Perimeter Protection Bars Provide Students with Shelter in California.aspxPush and HideGP0|#cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8;L0|#0cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8|Physical Security;GTSet|#8accba12-4830-47cd-9299-2b34a43444652019-06-01T04:00:00Z, Sara Mosqueda<p>​Higher learning establishments in California are increasingly aware of the ramifications when preventative measures fail to keep students safe. The state suffered through the 2014 Isla Vista stabbings and killings, subsequent active shooter attacks at other higher learning facilities, and the state supreme court ruling that universities owe a duty to protect students from foreseeable violence during school hours (Regents of University of California v. Superior Court of Los Angeles County, Supreme Court of California, 2018).</p><p>One state university campus began to question what one single person, with no training, could do to deter someone intent on hurting others. Turns out, saving lives can be as easy as the push of a button.</p><p>"We want to protect the students at all costs," Lisa Bickmore, supervising locksmith for California State University, Fullerton, says. The university tasked Bickmore with finding a way to secure as many classrooms as possible, but without the benefit of access control infrastructure, such as card readers or the ability for police to remotely lock down a facility. Although the goal was to ensure the safety of occupants in a classroom, the insides of these rooms lacked secure panic hardware.</p><p>"The way it was, you needed a key almost everywhere on this campus to lock or unlock a door. There wasn't a way to physically lock the door. If the handle was open from the outside, there wasn't a way to lock it from the inside. A lot of our professors wouldn't have keys so there would be no way for them to actually physically lock the door," Bickmore says. </p><p>Fullerton officials wanted an emergency option, where anyone, even without special knowledge or training, could secure the door without leaving the classroom, avoiding scenarios that would risk alerting an attacker to the presence of people in a room or directly expose them to an attack. "You get the scenario where people are trying to hold the door closed with a belt, or pulling on the handle so no one can actually physically open it, or barricading it with desks and whatever they can find inside the room, and that's what they wanted to get away from," Bickmore says.</p><p>Bickmore ensured that classrooms with door handles had button locks and switched out handles requiring a key on doors partitioning classrooms from hallways; ultimately, Fullerton wanted secure panic hardware installed inside the rooms. This meant finding technology that would work for more than 20 buildings with classrooms, lecture halls, and student labs. On a campus with more than 8,000 doors security personnel focused on rooms with an occupancy of more than eight people. </p><p>Ultimately, Bickmore settled on electronic dogging functions and, after researching available options, found Detex's panic bar and button, which met the university's need for affordability and ease of installation. The company's electric dogging device was designed for entrance and exit doors with panic or fire exit hardware. </p><p>"I needed a product that would cover my current panic bars that I have on the doors right now," Bickmore says. This feature would allow the current hardware to be replaced without ruining the fire rating of the doors or replacing the doors altogether. "If you have to start replacing fire doors, now you're getting costly."</p><p>Bickmore also considered the new panic bars' durability, given students' ability to be rough on the facilities. "They destroy hardware on this campus. They hit it with trashcans, and they beat things up," Bickmore says. "This product is just real beefy, and it takes a beating and holds up. If it had been [cost-effective] but a shoddier product, I probably would have not gone with it."</p><p>Although she considered products from alternate providers, the price points were too high for her needs, sometimes up to a $600 difference per door. </p><p>According to Bickmore, who has worked as a locksmith for about 30 years, the installation process was "pretty easy" thanks to a Detex product guide for the electric dogging device, which was included with every lock. Despite that ease, installation could be awkward for just one person, taking up to an hour to complete, because "you need a third hand a lot of times, just to hold the bar on the inside or outside tram and everything else," Bickmore says. However, after getting the hang of the process, Bickmore and two other team members managed to bring that time down to 33 minutes, attributing the ease to the precision of the guide.</p><p>"The guide is spectacular because when you install panic hardware, what will happen if you're off even less than a quarter of an inch, the head of your bar will hit the strike, or you'll be too far away and the latch won't sit on the strike properly." But with the guide, the person installing the bar knows exactly where to drill and how far back to start drilling, without a measuring tape. "I found with this, all I needed was a level and a pen. And, of course, a drill bit," Bickmore says.