and how to handle a shoplifting incident. Otherwise, there would not have been a difference in how the juvenile shoplifter was processed or punished, because the behaviors exhibited by all of the juveniles were identical across scenarios.</p><p>Consumer racial profiling is a defective filtering system that may direct private security officers’ attention to characteristics that are not reflective of actual shoplifting conduct. Our data suggests that CRP not only hurts retail businesses by discouraging minority consumers from shopping in their stores, but also simultaneously prevents security officers from apprehending shoplifters.</p><p>Other research, such as from “Juvenile Shoplifting Delinquency: Findings from an Austrian Study” published in the 2014 Journal for Police Science and Practice, shows that only 10 percent of juveniles are caught shoplifting. Even more disconcerting, the typical shoplifter steals on average 48 to 150 times before being apprehended. Clearly, retailers need a better strategy if they are to reduce loss due to shoplifting.</p><p>Another issue that was addressed was the decision to involve the legal system. Many businesses, despite having posted prosecution warnings, reported only about half of the adolescent shoplifters they caught to the police. </p><p>Retailers instead focus on minimizing loss and negative publicity, and may rationalize against reporting the offense to the police because they do not want to stigmatize the adolescent or because they consider it a one-time incident, particularly when the juvenile admits to the theft and then pays for or returns the items, according to the U.S. Department of Justice’s (DOJ) Community Oriented Policing Services.</p><p>These beliefs, however, may be misguided. Though current research is scarce, a 1992 study—The Sociology of Shoplifting: Boosters and Snitches Today—indicated that 40 to 50 percent of apprehended adolescent shoplifters reported that they continued shoplifting. </p><p>There are benefits for retailers who involve the legal system, especially for informal police sanctions. </p><p>First, criminal justice diversion programs and psychological treatment and educational programs treatment may reduce recidivism. For example, shoplifters who attended and completed a diversion program had significantly fewer re-arrests compared to those who failed to complete or did not attend, a DOJ study found.</p><p>Second, the private sector needs the support of the public sector to reduce shoplifting. Shoplifters can be given an opportunity to participate in first offender programs and, upon completion of classes on the effects of shoplifting, have their charges dismissed or even erased. ​</p><h4>Recommendations</h4><p>Retailers and private security officers need training to make them aware of their own biases and how their stereotypes affect their choices. They also need training to learn which behavioral indices are most effective in distinguishing shoppers from shoplifters. </p><p>If retailers do not make significant changes in guiding their employees—particularly security officers—towards objective measures of vigilance to prevent shoplifting, their financial loss will continue to be in the billions of dollars. </p><p>Private security officers must be taught how to treat all potential shoplifters, regardless of their gender, in the same way to prevent making mistakes and subjecting retailers to lawsuits for discriminatory security practices.</p><p>Overcoming unconscious biases is difficult. Prior to specialized training in bias identification and behavioral profiling, it is important to determine the biases of security officers. Self-assessment measures similar to the ones the researchers used in their study can be administered. </p><p>The officers should also keep records that specify each incident of shoplifting, what behaviors drew their attention to warrant surveillance, what act occurred to provoke them to approach the juvenile shoplifter, the items that were taken, the method used, the shoplifter’s demographics, how the situation was handled, who made the decision, and reasons for the decision. The officers should then review these records with their retail managers.</p><p>Retailers should also implement a mandatory training program to provide private security officers with the tools needed to identify shoplifting behaviors to increase detection and reduce shrink. </p><p>The incident records could be introduced and used to help identify the impact biases have on private security professionals’ decisionmaking about juvenile shoplifters. It would also help security guards learn the various types of suspicious behaviors that shoplifters exhibit, such as juveniles who make quick glances at staff, examine items in remote aisles, monitor security cameras and mirrors, and purposefully draw employees’ attention away from others.</p><p>Additionally, a practical component would be to show surveillance videos of the behaviors exhibited by juvenile shoplifters of different gender and race or ethnicity. In this way, the findings of past studies showing the insignificance of race, ethnicity, or gender can be learned through real-world examples.  </p><p>--<br></p><p><em><strong>Dr. Lauren R. Shapiro </strong>is an associate professor in the Department of Security, Fire, and Emergency Management at John Jay College of Criminal Justice. She has published several journal articles and chapters on the role of stereotypes in perception and memory for crime and criminals. <strong>Dr. Marie-Helen (Maria) Maras</strong> is an associate professor at the Department of Security, Fire, and Emergency Management at John Jay College of Criminal Justice. She is the author of several books, including Cybercriminology; Computer Forensics: Cybercriminals, Laws, and Evidence; Counterterrorism; and Transnational Security.   ​</em></p>GP0|#cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8;L0|#0cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8|Physical Security;GTSet|#8accba12-4830-47cd-9299-2b34a4344465
