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https://sm.asisonline.org/Pages/Surveillance-on-the-Fly.aspxSurveillance on the FlyGP0|#cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8;L0|#0cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8|Physical Security;GTSet|#8accba12-4830-47cd-9299-2b34a43444652017-07-01T04:00:00Zhttps://adminsm.asisonline.org/pages/lilly-chapa.aspx, Lilly Chapa<p>​Long before Jack Hanagriff was tasked with creating a temporary camera deployment for Super Bowl LIVE, he called on Keith Drummond, senior director of sales for IDIS America, for help supplementing the city’s camera infrastructure. Drummond traveled to Houston for the NCAA Men’s Final Four tournament in April 2016 to better understand the city’s needs, and found that Houston was dealing with a common problem: it needed temporary coverage of the event area but didn’t have time to deploy a whole surveillance system.</p><p>“They have an existing video surveillance system with hundreds of cameras, but when they have these special events they don’t always have cameras where they need them,” Drummond explains. “And IP-based video surveillance is just inherently very difficult to employ and very time consuming.”</p><p>Although the Final Four was at a known location, Drummond said last-minute changes could leave officers scrambling: bad weather could force an outdoor event to relocate, or companies or celebrities might decide to throw their own side events at the last minute. “These celebrities will decide they want 10,000 people in an outdoor gathering for their party, and the city finds out last minute and now needs cameras where they don’t have them,” Drummond explains. </p><p>After visiting Houston and talking with Hanagriff about the city’s needs, IDIS and integrator Edge360 created a rapidly redeployable solution to be used during Houston’s 2016 Freedom Over Texas Fourth of July event. The solution they created could be deployed in under four hours by untrained personnel—setup only requires a place to hang the camera and a power source, Drummond notes. </p><p>John Rezzonico, CEO of Edge360, says that his military background taught him the importance of being able to adapt in the field, and he applied that logic to surveillance systems. “We came up with a solution that allows police officers to deploy cameras wherever they want, and if something changes they can quickly grab them, power them down, move them, stand them back up, and they come back up online,” Rezzonico explains. “The goal of the project is freedom of movement of the camera sensors, so that way they augment and support existing infrastructure of security that’s already in place.”</p><p>Rezzonico noted that the biggest challenge was overcoming bandwidth saturation to send the video feeds to command centers or mobile devices. “If everyone is using their cell phones at the same time, bandwidth goes away and everyone relying on it for public safety loses the video feed,” he explains. “Houston wanted a wireless solution that could augment their fixed security that was mobile and easy to deploy but could also utilize whatever bandwidth was available. Our solution didn’t just include cellular, it included WiFi and point-to-point transmission. It was all built in.”</p><p>The Freedom Over Texas event took place at Discovery Green, a 12-acre park, and 50,000 people were expected to attend. The park already had some broad camera coverage, but Drummond explains that there were a few areas where more specific views were needed. Four pan-tilt-zoom cameras were installed to focus on high-volume areas such as the stage. IDIS had to address the unique environment, taking the event itself into account. Because the fireworks show was going to be the centerpiece of the event—making the camera image go from nighttime to broad daylight with each explosion—cameras that could handle the fluctuation were required. </p><p>Video feeds were sent to the city’s main command center where they could be viewed side-by-side with the city’s existing camera feeds, but unlike the existing cameras the redeployable cameras could be viewed on mobile devices at satellite command centers and in the field. Since the main goal of the solution was to create a rapidly redeployable surveillance system, Drummond says IDIS and Edge360 tried to be as hands-off as possible during the deployment.</p><p>“We set ourselves up for failure—the concept is that they need to be deployed quickly by untrained personnel, in some cases the utility guy who had never seen them,” Drummond says. “We were obviously available if needed, but we didn’t give them any training and let them do things how they wanted.” The deployment went as expected, and there was no connectivity trouble.</p><p>During the Freedom Over Texas event, the cameras were able to use the cell network almost exclusively, but experienced occasional blips in the service. During those moments, video continued to be recorded on the camera’s SIM card, and that footage was transmitted back to the control center once the live feed was active again. </p><p>“Frankly, most of the time it’s the recorded video that’s most important, not the live video,” Drummond explains. “They are watching those cameras in real time, but most of the time there’s no action to be taken. But if an event does take place during an outage, you didn’t record it for evidence purposes. The smart failover technology changes that.”</p><p>“It’s key for cities to be able to share this system,” Rezzonico notes. “If a municipality buys it, they can send it to another one that needs it for easy deployment.” ​</p>