</p><p>Bickmore and her team could work only during the weekends, because the installations could not occur while class was in session. The first round of installations stretched about 17 to 18 months.</p><p>Altogether, Bickmore retrofitted more than 400 rooms, with about 55 classrooms featuring the panic bars, all within the span of roughly 750 hours. The remaining rooms feature mechanical locking hardware that accommodates sheltering in place.</p><p>"Thankfully, we haven't actually had to use the locks yet," Bickmore says. But should the time come, the panic bar locks are almost self-explanatory to use. If a student or teacher in a classroom hears that an active shooter or other shelter-in-place incident is occurring on the campus, they can push the yellow button by the door to lock it from the inside, protecting others in the room and allowing the person who pushed the button to move away from the door—useful on a campus where most of the doors have small view windows. "If you're there trying to hold the door closed, the person on the other side just shoots because they can see you. This way you can lock the door, you can go lie against the wall so they don't have a target to see and shoot at. You don't have to barricade the door, and you can just get away from it," Bickmore says. The door will unlock only when someone from inside the room pushes the bar to exit; otherwise, the doors lock when the building's timer kicks in at 10 p.m.</p><p>To avoid any potential confusion, Bickmore added signage to each panic bar's button that reads, "Push to Lock Door." "That little thing solved so many questions for the people on the campus," Bickmore says. </p><p>The campus police department also put together a video tutorial on the panic bars for new faculty and staff in case of shelter-in-place situations. Because the devices are so straightforward to use and do not require a connection to alarms or other emergency systems, little coordination between Bickmore's department and campus police was required.</p><p>The university is considering expanding the use of the panic bars to exterior doors, perhaps with centrally located buttons throughout the facility, allowing someone to lock down a building from a hallway. But for the immediate future, the university will be adding the bars as the needs arises.</p><p>Bickmore says that the best part of the system is its flexibility. "If we do end up getting access control…these bars can be added. The power supplies can be added," Bickmore says. </p><p><em>For more information: Ken Kuehler, </em><a href="mailto:[email protected]"><em>[email protected]</em></a><em>, 1.800.732.0746.</em><br></p>

Perimeter Protection Bars Provide Students with Shelter in California.aspx2019-06-01T04:00:00ZPush and Hide’s-Digital-Shift.aspx2019-04-01T04:00:00ZSecurity’s Digital Shift Amenity of Necessity Joy off Copper Crime Waves,-Secure-Spaces.aspx2018-09-01T04:00:00ZOpen Doors, Secure Spaces Parking Improves Fleet Management with Key Management Solutions Maison Smart Community Powered by Mivatek Cloud Precious Property the Schoolyard Safety Strategy on Campus Physical Security Council Reacts to YouTube Shooting Challenges Facing Aviation Security in the Workplace Fatalities Reported at South Florida High School Shooting Strategies Expert Partnership EN EMBAJADAS BLANCOS SUAVES CON PSIM Unseen Threat

 You May Also Like... Soft Targets with PSIM<p>​Soft targets—those that are readily accessible to the public, like shopping malls, hotels, and hospitals—are especially vulnerable to attack by terrorists, criminals, and other bad actors. Recent attacks around the globe have raised awareness of the need to protect these spaces. Security practitioners must keep in mind that the duty of care for enterprises extends beyond just a company's employees to anyone who sets foot on the property.  </p><p>In these locations, typical physical security solutions include clear separation between public and staff-only areas, controlled access to sensitive areas to prevent unauthorized entry, and limited access to the facility during nonbusiness hours. These measures rely heavily on implementing and managing varying levels of access permissions for each area using a mix of security technologies. And even the best deployments of these systems do not eliminate risk; rather they help security to contain the threat.   </p><p>With many diverse systems, this becomes a complex task that could quickly overwhelm security staff who are also tasked with monitoring, identifying, and responding to events. For multi-use facilities, physical security information management (PSIM) solutions simplify these complicated procedures with automated, intelligent alerts and response actions, along with greatly improved situational awareness. </p><p><strong>Alerting</strong></p><p>Any time an unauthorized individual enters a private or sensitive area, organizations should treat that incident as suspicious unless and until they learn there is a valid reason for the entry. And with every security breach—whether intentional or unintentional, malicious or harmless—time is of the essence. This underscores the vital need for operators and other security staff to know about the situation as soon as possible. With automation and the ability to seamlessly integrate multiple systems into a single interface, PSIM solutions can speed the alerting process to improve awareness and response.