https://sm.asisonline.org/Pages/Stress-Test.aspxStress Test<p>It’s stressful being a first responder—that’s a statement that has been accepted as axiomatic for years. But just how stressful, the impact of the stress, and how the stress can be best treated are all issues that have been poorly understood. </p><p>“For too long, we—we being the general public, and we being the government on every level—did not recognize that impact (of stress and trauma) on first responders,” says Deborah Beidel, professor of psychology at the University of Central Florida (UCF) where she directs the UCF RESTORES Clinic, which uses virtual reality tools to treat victims of stress disorders. “There’s no Veteran's Affairs for first responders. This is a problem that each county and each state has to own up to and face.” </p><p>Now, recent research and programs like the one at UCF RESTORES are providing fresh insights into various types of stress and trauma experienced by different first responders, and which types of treatments are most effective. </p><p>Anastasia Miller has experienced first responder stress first-hand. For about five years, she worked as a firefighter and as an emergency medical service responder. She found the work stressful—at least at times, she says.  Later, as a graduate student, she decided to study this stress and its impacts.</p><p>At UCF, Miller devoted her doctoral dissertation to stress, burnout, and support strategies for first responders. Last month, her research was published in the International Journal of Police Science and Management. </p><p>In her research, Miller looked at four types of first responders working at state protective agencies in Florida—firefighters, law enforcement officers, emergency medical service providers, and dispatchers. </p><p>She included dispatchers in part because she had already interviewed many of them for a previous unpublished research project, and had found that they suffered symptoms of numbness, anger, and feeling haunted by incidents. “They were describing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms,” she says. </p><p>In sum, Miller found that different types of responders can experience stress differently. For example, responders who either witness a traumatic event or help a victim overcome an event, but are not directly involved with the event itself, may experience secondary traumatic stress. Because they are not victims of the event itself, they do not have PTSD per se, but some of the symptoms of secondary stress are similar to PTSD symptoms. </p><p>This secondary traumatic stress was common, at least at some level, Miller found. About 60 percent of first responders displayed low levels of secondary traumatic stress, 39 percent displayed moderate levels, and 1 percent displayed high levels, according to her survey. </p><p>But of the four types of responders, dispatchers and EMS personnel were the most likely to experience high levels of secondary traumatic stress. And, as she gathered from her previous unpublished research, dispatchers were the responders who showed the most burnout and felt the least amount of support. </p><p>“I guess I was hoping that would not be the case, but it wasn’t a surprise,” she said of the finding. </p><p>In general, Miller says she is glad there has been more attention paid to first responders’ needs since 9/11, but progress in giving them better support seems slow and incomplete. </p><p>“It’s often blanket statements and blanket policies without much data,” she says, adding that when responders’ needs are addressed, dispatchers are often ignored. Further study is needed on the individual needs of different types of responders, and how programs could be better customized to support each role, she explains. </p><p>Like Miller, Beidel also recognizes the intense stress that dispatchers can undergo. In fact, it was a dispatcher who played a critical role in expanding UCF RESTORES treatment services for first responders. </p><p>Beidel and UCF RESTORES clinicians started working with combat veterans with PTSD in 2011. The results were promising. Beidel examined information about the first 100 patients of the clinic for a study later published in the Journal of Anxiety Disorders; the study found that 66 percent of the patients no longer had PTSD after three weeks of treatment.</p><p>Then in 2014, a UCF colleague named Clint Bowers was discussing this work with his sister, an emergency dispatcher. When the dispatcher heard about the PTSD suffered by combat veterans, she said, “PTSD? You ought to talk to me.”</p><p>This sparked the group to start working with first responders. As part of this work, they developed a peer support training program for fire departments. Through this program, the clinic developed ties with fire departments in the greater Orlando area, and when the Pulse nightclub shooting occurred last year, clinicians were called in to debrief firefighters on the morning after. </p><p>“It was quite stressful,” Beidel says. In those debriefings, she and her colleagues offered “psychological first aid.” </p><p>Since that time, the clinic has worked with firefighters, police officers, and emergency dispatchers. A few months ago, clinic officials received $5.5 million in U.S. federal and state grant funding to develop an entire virtual reality treatment system for first responders, which is scheduled to be up and running by the first quarter of 2019.