Surveillance

 

 

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https://sm.asisonline.org/Pages/Healthy-and-Secure.aspxHealthy and Secure<p>​With more than 8,000 Locations across the United States and approximately 247,000 employees, drugstore chain Walgreens puts a priority on protecting its assets, employees, and customers. The company’s security team, located at Walgreens headquarters in Deerfield, Illinois, strives to respond to any incident that requires attention in a timely manner, whether it be a robbery or a door alarm.</p><p>“Responding to events and dispatching is extremely important, especially in critical situations where we want to provide the best services to our people,” says Hal Friend, director of physical security and fire prevention for Walgreens.</p><p>The corporate headquarters, known as the support office, is home to around 7,000 employees. The security department, referred to as Asset Protection Solutions, is made up of asset protection officers (APOs), a physical access control systems team, and security specialists, among others.</p><p>About five years ago, the company was looking to upgrade its access control solution at its corporate headquarters and distribution centers. “We realized that we had outgrown the old platform we were on, and it wasn’t going to be able to keep up with us,” Friend notes. <img src="/ASIS%20SM%20Callout%20Images/0717%20Case%20Study%20Stats.png" class="ms-rtePosition-2" alt="" style="margin:5px;width:289px;" /></p><p>Walgreens turned to the Genetec Security Center platform, which offered an integrated video and access control solution with various features to meet the corporation’s needs. The installation was rolled out over the last few years across the corporate campus’s more than 40 buildings and distribution centers, and the last phase of the installation was completed in February 2017. </p><p>Synergis, the access control platform from Genetec, is unified with Genetec’s Omnicast video management platform through Security Center, tying the support office’s 700 cameras into one system. </p><p>Synergis operates card readers and turnstiles located throughout Walgreens’ support office campus and allows Walgreens to easily issue temporary badges for employees who forget or misplace their credentials. If workers forget or misplace their cards, they must produce identification to one of the company’s APOs. “The APOs verify in Genetec that the person is a badged employee, and then we have a process in Synergis to issue them a temporary badge that will expire at the end of that business day,” Friend explains.  </p><p>Through Synergis, the company can also set an expiration date for temporary badges for vendors, consultants, and contractors who need access for only a certain amount of time. </p><p>Walgreens has a handful of high-security locations, such as data centers, which require two-factor authentication. The employees with access to these areas must present their card to the reader, and place their fingerprint on a biometric scanner. </p><p>The company has also deployed anti-passback measures, which means the worker must badge in and badge out of the high-security location to prevent the badge from being shared. “If you leave without badging out, it will prevent you from badging back in, because the system thinks you’re still in there,” Friend notes. “It helps enforce compliance in high-value areas, so that we have exact record keeping on who was where, when.”</p><p>Through Synergis, the security team can also generate ad hoc reports that show the company who has access to specific locations. “We send those reports to the managers of those high-value areas, such as the data centers, and they audit them routinely to ensure that people who have access still require access,” he says.</p><p>Security Center from Genetec integrates into the company’s own security operations center, a 24/7 monitoring location staffed with trained officers called security specialists. If an alarm goes off anywhere on campus, the officers can click the associated alarm notification to view the video. “It’s really easy to immediately get that footage to see what happened,” he notes. </p><p>Many of the cameras on campus are situated around the perimeter or pointed at access control points. This allows for easy review of video footage related to any alarms triggered by doors forced open or turnstiles that appear obstructed. If an alert goes off, “we can immediately dispatch an asset protection officer to respond to that alarm, realizing that most of the events are mistakes,” he says. “But we investigate them all in case we do have an intrusion.”