Event Security

 

 

https://sm.asisonline.org/Pages/How-to-Learn-from-Las-Vegas.aspxHow to Learn from Las VegasGP0|#cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8;L0|#0cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8|Physical Security;GTSet|#8accba12-4830-47cd-9299-2b34a43444652018-02-01T05:00:00Zhttps://adminsm.asisonline.org/pages/holly-gilbert-stowell.aspx, Holly Gilbert Stowell<p>​The Las Vegas massacre on October 1, 2017, surpassed the 2016 Orlando Pulse Nightclub tragedy as the deadliest mass shooting in recent U.S. history. Fifty-eight people lost their lives and hundreds were injured when a gunman rained down automatic weapon fire from the 32nd floor of a hotel suite on concertgoers below.</p><p>Months later, investigators are still struggling to piece together a motive for the tragedy. They classify the shooter as a nondescript, wealthy retiree who spent tens of thousands of dollars gambling at casinos on the very strip he attacked. But these clues offer little insight as to why he would carry out such a deadly rampage. </p><p>In the wake of the tragedy, security professionals must grapple with the known facts surrounding the event, and investigators continue to  revise the timeline of events as details emerge. However, as reported by CBS News, the assailant managed to take nearly two dozen weapons contained in luggage to his room via a freight elevator in the Mandalay Bay Resort and Casino.</p><p>A do not disturb sign hung on the door of his suite for 72 hours after he reportedly checked into the hotel on September 28. He shot out of two windows from the hotel tower after shattering them with a hammerlike device, according to The New York Times. </p><p>The assailant also shot a hotel security guard, who was responding to an open-door alarm on the same floor, around the time he began firing on the crowd.</p><p>Whether or not the hotel and Live Nation Entertainment, Inc.—the event company hosting the concert—met their legal duty of care during these circumstances has yet to be determined, and several lawsuits have been filed by victims. </p><p>Difficult questions regarding security have been raised by the shooting, including whether hotels should apply airport-­style screening measures to guests as they enter the property, and whether it's possible to spot suspicious behavior in guests before an incident occurs.</p><p>As investigators continue to probe into the specifics of the massacre, hospitality, event, and gaming security experts all agree: While the circumstances in the Las Vegas shooting are unlikely to happen the exact same way again, the event underscores the importance of having strong security policies and procedures, staff training, and appropriate technological tools to combat future threats.</p><p><strong>Event safety. </strong>The October shooting ravaged a section of the Las Vegas strip called Vegas Village, which has become a popular spot for festivals and other live events. The gunman attacked concertgoers at the sold-out Route 91 Harvest Festival, which featured country music performers. The event was growing in popularity, and attracted about 25,000 people a day last year, the Los Angeles Times reported. </p><p>Steven Adelman is an attorney at Adelman Law Group, PLLC, and vice president of the Event Safety Alliance, a nonprofit he helped form after a stage collapsed at the Indiana State Fair in 2011, killing seven people. He emphasizes that the Las Vegas shooting and the circumstances surrounding it are unlikely to repeat themselves, and calls the incident a "black swan" event. </p><p>"A black swan is a highly unusual, impactful event—and in retrospect people suddenly think it was inevitable," Adelman says. "Las Vegas fits that profile. There had never been a shooting at a live event venue from a great ele­vation or from an adjacent building."  </p><p>While the University of Texas clock­tower shooting in 1966 in Austin harkens closely to the positioning of the shooter, experts say it does not make what happened from the 32nd floor of the Mandalay Bay Hotel and Casino foreseeable. </p><p>"If we had been talking on September 30, the day before this happened, and you had asked me what the most reasonably foreseeable threat at a live event space is, based on what's happened over the last year…it probably would have involved a truck," he says, referencing the vehicular terrorist attacks that have occurred in cities including Barcelona, New York City, and Stockholm. </p><p>While Vegas may not have been preventable, Adelman underscores the best practices that can be applied to event safety moving forward. </p><p>"When there is an adjacent building to a live event, where someone potentially has a perch over a site where people are gathered, law enforcement and security should have eyes on that building," he notes. "In fact, the smarter trend, if it's in one's control, is to just clear the building." </p><p>At a major event in Phoenix just weeks after the shooting, event organizers did exactly that. Law enforcement cleared a nearby parking structure and used the building to have a crow's nest vantage point over the event. </p><p>"That's the kind of positive learning experience that can be applied from a horrific event like the Vegas shooting," Adelman adds.