</p><p>​For example, integrated access control and surveillance systems with video analytics could be deployed to alert staff when individuals enter a restricted area, such as a data center, after hours. When an alert comes in from the access control system, the PSIM solution can automatically call up surveillance video associated with the event, providing operators with direct visibility into the situation. </p><p>Another alert could be triggered by an initial report or description submitted by a mobile user. In this case, the PSIM could correlate with nearby video and other systems. Regardless of the source of the alert, the solution ensures that operators have instant access to valuable information and insight, allowing them to quickly assess the situation and initiate the appropriate response based on a full understanding of an incident. </p><p><strong>Response</strong></p><p>Once an alert has been generated, established actions must be in place to help staff determine the appropriate course of action to resolve an issue as quickly as possible. In many cases, no response is necessary. For instance, if an individual holds a door open for a few seconds, the access control system may generate a door-prop alert. Using video associated with the action, an operator can determine in seconds whether this was to allow unauthorized entry or if the person entering simply paused to read an email or text on a cell phone. Without the video capability, a guard would need to be dispatched to assess the situation—not the most efficient use of time and resources.</p><p>Given the large number of nonactionable alerts operators receive throughout their shifts, they may not be prepared for an event that does require action, regardless of how well they have been trained. This can cause confusion and stress, which can complicate the situation and lead to chaos. Having well-defined standard operating procedures (SOPs) in place to guide operators and others through each process reduces the potential for stress, panic, or confusion, all of which contribute to a high potential for human error. However, complicated or difficult-to-locate SOPs will do nothing to reduce this likelihood. </p><p>PSIM can automate many of the more mundane and basic steps to simplify processes and allow operators to focus only on the most critical tasks that require human intervention, such as determining whether a person seen on video represents a potential threat. This enables security staff to quickly assess the situation and determine the most appropriate response. </p><p><strong>Real-Time Situational Awareness</strong></p><p>When responding to an incident, it is important for guards, first responders and others to have the most complete information to ensure the most effective and efficient response. </p><p>​Integrated systems improve this awareness by providing large amounts of data from various systems that can be combined to evaluate an incident. While searching myriad systems to gather and sort through this information manually is not feasible, automated PSIM solutions put all the relevant information at operators' fingertips. This allows security staff to make quick, accurate decisions based on a complete picture of an event and easily share information in real time with appropriate responders and coordinate response among all parties involved. This collaboration provides critical situational awareness to those responders, who can then make faster, more informed decisions that enable swift response to help prevent an incident from unfolding.</p><p>A wide variety of challenges arise when securing facilities and campuses with multiple levels of access privileges. By deploying a PSIM to aggregate crucial information, organizations can overcome the many challenges they face while also increasing safety and security for these potentially complex applications.</p><p><em>Simon Morgan is chief technology officer for SureView Systems. ​</em></p>GP0|#cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8;L0|#0cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8|Physical Security;GTSet|#8accba12-4830-47cd-9299-2b34a4344465 Out Security Solutions<p>​</p><p>SEASONED RETAIL LOSS PREVENTION VETERANS CAN recall the days of checking credit card slips, examining cash-deposit line items, conducting spot audits, and physically counting marked-down items to stay on top of shrinkage and loss challenges. Today, loss prevention specialists rely on increasingly sophisticated technology, especially in the area of point of sale (POS). Among the technologies bringing benefits are cloud computing, video analytics, radio frequency identification (RFID), automated cash management systems, and access control via smart keys.</p><p>Point of Sale<br>Several technologies are helping retailers catch problems at the checkout counter. Chief among these are the cloud and video analytics. To take advantage of new technology, almost all large retailers tie their POS systems to a surveillance camera system. Cameras play a critical role when deployed to monitor cash transactions at the point of sale. When tied to POS data, this video technology becomes even more powerful.</p><p>There are two ways in which this video can be helpful. First, the footage is married to the register’s own data records. In comparing the two, it is possible to catch discrepancies that may indicate accidental loss or intentional theft.