</p><p>In addition to protecting the support office, these officers monitor Walgreens locations across the country and provide dispatch calls to local law enforcement in the event of an emergency, using a video management platform from a different vendor.  </p><p>When a burglar alarm goes off at any of the store locations, security specialists use high definition video to go back and view the video associated with the alarm. If they can confirm that an intruder set off the alert, they call the police. “We dispatch only on verified alarms to cut down on false alarm dispatching, which is appreciated by law enforcement,” Friend notes. </p><p>With the headquarters located in a suburban environment, near major roads and highways, Friend says that unwelcome visitors can wander onto campus, though it is a rare occurrence. “There was an instance where the Genetec platform helped us identify an individual who came to the campus, and was not supposed to be here,” Friend says. Using video, which they turned over to law enforcement, “we identified how he got in, and then assisted the police in the investigation to apprehend that individual and resolve the matter.” </p><p>Walgreens does retain video for a specified amount of time to remain in compliance with the various audits that the company participates in. </p><p>Friend says that Genetec Security Center gives the corporation the flexibility it needs to maintain business efficiencies while providing security. “We’re ensuring security, but at the same time we never want security to impede the needs of the workforce at the campus,” Friend says. “We really feel we have that experience today with what we have.”</p><p><em>For more information: Beverly Wilks, bwilks@genetec.com, www.genetec.com, 866.684.8006</em></p>GP0|#cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8;L0|#0cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8|Physical Security;GTSet|#8accba12-4830-47cd-9299-2b34a4344465
https://sm.asisonline.org/Pages/Guns-and-Security-The-Risks-of-Arming-Security-Officers.aspxGuns and Security: The Risks of Arming Security Officers<p>​Cinemark was not to blame for the 2012 shooting at its Aurora, Colorado, movie theater where gunman James Holmes killed 12 people and injured 70 more. A jury did not find a <a href="http://www.denverpost.com/2016/05/19/cinemark-not-liable-for-aurora-theater-shooting-civil-jury-says/" target="_blank">lawyer’s argument compelling</a> that Cinemark should have provided armed security officers at the premier for <em>The Dark Knight Rises</em> because it was anticipating large crowds.</p><p>But should Cinemark have? Debates about armed security officers have flared up in the media and public discourse over the past few years. With the combination of a uniform and a firearm, armed officers may suggest a sense of security to the greater public, signaling that a business takes security and protection seriously. Others believe the presence of a gun merely stands to escalate dangerous situations.<br></p><p>The debate over the effect of firearms in such settings will not be settled anytime soon. But there are some things we do know about the consequences of arming security officers. Looking at it from an insurance perspective gives us a vantage to examine the risks and real-life consequences of arming security officers.<br></p><p><strong>Demand for Officers</strong><br></p><p>There are more than 1 million private security officers in the United States and about 650,000 police officers, according to the federal <a href="http://www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes333051.htm" target="_blank">Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS)</a>. After several years of steep increases in the number of security officers, the field is expected to grow by a steady 5 percent every year, the BLS estimates. Private security officers, more and more, are the face of security in the United States.</p><p>In some industries, such as healthcare, armed officers are a growing presence. Crime in healthcare facilities is a serious issue, so hospitals are looking to provide stronger security. The percentage of healthcare facilities that reported staffing armed officers in 2014 was almost double the rate four years prior, according to an <a href="http://www.nytimes.com/2016/02/14/us/hospital-guns-mental-health.html" target="_blank"><em>article in The New York Times. </em><br></a></p><p>“To protect their corridors, 52 percent of medical centers reported that their security personnel carried handguns and 47 percent said they used Tasers,” the Times reported, citing a 2014 survey by the International Association for Healthcare Security and Safety.<br></p><p>As discussed in a previous <em></em><a href="/Pages/The-Dangers-of-Protection-What-Makes-a-Guard-Firm-Low--or-High-Risk.aspx" target="_blank"><em>Security Management </em>article,</a> there’s been a pronounced demand for insurance for armed security officers at legal marijuana facilities. We can always expect there to be demand for armed officers at government facilities, though the demand at schools has decreased slightly.<br></p><p><strong>Pros and Cons of Armed Officers</strong><br></p><p>Many people perceive armed security officers favorably as a deterrent against violence and an assurance that a violent incident can be quickly quelled. From a client’s standpoint, it offers a perception of higher protection.