</p><p>Also, having a no-weapons policy is a simple way to at least deter people carrying guns, Adelman says, but he concedes that enforcing that policy is another matter. When possible, event organizers should limit the points of ingress and egress for attendees, and deploy magnetometers at each of those points. </p><p>"Make sure that applies equally to the production people, and even the talent who are doing set-up," he adds. "Make sure the artists and their entourage all go through these magnetometers and security guard scrutiny while we're at it, because they can have weapons, too." </p><p>Adelman adds that the special event industry could spend all its time and resources focusing on trying to prevent black swan events, and he emphasizes that the key is to triage the reasonably foreseeable risks. </p><p>"You should spend your finite amount of resources addressing the risks that are most likely to happen at whatever venue or event it is that one is talking about," he says. "That's the reasonable thing to do." </p><p><strong>Hotel security. </strong>There is no one-size-fits-all approach for hotels when it comes to their security programs, says Russell Kolins, chair of the ASIS International Hospitality, Entertainment, and Tourism Security Council. </p><p>"Each hotel has its own culture of management, its own corporate attitude, so each hotel is going to address its properties differently than their neighbors next door," Kolins adds. </p><p>This means that each property or hotel chain must constantly reinforce whatever safety protocols it has in place across management, staff, and guests. </p><p>Many hotel properties have policies on weapons, which vary from state to state. Nevada is an open-carry state, though most casinos don't allow patrons carrying a gun to enter the property. Hotels have typically allowed hunters with weapons permits to carry guns to their rooms or store them in lockers. Kolins says a weapons check would have to be conducted on every guest and bag to enforce these policies. </p><p>"If someone wants to get a weapon up to their room, they are going to do it, unless you're inspecting every single bag and every single piece of luggage, including clothing bags," Kolins says. "It's not going to be absolutely controlled." </p><p>Technology already plays a major role in hotels, says Stephen Barth, a professor of hospitality law at the Conrad N. Hilton College of Hotel and Restaurant Management at the University of Houston. </p><p>"Hotels employ a variety of technological measures to enhance security and the smooth flow of business for guests," he says. "We've got significant technology that's helped a lot—being able to track guests that go in and out, making sure a key is changed from guest to guest."</p><p>Barth, founder of hospitalitylawyer.com, argues that adding on more technology for security purposes wouldn't necessarily be rejected by guests, if it's obvious it keeps them safer. </p><p>"Technology for sure needs to be involved in these conversations," he says. "What if every hotel window had a sensor on it so that if the glass was broken, the hotel would know immediately what floor and which room it was in?" </p><p>Management may hesitate initially to go to such measures, but Barth argues that security should keep it in mind as a possible option. "There's going to be resistance, no doubt, but it does seem to me that there is potential," he says. </p><p><strong>Training. </strong>Security experts agree that hotel staff, including housekeeping, engineers, bellhops, and front desk workers are the most likely ones to observe unusual behavior among guests. </p><p>Therefore, training those workers thoroughly and consistently will help reinforce what they can look for as suspicious or possibly harmful behavior. </p><p>"There needs to be ongoing training, so that there is an awareness given to the employees to be the actual eyes and ears for security and management of a property," Kolins says. </p><p>While metal detectors and individual bag checks may be a far-flung approach, staff can be trained on behavioral cues to look for in guests, such as the way someone walks when they may be carrying a weapon. </p><p>"I think the trend now for all the hotels is going to be to take the See Something, Say Something campaign and make it effective," says Darrell Clifton, CPP, executive director of security at Eldorado Resorts in Reno, Nevada, and a member of the ASIS Hospitality, Entertainment, and Tourism Security Council. "Right now it's kind of a shotgun approach. If it's working right, you get 10,000 pieces of data and 9,999 of them are useless, and it's hard to comb through all that."  </p><p>Instead of just repeating the See Something, Say Something mantra, he says that managers should sit down with employees and tell them exactly what to look for, and what to do with that information. </p><p>"Frankly, the housekeepers know what's suspicious better than I do because they see all the different people that come into the hotel," Clifton notes. "They know what looks right and what doesn't look right." </p><p>When it comes to room inspections, Kolins suggests hotels conduct safety checks at least every other day, even if a do not disturb sign is on the door. These check-ins give hotel staff the opportunity to verify that the various sensors in the room are operating properly, such as smoke detectors and carbon monoxide monitors.