</p><p>The clinic’s virtual reality treatment program uses sight, sounds, and smells to recreate conditions that cause the responder stress or trauma. It does so through the use of head-mounted viewers, earphones, and a scent machine that blows out the appropriate smells, such as burning or smoky odors.  </p><p>Patients may be treated five days a week for three weeks running; this is combined with group-therapy sessions on stress-related topics like anger management and depression.</p><p>“If you think about trauma, everything that’s associated with trauma is triggered by a remembering of trauma,” Beidel says. So, if a man in a red shirt is walking a mean dog that gets off his leash and attacks someone, the victim’s memories of that terrible event may later be triggered by a red shirt.</p><p>To treat such a victim, a virtual reality scenario might be created wherein the victim encounters a man in a red shirt walking a very friendly dog who stays on the leash. </p><p>“It creates new learning. It breaks those old connections,” she explains. “People are making new connections—neural connections—and they are developing new memories. We never erase the old memory, but that mem­ory loses the power to dictate one’s life.”</p><p>With the new grant funding, Beidel hopes that the clinic can increase its reach and treat more first responders. The need for treatment is pressing, she says, given the impact that stress can have. For example, the National Fallen Firefighters Foundation has found that firefighters are three times more likely to die by suicide than from a blaze. </p><p>And the problem is not just an American one; other organizations outside the United States have recognized the need for dealing with first responder stress. In Canada, Simon Fraser University (SFU) in Vancouver started a First Responders Trauma Prevention and Recovery certificate program designed to help responders mitigate the effects of stress and trauma. The SFU program was started in 2016 after the suicide rate for first responders in Canada increased, with 39 Canadian first responders taking their own lives in 2015. </p><p>“That’s the thing—this is something that can be treated,” Beidel says. “But we first have to recognize it.”   ​</p>GP0|#28ae3eb9-d865-484b-ac9f-3dfacb4ce997;L0|#028ae3eb9-d865-484b-ac9f-3dfacb4ce997|Strategic Security;GTSet|#8accba12-4830-47cd-9299-2b34a4344465
https://sm.asisonline.org/Pages/Surveillance-for-Security-and-Beyond.aspxSurveillance for Security and Beyond<p>​<span style="line-height:1.5em;">In 2015, there are more than 2 billion surveillance cameras worldwide, according to estimates from Seagate Technology. These cameras are watching over people and property in previously unimagined settings. The United Kingdom, an early adopter of public area surveillance, had nearly 6 million cameras in 2013, according to estimates by the British Security Industry Authority–one camera for every 11 citizens. Institutions like schools and hospitals have long relied on surveillance to protect those coming through their doors, and retailers and manufacturers are using traditional surveillance to not only improve security, but to enhance quality control and boost flaging marketing strategies. </span></p><p>Experts testify to the increasing affordability of cameras as a factor in the industry’s growth. They also point to the operational value surveillance systems provide, in addition to the traditional security applications. As an illustration of how surveillance is being used in unique ways, this article looks at how a major transportation authority is using cameras to provide operational benefits. Next is a look at how trends in surveillance in law enforcement, municipal, and education spaces are making surveillance technology indispensable.​</p><h4>Mass Transit</h4><p>The Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA) is the fifth largest transit system in the United States, with an average daily ridership of nearly 1.4 million people. The agency’s transportation modes include bus, light rail, subway, ferry, and paratransit for riders with physical disabilities. </p><p>“The transit environment is one of the most complicated security environments you could have because of the unbelievably high volume of customers, the complexity of trains and track, and…hundreds of staircases and escalators and elevators,” says Randy Clarke, director of security and emergency management at MBTA. “All of these things could be places where a security issue could come up or an emergency response or fire emergency. Slip, trip, and fall–these things happen all day, every day.” </p><p>Clarke tells Security Management that the security arm of the MBTA takes an approach to the divisions it services much like a corporate security program would: “Our job is to support our internal clients, such as the operations control group, transit police, legal department, things of that nature.” Security staff also support the Registry of Motor Vehicles, as well as the state police and highway operations center. </p><p>In 2009 the agency began a capital security project to secure all of its facilities with a video surveillance system. The number of cameras MBTA has is in “the thousands,” says Clarke, and they are all embedded within the agency’s access control system that services its more than 10,000 employees. </p><p>To expand its video surveillance program, early last year MBTA began rolling out a project to equip its buses with an integrated video system that would provide real-time surveillance aboard 225 of its more than 1,100 buses. “If you walk into a store, you see a monitor and know you’re on TV; therefore, you know there’s security in this building,” Clarke says. “We wanted that approach for bus security.” </p><p>The previous solution was burdensome and took time out of daily transit operations because video could not be transferred over a network, notes Clarke. “You’d have to go get the bus, take the bus out of service, pull the hard drive, hope the hard drive actually works, put it in a hard-drive reader, replace it with another one, and there will be impacts to the bus operations because you either have to hold the bus and do this operation out in the street impacting customers, or take the bus out of service.”