</p><p>Armed security officers are widely accepted as warranted in certain locations where the threat level matches the use of force. Government contracts and high-profile corporate executives are protected by highly trained armed officers. At banks, the risk of robbery also justifies an armed officer.<br></p><p>But from an insurance and risk standpoint, it is difficult to craft a convincing argument for armed security officers in many settings. The presence of a gun is not proven to de-escalate a situation in every environment, and it is unlikely to deter violent and determined individuals. The presence of an additional firearm—even in an officer’s hands—only stands to increase the risk of casualties. This is particularly true of public or crowded environments, like stadiums, schools, and restaurants.<br></p><p>By looking at insurance claims, it’s clear that when a security officer discharges his or her gun, the resulting claims are serious. There is a big difference between an officer using mace and an officer using a gun. Claims resulting from the use of firearms are likely to breach insurance policy limits, so firms employing armed security officers are wise to purchase higher limits of liability than firms not employing armed officers.<br></p><p>When someone is shot by a security officer, his—or his estate—will likely sue the business that contracted the officer. And the security firm and officer are going to be brought into the suit as well—no matter how well-trained the officer. If it goes to trial, it is very rare for a judge and jury to believe use of the weapon was justified. It is almost always perceived as excessive force.<br></p><p>The insurance marketplace for security firms is very small, and employing armed officers reduces the market even further. This means firms that provide armed officers will be paying a higher premium for less coverage; they will most likely be relegated to the surplus lines insurance market, which can mean more policy exclusions. Therefore, it’s important for the security firm to weigh the increased costs and policy limitations of taking on an armed contract.<br></p><p><strong>Mitigating Risks of Armed Officers</strong><br></p><p>If a client insists on armed officers, there are steps that can be taken to reduce the risk of an officer discharging his or her weapon. </p><p>All officers should be checked against lists of individuals who are not permitted to carry firearms, in addition to the usual criminal background check. For armed posts, staff them with off-duty or former law enforcement officers; police receive extensive firearms training, as well as other training that helps them de-escalate challenging situations.<br></p><p>Consider local or state licensing requirements for armed security officers—they can vary by municipality. In some states, armed officers are not required to have special firearms training. For those states that do, officers and clients can be protected by ensuring that officers are trained to use firearms. Situational training, which is recommended for all officers, is particularly important for armed security officers as it teaches them to understand a judicious use of force for the environment they serve.<br></p><p>There are no easy, blanket answers to the question of whether to arm security officers. But looking at the risks and financial implications might help security leaders make decisions on a case-by-case basis.<br></p><p><em>Tory Brownyard is the president of Brownyard Group, a program administrator that pioneered liability insurance for security guard firms more than 60 years ago. He can be reached at tbrownyard@brownyard.com or 1-800-645-5820.</em><br></p><p><br></p>GP0|#cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8;L0|#0cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8|Physical Security;GTSet|#8accba12-4830-47cd-9299-2b34a4344465
https://sm.asisonline.org/Pages/Surveillance-and-Stereotypes.aspxSurveillance and Stereotypes<p>​Juveniles make up 40 percent of the shoplifters in the United States. Shoplifters, in total, contribute to billions of dollars of loss each year, according to the National Association for Shoplifting Prevention’s 2014 report <em>Shop­lifting Statistics.</em></p><p>To combat adolescent shoplifting, according to the report, retailers depend on private security officers combined with other security measures, including security cameras, observation mirrors, and radio-frequency identification (RFID) tags. </p><p>The key to apprehending juveniles during or after shoplifting, however, is to correctly determine whom to surveil. Security personnel often rely on a combination of common underlying physical characteristics—race, gender, and age—and behavioral indices—glancing at clerks nervously, assessing security measures, and loitering—to distinguish shoppers from potential shoplifters. </p><p>Are these surveillance decisions a result of bias? To find out, the authors conducted original academic research funded by the John Jay College of Criminal Justice of the City University of New York on how stereotypes play into who is suspected of shoplifting, how that suspect is dealt with, and what private security can do to limit discriminatory practices.