</p><p>For example, the video would reveal instances when items on the bottom shelf of a shopper’s cart passed through a checkout lane without being rung up. That could be an honest oversight or theft. The video might also reveal possible “sweethearting”—when a cashier gives items to customers for free by pretending to scan bar codes or by using other tricks.</p><p>An investigation can determine whether the cashier legitimately tried to scan the item but didn’t notice that either a technical error occurred or the scan was incorrectly performed. If the case involves an honest mistake, not malfeasance, the cashier can be given additional training.</p><p>At some retailers, the loss prevention team is small and doesn’t have time to review suspicious transactions. A solution in this case is to outsource the review task, but the solution itself can create security exposures because to do the task, third-party providers must have access to the retailer’s proprietary customer data and to its network.</p><p>Another problem with the concept of having a system that captures all POS transactions and marries video to data is the demand this places on IT infrastructure. Most retailers do not have the capital to invest in building an adequate IT infrastructure. The advent of the cloud, however, offers another option. The cloud makes computing capacity a service to be rented, rather than a product that has to be purchased at a high up-front cost.</p><p>The cloud also means that retailers can now store their POS and camera system data with an off-site host that is completely removed from the company’s private IT network. The retailer only transmits to the cloud the information that it wants to divulge.</p><p>It can also be useful to combine POS video footage with analytics. For example, ScanItALL by StopLift Checkout Vision Systems of Cambridge, Massachusetts, runs video of the cashiers’ and customers’ body motions through an analytic process. Mathematically analyzing the pixels of digitized video, the system studies how a cashier handles each item to determine whether it was properly scanned. It can interpret fraudulent behaviors, such as when a cashier covers up a bar code, for example.</p><p>Some POS systems can also be set to look for items that are left in the cart as they proceed through the checkout line. This can be especially important in self-checkout lanes.</p><p>LaneHawk by Evolution Robotics Retail, Inc., of Pasadena, California, uses cameras tied to the POS system to spot items in the bottom of the basket. The system also links the products it sees at the bottom of the cart to its database, which sends the UPC bar code of the item to the cash register, adding it to the transaction. LaneHawk is currently in use at more than 1,000 individual grocery stores in the United States. Evolution Robotics also has another version of the product for similarly identifying items left in the main section of the cart.</p><p>Carttronics of San Diego offers special modified shopping carts that cannot be removed from the retailer’s property and are automatically disabled if they have not traveled through the checkouts, putting a stop to full-cart walk-outs and bottom-of-the-basket theft attempts.</p><p>Alarms<br>Another area where cloud computing is emerging as a benefit to retailers is in the real-time monitoring of video and alarm systems. In this case, alarm data is transmitted through the cloud to the vendor that responds to the alarms.</p><p>In this area, the change over to the cloud may be inevitable. Every day, voice over IP gains ground, and as the company AlarmCLOUD notes on its Web site, “The clock is ticking on landlines. The security industry has accepted that telcos will be pulling the plug on public switched telephone networks.” Alarm monitoring companies are faced with having to run IP receivers in house to accept IP signaling and are themselves turning to cloud services. For a monthly fee, companies such as AlarmCLOUD offer to save the alarm company the cost of equipment, labor, upgrades, and servicing.</p><p>Store Shelves <br>Some theft occurs in the aisles and can’t be caught at the POS. There are systems to address this threat also.</p><p>For example, Evolution Robotics has a product called ShelfHawk that is meant to combat the growing organized crime tactic of shelf sweeping in which whole shelves of items highly valued for resale, such as diabetic test strips, are stolen in bulk by being swept into a booster bag (a bag commonly used by retail thieves), leaving the shelf bare.</p><p>The ShelfHawk system uses strategically placed cameras to watch selected shelves and to report on suspicious activities such as dwell time—the length of time a person spends in front of shelved items. A longer dwell time indicates that the customer may be waiting for a chance to steal what is there. When the cameras pick up someone spending too long in a particular area, the analytics recognize this and sound an alert so that staff can check on the situation.</p><p>The system has the added benefit to the retailer of recognizing when a shelf needs to be restocked, sending an alert when, for example, the last box of teeth whitening strips in a row is removed, leaving only an empty space.