</p><p>MBTA turned to Canadian firm Genetec for its Omnicast video surveillance solution, which provides a number of features that enhance law enforcement and public safety while increasing operational benefits for the agency. </p><p>Each bus is equipped with two 360-<span style="line-height:1.5em;">degree cameras and four high-definition cameras, all manufactured by Panasonic. Additional equipment, such as an anti­vibration feature, is provided to meet the needs of a rugged transportation mode like a bus, which encounters obstacles such as potholes. A screen installed inside the bus shows all the camera views so passengers can see themselves and others on video, much like in a retail store environment. The video is recorded and stored locally on a network video recorder (NVR) inside each bus. </span></p><p>Whenever a bus pulls back into the depot, the video begins downloading automatically to the central server over Wi-Fi, and the footage is stored for about a month. However, if there is an incident that occurs while the bus is still moving, Clarke says they can immediately download the video over the Verizon LTE network to the central monitoring station. “We’re not going to do that for a 30-minute file or six different camera views, but we can do it for an immediate incident,” he explains.  </p><p>The MBTA has a sworn police force of transit officers who specifically deal with incidents relating to the transportation system. Each squad car has a mobile data terminal that integrates with the bus video surveillance platform, allowing an officer to see in real time what’s occurring on a vehicle via a Wi-Fi connection. In addition to the transit police dispatch center, the MBTA has a separate dispatch for transit operators, and at least one police officer is on duty there at all times. </p><p>City and state law enforcement agencies also benefit from the video surveillance when it comes to tracking down criminal suspects. Clarke notes that immediately after committing a crime, thieves will often use public transportation to flee the scene. Recently, a bank robber jumped on a subway train to evade police. Operators at the central monitoring station were able to match the video surveillance to the suspect’s description, and they instructed the train operator to wait at the next station until law enforcement could arrive and make an arrest. </p><p>Operator assault is another major problem the video surveillance solution is helping to solve. In one case, a patron punched a driver in the face; the driver immediately radioed into transit dispatch. Within a minute the central monitoring station had pulled up video from the bus, Clarke says, and zoomed in on the offender’s face. When officers arrived at the scene, the suspect was walking down the street attempting to escape. He was immediately arrested.</p><p>MBTA has a high level of engagement with the public, Clarke notes, and it uses tools such as social media to communicate with riders. With video surveillance, any tweets sent to MBTA over Twitter are easily corroborated, allowing situations to be resolved more quickly. For example, a patron may send a message that she suspects the bus driver is intoxicated. “We’ll look at the video, see if that video validates what the person is saying; if so, they can send a road supervisor, intercept that bus, and do a fitness for duty check on that employee to make sure that they’re not intoxicated,” he explains. </p><p>He adds that the MBTA has an exhaustive list of policies and procedures when it comes to filming and retaining the video. “We have a really detailed chain of custody for why we do video, how it’s archived, how it’s maintained, how it’s digitally stamped, how it would go to court, how it wouldn’t go to court—all those kinds of things.”</p><p>The agency has added 60 more buses to the Genetec platform since the initial deployment in 2014, and it plans to mi­­grate more of its fleet in the future. Clarke says any company looking to implement a similar video application should be prepared for customer feedback. “You just have to know with eyes wide open going into what you’re doing. When you’re go­ing to open up video on anything like a bus, you need to know that people are going to see it—the expectation level is high.” ​</p><h4>Law Enforcement</h4><p>“Especially in the municipalities, preventing crime is still the primary use for the video surveillance solution,” says Dave Sweeney, COO of Advantech, a company that provides system integration. His organization has completed a number of video surveillance projects for law enforcement, allowing them to take advantage of low-cost cameras to replace the need for human force. “We have a local police leader who says ‘I can’t afford to put an officer on every corner, but I can afford to put a camera on every corner,’” Sweeney notes. </p><p>Other municipalities have established partnerships with local businesses and law enforcement, providing a central monitoring station for camera feeds. While they may not have a dedicated </p><p>officer watching the monitors 24/7, if anything should occur throughout the city, “they have learned to use the tool to help them solve the crime, to dispatch their resources, and to try to find witnesses who may have left the scene to figure out what occurred,” he notes. For example, one such municipality teams up with government agencies. While the city owns about 75 percent of the cameras feeding into its central monitoring station, the other 25 percent come from the local housing authority’s cameras.