​</p><h4>Existing Data</h4><p>A 2003 Journal of Experimental Psychology article, “The Influence of Schemas, Stimulus Ambiguity, and Interview Schedule on Eyewitness Memory Over Time,” which discussed research findings and lawsuits against retailers, concluded that stereotypes of juvenile shoplifters may unduly influence security officers to target juveniles on the basis of their physical characteristics, rather than their behaviors.</p><p>Over the past 20 years, the media has reported on cases in which the retail industry engaged in discriminatory practices. This is known as consumer racial profiling (CRP), “the use of race and or ethnicity to profile customers.” According to a 2011 study in the Criminal Justice Review, “Public Opinion on the Use of Consumer Racial Profiling to Identify Shoplifters: An Exploratory Study,” officers sometimes use CRP to determine which juvenile shoppers are potential or actual thieves. </p><p>Most people develop negative stereotypes about juvenile thieves through exposure to various types of media, particularly when they reside in areas that contain few minorities. The media has the unique ability to both shape and perpetuate society’s beliefs about which juveniles typically commit offenses through its selective coverage of crimes. </p><p>It is also common for the media to portray adolescents—particularly boys—as criminals. Biases are then used, whether consciously or unconsciously, in the private sector by retailers and security officers to target shoppers, and in the public sector by those in the legal system, including law enforcement officers, prosecutors, judges, and even legislators, to arrest and prosecute thieves.</p><p>The consequences of applying discriminatory practices can be seen in the private sector through lawsuits against retailers. Ethnic minority shoppers purport that they were targeted through excessive surveillance—and even through false arrests. </p><p>Researchers have shown that this automated bias occurs even when observers were trained to focus on behavioral cues, and it persists despite findings that shoplifting occurs across racial and ethnic groups, according to the 2004 Justice Quarterly article “Who Actually Steals? A Study of Covertly Observed Shoplifters.”</p><p>Stereotypes also affect retailers’ decisions on how to handle shoplifters, either formally by involving the police, or informally. The results of accumulated discrimination, accrued during each step in the legal process—initial involvement of police, decision to prosecute, conviction, and sentencing—continue in the legal system. This is evidenced by the disproportionate number of African- and Latin-American boys shown in the apprehension and arrest statistics of juvenile thieves, compared to their representation in the population, according to Our Children, Their Children: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Differences in American Juvenile Justice, a book published by the Chicago University Press. ​</p><h4>Current Research</h4><p>To test the premise that there is a widespread stereotype of the typical juvenile thief and shoplifter, our research team obtained information from young adults in two diverse areas:  97 psychology-major college students in a small city in the U.S. state of Kansas, and 156 security and emergency management majors at a college in a large city in New York state. </p><p><strong>Shoplifter profile. </strong>The psychology-major students were 83 percent European American. The rest of the students were represented as follows: 5 percent African American, 2 percent Asian American, 1 percent Latin American, and 9 percent of mixed or unknown descent.</p><p>The security and emergency management major students—72 percent of whom were male—came from a variety of backgrounds: 31 percent European American, 37 percent Latin American, 19 percent African American, 9 percent Asian American, and 2 percent Middle Eastern American.</p><p>Participants in both locations were asked to guess the common physical characteristics of a typical juvenile shoplifter—age, gender, ethnicity or race, and socioeconomic status. </p><p>The stereotypical juvenile shoplifters described by both the Kansas and New York respondents were remarkably similar: male, aged 14 to 17, and from lower- to middle-class families of African-American, Latin-American, or European-American descent. The two samples also indicated that the stereotypical thief was likely to have short or medium length brown or black hair and an identifying mark—such as a piercing. </p><p>These findings show commonality in the prevalence of certain physical characteristics, despite the diversity of the two groups of respondents, and demonstrate that American society has a well-developed juvenile shoplifter stereotype.</p><p><strong>Decision processes. </strong>After determining the stereotype, the research team considered whether juvenile shoplifter stereotypes affected respondents’ decisions. The goal was to determine the degree to which the respondents believed that physical characteristics influenced the security guards’ decisions regarding whom to surveil, and what consequences to apply when a youth was caught stealing.