</p><p>To deal with theft of individual items, there are also tags. Traditionally, retailers worldwide made a large investment in tags that used electronic article surveillance (EAS) technology, the components of which include the hard tags seen clipped to merchandise, the detector/pedestals placed at shop egress points, and the deactivators and detachers used at the checkout counters.</p><p>While EAS systems have proven their worth in stopping thefts, or at least alerting staff that a theft is occurring, they cannot tell retailers what has been taken. For example, an EAS system will set off an alarm indicating that something is being stolen. By contrast, an RFID tag can tell the retailer that a black silk woman’s blouse selling at $125.99 was the item that slipped out the door. This ability to know which item was taken reclassifies losses from “shrink,” which is defined as unknown loss, to known losses that can help retailers pinpoint the items that are vulnerable and need additional protection within a store.</p><p>The system can also help identify vulnerabilities by department or store location. For example, if reports generated by the system’s database indicate that a number of watches have been stolen in store locations in a particular geographic area, these items can be moved to a locked case. In other regions where there has been no watch theft, the increased protection may not be needed.</p><p>The components of most RFID inventory control systems are the tags, the readers, and the software that usually runs on a standard PC, which is Windows based. Because RFID tags are contactless, their information can be captured by readers that are placed to cover an entire environment, unlike bar-code inventory management systems, in which a scanning beam must pass over the tag. They are also less susceptible to damage or wear that can destroy bar codes.</p><p>One example of RFID loss prevention systems newly introduced to retailers is the OPI Loss Prevention System by Optical Phusion, Inc. (OPI). The system combines wireless communications capabilities with passive RFID technology and software. Hand-held scanning terminals can be configured to scan retail products and return a product description and current retail price, making it simple and fast for a manager to walk through a store and create a complete inventory of items.</p><p>To catch shoplifters, each RFID chip returns a unique identifier when it passes through the zone covered by the RFID readers and antennas that are placed in the front doors of each store. When the RFID reader detects a tagged item, it passes the information to the OPI Loss Prevention Controller software, which then transmits a command to alarm. Jamison, another RFID development company based in Hagerstown, Maryland, has developed a converged RFID/EAS technology that is able to bring the technologies together for the retail platform.</p><p>Not far away are the days when this same technology will allow customers to merely push a shopping cart past a reader and swipe a debit or credit card to make payment without waiting for each item to be scanned. Inventories will be automatically updated and any items secreted on individuals buying other items will be read automatically and added to the bill.</p><p>Entrance<br>Technology is also making it possible for stores to have some advance warning when trouble walks in the front door. For example, a facial recognition software system from T-Mobile scans the faces of incoming customers to see if any match a database of known previous shoplifters, bad-check writers, wanted criminals, and members of organized retail crime flash mobs.</p><p>Accounting<br>The back office is another area where technology is being put to good use by security. For example, retailers are beginning to take full advantage of cash recycling systems that not only reduce staff time for certain tasks in the accounting office but also increase cashier accountability. These systems typically reduce the cash on hand in a retail store, create instant deposits, and can be tied to banks and armored car services for immediate provisional cash credit. The systems also limit cash access by employees, creating a deterrent to theft and armed robbery.</p><p>One cash managing system, The Revolution by Tidel of Carrollton, Texas, is now being used by a number of retailers including Whole Foods, Hy-Vee, and United Groceries. (Security Management looked at this system in depth in its February 2010 “Case Study” column.) The Tidel product employs a unit about the size of a large photocopier that combines a drop vault, touchscreen user interface, cash and coin counters and dispensers, and a biometric palm scanner.</p><p>When cashiers arrive, they don’t need to collect their day’s tills from supervisors who received them from bookkeepers who prepared them in the predawn hours. A cashier goes to the machine and places his or her palm on the reader. Once the unit recognizes the cashier, he or she picks up an empty till with an attached bar code, and the machine scans it, linking the till to the cashier for that shift. The till is then inserted into a slot and the unit automatically dispenses the correct amount of bills and coins. The cashier removes the till and scans the bar code off a canvas bag in which he or she will place all of the checks, coupons, rain checks, and any other “media” that are collected in the course of the day. The process takes less than a minute to complete.