</p><p>Sweeney says public perception can be a major challenge faced by municipalities when deploying video surveillance. “You always have the skeptical crowd who is leery of ‘Big Brother’ watching them,” he notes. “But if you put the solution in and publicize the benefits of it, ultimately the community will gain trust in it.” </p><p>Scalability is also crucial for muni­ci­­palities and law enforcement, but bu­dget constraints may only allow them to expand their video surveillance infrastructure a handful of cameras at a time. Often, Sweeney notes, money can get pulled away from video surveillance within a municipality’s budget if there’s an emergency such as a snowstorm that takes precedence. </p><p>He says whatever size deployment a city or law enforcement agency begins with, keeping its ultimate goal in mind is key to successful expansion. “The challenge for all parties involved in the beginning phase is making sure they understand the ultimate goal of the system in the future so that they can sign accordingly, and so that everything they put in will allow that growth.” ​</p><h4>Education</h4><p>Experts say schools are increasingly turning to video and audio surveillance to deter threats and also increase the amount of time being spent on education. One use of video surveillance technology in the education environment, for example, is corroborating incidents such as a child being bullied. Louroe Electronics provides an audio component to video cameras that adds an extra layer of monitoring.</p><p>“If a teacher tells the child’s parents, ‘your kid is acting up in class,’ the first thing they’re going to say is ‘not my little angel, she would never do that,’” says Cameron Javdani, director of sales and marketing at the audio company. “But if you can send it home with an audio clip of her picking on another student or some kind of incident that happened, it’s a lot more powerful and you can address the specifics of the situation, rather than this nebulous term of ‘bullying.’”</p><p>A combination of audio and video surveillance within schools can also allow students who are sick and have to miss class the opportunity to catch up on the day’s lessons. “There’s a huge secondary benefit to security equipment being used but serving a use that’s not security,” notes Javdani.  </p><p>Education administrators see video as a way to not only enhance security, but also improve the educational experience, which Sweeney says should be their primary focus. For example, a school being evacuated due to a bomb threat may lose eight hours of classroom time because authorities can’t clear the area where the device is supposedly located. But if video surveillance can help give an all-clear sooner, schools may get hours back in the teaching day.</p><p>The placement of surveillance cameras can also vary depending on the education environment, adds Sweeney, who says that a primary school may want more cameras pointed at doors and playgrounds, while high schools tend to want more cameras overall. “Once you migrate into the middle school and secondary education, that’s where you see the cam­eras really grow full scale into the facility,” he says. “Hallways, stairwells, cafeterias–all the areas where the students are for the most part, [whenever] there’s a very high student-to-adult ratio.”  </p><p>Another notable trend in the education space for video surveillance is shared infrastructure, says Sweeney, who explains he’s seen several schools using the same IT backbone for their video networks. “We’ve seen customers who are okay with sharing infrastructure that have a very well-thought-out, very clear IT policy….to allow the systems to use the same network hardware, but still remain completely isolated from traffic and all the other networking standpoints,” he says. ​</p><h4>Retail</h4><p>Surveillance remains a critical aspect of retail security for deterring and solving thefts, but experts say that stores are turning to surveillance to enhance marketing techniques, such as product placement, says Andrew Elvish, vice president of marketing at Genetec. Elvish notes that a company can use video and heat mapping to show which display cases in a store get the most traffic and visibility. That way, they can justify charging vendors more for shelving their products in those locations. </p><p>Retailers are also monitoring product sales with video management systems (VMS) that are connected to point-of-sale (POS) terminals. If they’re trying to find the video of a certain item being sold, they can click on the line item within their sales report and the VMS will jump to the video at the time and date it was vended. “You can click and go directly to the view of that product being scanned through the POS system,” he notes. “It’s not a super fancy Star Trek analytic, it’s just finding two pieces of data that are very meaningful and more powerful when you put them together.”