</p><p>The New York respondents read a brief scenario describing a juvenile shoplifter as either male or female and from one of five backgrounds: European American, African American, Asian American, Latin American, or Middle Eastern American. However, the description of the overt behaviors by the juvenile was the same for every scenario—selecting and returning shirts in a rack, glancing around the store, and stuffing a shirt into a backpack.</p><p>Respondents provided their opinions about the degree to which the security officer in the scenario relied on physical characteristics in surveilling a juvenile, and whether the retail manager and security officer should impose informal or formal sanctions on the shoplifter. Researchers reasoned that respondents should draw identical conclusions for surveillance and sanctions if they were simply evaluating the juvenile shoplifters’ behaviors, but that students would have different recommendations for these choices if their racial or ethnic stereotypes were activated.</p><p>Respondents who indicated a preference for applying informal sanctions did so more frequently for girls of African-American and Middle Eastern-American descent. These respondents also assessed that the officer described in the scenario based his or her surveillance decisions on physical characteristics. No other gender differences for race or ethnicity were notable when considering reliance on physical characteristics.</p><p>Stereotypes also affected decisions on how to sanction the shoplifter. Respondents were given the option of implementing one of four informal sanctions: speak to the juvenile, call parents to pick up the juvenile, get restitution, or ban the youth from the store. Their selection of the least severe sanction—talk to the juvenile—was doled out at a higher rate for boys than for girls of each ethnicity except European Americans, which did not differ.</p><p>The moderate level sanction—call the youth’s parents—was selected more for girls than for boys of African and Latin descent. The most severe level sanction—ban the youth from the store—was selected more for boys than for girls of African descent. However, it was selected more for girls than for boys of Asian, European, and Middle Eastern descent.<img src="/ASIS%20SM%20Callout%20Images/0417%20Feature%202%20Chart%201.jpg" class="ms-rtePosition-2" alt="" style="margin:5px;width:510px;" /></p><p>Respondents who indicated a preference for applying formal sanctions attributed physical characteristics to the guards’ surveillance decision for girls more than for boys of Latin descent; gender differences were not apparent for the other ethnicities. </p><p>Respondents were also given five formal sanctions for the youths: involve the police, prosecute the theft as larceny, impose a fine, give the youth diversion or community service, or put the incident on the youth’s criminal record. Their selection of the least severe sanction—involve the police—was endorsed more for boys than for girls of Asian, European, and Latin descent, but more for girls than for boys of African descent. No gender difference was apparent for youths of Middle Eastern descent.</p><p>The most severe sanction—diversion or community service—was preferred more for boys than for girls of African descent. A small percentage of respondents endorsed a criminal record for the theft of a shirt, but only for girls of African and European descent and for boys of Middle Eastern descent.</p><p>Finally, a comparison of our data revealed that respondents believed informal—rather than formal—consequences should be imposed for girls rather than for boys of Asian and European descent, and for boys rather than for girls of Latin descent. ​<img src="/ASIS%20SM%20Callout%20Images/0417%20Feature%202%20Chart%202.jpg" class="ms-rtePosition-2" alt="" style="margin:5px;width:519px;" /></p><h4>Lessons Learned</h4><p>Our findings clearly demonstrate that people have stereotypes about juvenile shoplifters. They also showed that people unconsciously use the typical physical characteristics of gender and race or ethnicity associated with their criminal stereotypes to make decisions and recommendations, such as whom to surveil and how to handle a shoplifting incident. Otherwise, there would not have been a difference in how the juvenile shoplifter was processed or punished, because the behaviors exhibited by all of the juveniles were identical across scenarios.</p><p>Consumer racial profiling is a defective filtering system that may direct private security officers’ attention to characteristics that are not reflective of actual shoplifting conduct. Our data suggests that CRP not only hurts retail businesses by discouraging minority consumers from shopping in their stores, but also simultaneously prevents security officers from apprehending shoplifters.</p><p>Other research, such as from “Juvenile Shoplifting Delinquency: Findings from an Austrian Study” published in the 2014 Journal for Police Science and Practice, shows that only 10 percent of juveniles are caught shoplifting. Even more disconcerting, the typical shoplifter steals on average 48 to 150 times before being apprehended. Clearly, retailers need a better strategy if they are to reduce loss due to shoplifting.