</p><p>Access Control<br>Access control solutions for retail have recently seen the coming of intelligent key systems. Resembling key fobs with a metal cylinder at the head, these keys are programmable in a way similar to standard access control cards, allowing the system administrator to set parameters such as times the key is active and store doors or display cases on which it can be used, all based on an employee’s duties. For example, the smart key may let a store clerk assigned to the jewelry department open the display cases there but not let that employee open a case in electronics.</p><p>Developed by Medeco of Salem Virginia, a division of ASSA ABLOY, the system also collects data on use and use attempts, so if an employee tries to use his or her key to gain access to a proscribed area, that attempt will be recorded and flagged when the data is downloaded from the key at the end of the employee’s shift. Data from the keys can also help managers pinpoint areas where employee training may have been lax. It can, for instance, note when a display case was incorrectly relocked.</p><p>Some retailers are also employing smart key systems on their truck fleet to prevent dishonest truckers from picking the locks on trucks, removing goods, and reselling them.</p><p>Enterprise Management<br>Some providers are offering Web-based analytic management tools. Such systems help companies make the most of their physical security data. The platform may be built to integrate and manage security, safety, and operational systems such as surveillance, access control, alarms, and exception reporting.</p><p>These solutions pull from several applications—video, access control systems, and internal assessment processes—for better decision-making. One example is the Encapsulon Control platform by Wren Solutions of Jefferson City, Missouri.</p><p>Today’s retailers exist in an era with fiscal constraints and persistent criminal threats. The challenges are great, but targeted use of technology can help retailers manage risk and preserve profits.</p><p>Keith Aubele, CPP, is president and CEO of Retail Loss Prevention Group, Inc., of Bentonville, Arkansas. He was previously the corporate vice president of loss prevention for Home Depot and divisional director of loss prevention for Wal-Mart. He serves as the vice chair of the ASIS International Loss Prevention Council.<br></p>GP0|#3795b40d-c591-4b06-959c-9e277b38585e;L0|#03795b40d-c591-4b06-959c-9e277b38585e|Security by Industry;GTSet|#8accba12-4830-47cd-9299-2b34a4344465 Your Team<p>​</p><p>Whether the action is on the battlefield or the basketball court, you can be certain that the winning team owes its success in large measure to extensive training. Recognizing the importance of training to any team’s performance, the Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center set out to makes its own training program better. </p><p>The existing training program, which the director of protective services felt lacked specificity, consisted of one of the shifts’ veteran officers sitting with the new security employees and covering several department and hospital-specific policies along with administrative topics. Additionally, the new officers would be given several commercially produced security training videotapes to view, after which they were required to complete the associated tests. Following the completion of the tapes and review of the policies and administrative procedures, officers would go through brief hands-on training for certain subjects such as the use of force and pepper spray.</p><p>Once they completed these tests and training sessions, the officers would then begin their on-the-job training. Officers have historically stayed in the on-the-job phase of training between three and five weeks, depending on how quickly the officers learned and were comfortable with command center operations. When the officers completed their training program, they had to pass the protective services cadet training test as well as a test on command center procedures.</p><p>Training council. To help devise a better training program, the security director chose several members of the staff to sit on a training council. The group, which included the director, three shift managers, and the shift sergeants, met to discuss the current training program and what could be done to enhance it.</p><p><br>Through discussions with new employees, the council learned that the existing program was boring. The council wanted to revitalize the training to make it more interesting and more operationally oriented. The intent was to emphasize hands-on, performance-oriented training. The council also wanted to improve the testing phase so that the program results could be captured quantitatively to show the extent to which officers had increased their knowledge and acquired skills. <br> <br>Phases. The council reorganized training into four phases: orientation, site-specific (including on-the-job), ongoing, and advanced. Under the new program, the officers now take a test both before training, to show their baseline knowledge, and after the training, to verify that they have acquired the subject matter knowledge; they must also successfully demonstrate the proper techniques to the instructors.