​</p><h4>Trends</h4><p>The surveillance industry is on track to grow to nearly $49 billion by 2020, according to a January 2015 report from Grand View Research. Research by ASIS International indicates that 62 percent of organizations are increasing their video surveillance budgets in 2015 and 2016, while only 3 percent are decreasing budgets. “It’s getting ubiquitous, almost like a utility, and I think the cost is no longer going to be prohibitive,” says Robert Fuchs, marketing manager of surveillance technology at Plustek USA. In fact, many experts say that so many new manufacturers have entered the market, especially from Asia, and have reduced costs so much, that cameras have been “commoditized.” </p><p>Sweeney notes that the K-12 space will continue to expand on its use of surveillance. “I think the growth of video as a tool in that space is going to be something to keep an eye on,” he says. “You’re going to see a big push for visitor management, some form of a real-time check of visitors, not only of identification but also a formal log electronically of who came in.” </p><p>In the municipal market, Sweeney says having surveillance feeds at all times in law enforcement vehicles is a real possibility. Portability for police is something Plustek USA sees as a growth area. For example, during special events or in high-risk areas, law enforcement can mount a temporary camera. “They can just put a small camera on a pole and have it pointed in a direction. It doesn’t pull very much energy and they can have a couple of pairs of eyes looking at the events, not drawing attention, and take it back down,” Fuchs notes. </p><p>Surveillance technology vendors and integrators point to a number of existing or emerging trends in the industry that are shaping the way solutions are designed and installed. One such trend is unification of systems. “People don’t really want to focus on managing a whole bunch of different software applications when something bad is happening or they’re in a sense of panic,” says Elvish. “We see that in large-scale corporations; we see it in city, municipal, and state; we see it across the board in our end users–the idea of bringing together the core systems is really going to define where we’re going in this industry.” </p><p>VMS devices traditionally link with an organization’s cameras and can provide analytics so end users can easily search for needed footage. But Elvish says that uniting even more systems into the VMS platform is a growing trend. The system may also be tied to things like access control, license plate recognition, and intercoms, as well as sensors such as smoke alarms throughout an organization. With these unified systems, whenever an incident occurs, information is quickly available, and cameras can be pointed at the area of interest so operators can respond appropriately.  </p><p>Elvish recalls an incident that occurred at Schiphol Airport in Amsterdam, Eur­ope’s fifth-busiest airport in terms of passengers. Schiphol deals with a range of security issues every day. After a customer had a heart attack in a terminal, security was able to bring together a number of different tools to improve its response. A unified system “brings together the camera, it brings together the notification over the communication system–even two-way radio for mobile security officers and pushing SMS text messages to those mobile officers–and then to start that process of, okay, did you notify the local police force? Did you notify the ambulance? Did you get this form signed by the ambulance when they left? It seems like such a natural thing but it’s extraordinarily complex,” Elvish explains. </p><p>One popular new technology is the 4K camera, which provides ultra-high definition for video recording, about 4 times more than normal HD. “The trend toward these high megapixel cameras, like 4K cameras, that’s going to put a massive amount of stress on customers’ IP networks, in a good way,” adds Elvish, who says the quality of the cameras will be a major benefit for companies. He notes that marketplace solutions that accelerate GPU (graphic processing unit) transmission will help end users meet the challenge of higher load on their existing storage capacity. For example, with a GPU, an organization can increase the number of streams it can show on a single monitor with the same graphics capabilities it had before. </p><p>In the municipal space, Sweeney says there will be a push for more mobile video surveillance access for police. “In the municipal piece you’re going to see the growth of video surveillance continue, probably with the objective of trying to get that video out to the edge…</p><p>I think you’re going to see some push and some ability to get video out to those responders in their vehicles,” he says. </p><p>Elvish adds that in terms of storage, companies will be turning more to the cloud than to local devices. “We’re going to see the movement from edge to cloud architecture, and if we thought encryption and security were important from edge to core within your own security network, once you start moving edge to cloud then you really need to lock down that data,” he notes. </p><p>Javdani of Louroe adds that surveillance should be viewed as a preventive tool, not merely a retroactive one. “A lot of people in the industry, and I don’t know why, have this mentality of ‘we want to catch someone in the act,’” he notes. “You don’t want to catch them, you want to deter or prevent the criminal because it’s operationally better, and it saves a lot of headaches.” </p>GP0|#cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8;L0|#0cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8|Physical Security;GTSet|#8accba12-4830-47cd-9299-2b34a4344465