</p><p>Another issue that was addressed was the decision to involve the legal system. Many businesses, despite having posted prosecution warnings, reported only about half of the adolescent shoplifters they caught to the police. </p><p>Retailers instead focus on minimizing loss and negative publicity, and may rationalize against reporting the offense to the police because they do not want to stigmatize the adolescent or because they consider it a one-time incident, particularly when the juvenile admits to the theft and then pays for or returns the items, according to the U.S. Department of Justice’s (DOJ) Community Oriented Policing Services.</p><p>These beliefs, however, may be misguided. Though current research is scarce, a 1992 study—The Sociology of Shoplifting: Boosters and Snitches Today—indicated that 40 to 50 percent of apprehended adolescent shoplifters reported that they continued shoplifting. </p><p>There are benefits for retailers who involve the legal system, especially for informal police sanctions. </p><p>First, criminal justice diversion programs and psychological treatment and educational programs treatment may reduce recidivism. For example, shoplifters who attended and completed a diversion program had significantly fewer re-arrests compared to those who failed to complete or did not attend, a DOJ study found.</p><p>Second, the private sector needs the support of the public sector to reduce shoplifting. Shoplifters can be given an opportunity to participate in first offender programs and, upon completion of classes on the effects of shoplifting, have their charges dismissed or even erased. ​</p><h4>Recommendations</h4><p>Retailers and private security officers need training to make them aware of their own biases and how their stereotypes affect their choices. They also need training to learn which behavioral indices are most effective in distinguishing shoppers from shoplifters. </p><p>If retailers do not make significant changes in guiding their employees—particularly security officers—towards objective measures of vigilance to prevent shoplifting, their financial loss will continue to be in the billions of dollars. </p><p>Private security officers must be taught how to treat all potential shoplifters, regardless of their gender, in the same way to prevent making mistakes and subjecting retailers to lawsuits for discriminatory security practices.</p><p>Overcoming unconscious biases is difficult. Prior to specialized training in bias identification and behavioral profiling, it is important to determine the biases of security officers. Self-assessment measures similar to the ones the researchers used in their study can be administered. </p><p>The officers should also keep records that specify each incident of shoplifting, what behaviors drew their attention to warrant surveillance, what act occurred to provoke them to approach the juvenile shoplifter, the items that were taken, the method used, the shoplifter’s demographics, how the situation was handled, who made the decision, and reasons for the decision. The officers should then review these records with their retail managers.</p><p>Retailers should also implement a mandatory training program to provide private security officers with the tools needed to identify shoplifting behaviors to increase detection and reduce shrink. </p><p>The incident records could be introduced and used to help identify the impact biases have on private security professionals’ decisionmaking about juvenile shoplifters. It would also help security guards learn the various types of suspicious behaviors that shoplifters exhibit, such as juveniles who make quick glances at staff, examine items in remote aisles, monitor security cameras and mirrors, and purposefully draw employees’ attention away from others.</p><p>Additionally, a practical component would be to show surveillance videos of the behaviors exhibited by juvenile shoplifters of different gender and race or ethnicity. In this way, the findings of past studies showing the insignificance of race, ethnicity, or gender can be learned through real-world examples.  </p><p>--<br></p><p><em><strong>Dr. Lauren R. Shapiro </strong>is an associate professor in the Department of Security, Fire, and Emergency Management at John Jay College of Criminal Justice. She has published several journal articles and chapters on the role of stereotypes in perception and memory for crime and criminals. <strong>Dr. Marie-Helen (Maria) Maras</strong> is an associate professor at the Department of Security, Fire, and Emergency Management at John Jay College of Criminal Justice. She is the author of several books, including Cybercriminology; Computer Forensics: Cybercriminals, Laws, and Evidence; Counterterrorism; and Transnational Security.   ​</em></p>GP0|#cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8;L0|#0cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8|Physical Security;GTSet|#8accba12-4830-47cd-9299-2b34a4344465