</p><p>Orientation training. The orientation training phase begins with the new employees attending the hospital’s orientation during their first day at the facility. The security department’s training officer then sits down with the new officers beginning on their second day of employment. This training covers all of the basic administrative issues, including what the proper clock-in and clock-out procedures are, when shift-change briefings occur, and how the shift schedules and mandatory overtime procedures function.   </p><p>The training officer also administers a preliminary test to the new officers that covers 12 basic security subjects including legal issues, human and public relations, patrolling, report writing, fire prevention, and emergency situations. New employees who have prior security experience normally score well on the test and do not need to view security training tapes on the subjects. The officers must receive a minimum score of 80 percent to receive credit for this portion of the training. If an officer receives an 80 percent in most topics but is weak in one or two subjects, that officer is required to view just the relevant tapes, followed by associated tests.</p><p>All officers, regardless of the amount of experience, review the healthcare-specific tapes and take the related tests for the specific subjects including use of force and restraint, workplace violence, disaster response, bloodborne pathogens, assertiveness without being rude, and hazardous materials. Also included in the orientation training phase are classes covering subjects such as pepper spray, patient restraint, defensive driving, and the hospital’s protective services policies.</p><p>Site-specific training. During site-specific training, officers learn what is entailed in handling specific security reports. The shift manager, shift officer-in-charge, or the training officer explains each of the reports and has the new employee fill out an example of each. Examples of reports covered in site-specific training include incident reports, accident reports, field interrogation reports, fire reports, motorist-assist forms, ticket books, safety-violation books, broken-key reports, work orders, bomb-threat reports, and evidence reports.</p><p>On-the-job training is also part of the site-specific training phase. The new employee works with a qualified security officer for a period of two to three weeks following the first week of orientation training with the departmental training officer. The new employee works through all of the various posts during this time. At least one week is spent in the command center. The site-specific phase of training culminates with both the security officer cadet training exam and the command center exam, which were also given in the original program.</p><p>Ongoing training. The ongoing training includes refresher training in which shift managers have their officers review selected films covering healthcare security and safety subjects. The training occurs during shift hours. The officers also receive annual refresher training covering topics such as using pepper spray and employing patient-restraint methods.</p><p>Another type of ongoing training, shift training, is conducted at least weekly. Managers conduct five-to ten-minute meetings during duty hours to refresh the security staff on certain subjects, such as customer service. These sessions are not designed to deal with complex topics. Managers can tie these sessions to issues that have come up on the shift.</p><p>Advanced training. Advanced training includes seminars, management courses, and sessions leading to professional designations and certifications. Qualified personnel are urged to attend seminars sponsored by several professional societies and groups such as ASIS International, the International Healthcare Association for Security and Safety, and Crime Prevention Specialists. Staff members are also encouraged to attain the Crime Prevention Specialist (CPS) certification, the Certified Protection Professional (CPP) designation, and the Certified Healthcare Protection Administrator (CHPA) certification.</p><p>Staff members are urged to pursue special interests by obtaining instructor certification such as in the use of pepper spray or the use of force. This encouragement has already paid off for the hospital. For example, the department’s security systems administrator has trained officers on each shift in how to exchange door lock cylinders, a task that would previously have required a contractor. Officers are currently being trained to troubleshoot and repair CCTV, access control systems, and fire alarm equipment problems.</p><p>Training methods. A special computer-based training program was developed to help quantify and track the success in each of the training modules. Additionally, a program was developed to present training subjects during shift changes.</p><p>Computer training. Security used off-the-shelf software to create computer-based training modules and included them in the site-specific training and ongoing training phases, both of which occur during shift hours. The training council tasked each shift with creating computer-based training modules for the various security officer assignments on the hospital’s main campus and off-campus sites. These training modules cover life safety, the research desk, the emergency department, exterior patrols, foot and vehicle patrols, and the command center.</p><p>The training council asked officers to participate in the creation of the computer-based training modules. The officers produced the training modules during their respective shifts when it did not interfere with other responsibilities.  </p><p>The group participation paid off. For example, the officers who created the command center and the emergency-department training modules not only spent several hours discussing what information should be included in the modules, but then allowed their creativity to flow by using the software to make these modules interactive. These particular modules include test questions of the material, and the program will respond appropriately to the employees as they answer the questions correctly or incorrectly. The volunteers also created tests for before and after an officer goes through each of the computer modules to track the effectiveness of the training.</p><p>Shift-change training. A major question with ongoing training is how to fit it into the officer’s routine. For most industries using shift work, difficulties arise when trying to carve out enough training time without creating overtime. The training council decided to take advantage of downtime that occurs as officers come to work ready for their shift to begin. They are required to show up six minutes before the shift. This time is now used for training.</p><p>The shift-change training is used to cover specific topics—already covered in some of the training phases—that can be easily encapsulated into a six-minute program. For example, some topics include departmental policies, radio communication procedures, command center refresher sessions, self-defense subjects, confronting hostile people, proper report writing, and temporary restraint training. By implementing the shift-change training sessions on a weekly basis, the department created an additional five hours of training per year for each officer.</p><p>One of the security supervisors created a six-minute training binder to house all of the lesson plans. Each shift supervisor uses the same lesson plan so that the training is consistent across the shifts. As with all other training, the before-and-after tests are given to quantitatively document changes in subject knowledge or skills.</p><p>Results. After implementing the training program, the training council wanted to check the initial results to see whether the training was effective. There were numerous quantifiable measurements that the council could use to evaluate the new training program, such as tracking the rate of disciplinary actions from the previous year to the current year. However, since the council desired to have a quick assessment of the training program changes, it decided to compare the after-training test scores to the before-training test scores for the computer-based training modules as well as the scores of the six-minute training tests. </p><p>To the council’s surprise, the initial tabulated scores resulted in an average before-training test score of 93 percent and an after-training test score of 95 percent. The council also found in many of the officers’ tests that they missed the same questions on both the before and after tests.</p><p>Based on these results, the council decided to make several changes. First, the test questions were reviewed and tougher questions were added. Based on the preliminary test score, the council felt that the questions were not challenging enough and might not indicate how competent the officers were with the subject matter. </p><p>The training council assigned each shift the task of revising the tests for their computer-based training modules as well as the six-minute training tests. The goal was to make the tests more challenging and to obtain more accurate assessments of the effectiveness of the training program. </p><p>The training council also reviewed how the different shifts were conducting the six-minute lessons. Managers noted that the shifts initially followed the schedule of the six-minute subjects from week to week, but then they began to conduct their own lessons without an accepted lesson plan or to forgo training altogether. </p><p>To avoid this problem, the training council determined that the training program needed to be more structured. The group created a schedule to indicate which class would be covered each week. One of the shift supervisors volunteered to take over the six-minute training program and formally structure it so that each shift would conduct training in a consistent manner.</p><p>The training council has plans to further hone the training program in the near future. The council plans to analyze the program us­ing other quantitative evaluative instruments such as an employee survey and a comparison of disciplinary action data from previous years. </p><p>In battle, it is said that an army fights as it has trained. Thus, commanders know the value of training. In the businessworld, though the stakes are different, training is no less critical to the success of the mission.</p><p>Ronald J. Morris, CPP, is senior director of protective services at Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center. Dan Yaross, CPP, is manager of protective services. Colleen McGuire, CPS (crime prevention specialist), is sergeant of protective services. Both Morris and Yaross are members of ASIS International.</p>GP0|#cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8;L0|#0cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8|Physical Security;GTSet|#8accba12-4830-47cd-9299-2b34a4344465