</p><p>"I think the biggest change with that will be reinforcing that policy, more than creating a new one, for most hotels," Clifton notes, adding that most hotels have policies to check rooms every other day or more often, but have not enforced them consistently. </p><p>As of January, four Disney hotel properties had done away with the do not disturb sign, The New York Times reported, swapping it out for a "room occupied" sign and alerting guests that staff may check on the room. In December, Hilton revised its policy to still allow the signs but will conduct a staff-led alert system if it stays up for more than 24 hours. </p><p>The data collected at these check-ins, as well as any other security concerns reported to management, should all be kept in a log. </p><p>"The security industry is data-driven, and it's very important to record anything that gets reported," Kolins notes. "And on a periodic basis, whether it's a weekly basis or bimonthly basis, the reports should be part of an incident log." </p><p>Down the road, these data points can be connected and lead to an impending threat or other incident, he says. </p><p><strong>Duty of care.</strong> The Las Vegas shooting raises the question of duty of care—the reasonable level of protection a venue is legally obligated to provide its guests—and whether or not Mandalay Bay and Live Nation met that standard. </p><p>A victim who survived the shooting has already filed a lawsuit, and there is the potential for more litigation. In the suit filed against MGM, which owns Mandalay Bay, the plaintiff argues that the hotel failed to "maintain the Mandalay Bay premises in a reasonably safe condition," according to court documents. </p><p>From a legal standpoint, Adelman says the hotel property or venue hosting an event has an obligation to provide a reasonably safe environment for its guests under the circumstances.</p><p>Experts say a number of factors come into play in the legal process, including whether the hotel followed its own security policies and procedures. </p><p>"I think most juries and most judges would argue, at least until now, that the event was not foreseeable in the United States," Barth says.</p><p>Given the fact that the shooter brought in a cache of weapons and fired from a hotel suite, Barth says the property's policies and procedures will come into question. </p><p>"Responding to a particular incident is a part of the duty of care in places of public accommodation like hotels," Barth notes. "So, you would want to consider, what was their protocol for an active shooter situation? Did they have training, what was their communication system setup, what was supposed to happen, and did they in fact follow their training?" </p><p>He adds that the facts surrounding the Vegas shooting as investigators understand them are not necessarily unusual. </p><p>"This fellow in Vegas specifically requested a particular room. In and of itself, that happens all the time in a hotel," Barth says. He adds that people travel to Las Vegas to gamble or party, and often stay up all night and sleep during the day. "This fellow also had a do not disturb sign on his door for 72 hours. Again, that in and of itself is not a big deal, particularly in Vegas." </p><p>The large containers the weapons and other items were stored in wouldn't necessarily sound the alarm bells, he notes. In a city like Las Vegas, convention exhibitors frequently bring large containers to their rooms, and guests who gamble may be protecting valuables such as cash. </p><p>The duty of care applies equally to event venues as it does to hotels, Adelman says. "The main duty for providing a safe and secure environment generally falls on the shoulders of the venue," he points out, noting that the venue should know what its biggest risks are, and what resources are available to address those risks. </p><p>He adds that, when necessary, the location can contract with a private security company or with law enforcement to take on some of the security responsibilities. </p><p>All properties should take an all-hazards approach to security, paying just as much attention to the threat of a natural disaster as an active shooter. "The threat you prepare for probably isn't going to be the precise threat that actually appears on your doorstep," Barth says.  </p><h4>Gaming Community Reacts to Vegas Tragedy​<br></h4><p>Casinos are no strangers to security. With swaths of surveillance cameras, guards, and cash-protection measures, these venues are used to large volumes of people toting valuables. Most gaming properties have no-guns policies, and uniformed and plainclothes security officers keep careful eyes on the property. </p><p>Guests at casinos are looking for privacy and comfort, so hospitality professionals must strike a balance between providing security and making sure their clients feel at ease. </p><p>"Most security has to be unobtrusive, yet effective," says Dave Shepherd with the Readiness Resource Group and a member of the ASIS International Gaming and Wagering Protection Council. "We're not trying to prevent people from crossing a border or boarding an airplane. We have to be very cognizant of the rights of people as they are coming onto the properties." </p><p>In the wake of high-profile incidents, an opportunity arises to engage the C-suite, says Alan Zajic, CPP, with AWZ Consulting and chair of the Gaming and Wagering Protection Council. </p><p>"Any security director knows that when an event like what happened in Las Vegas occurs, your bosses are going to be asking you what you intend to do," he says. "That's the greatest opportunity to say, 'I need a commitment out of you to be able to put some of these programs into place and help protect our employees and our guests.'"</p><p>He explains that gaming properties should prioritize training employees on situational awareness, and proposes a technique. </p><p>"You observe something and investigate it until you understand it," he notes. "If you observe something unusual about a person, you should watch for a while until you understand whether it's legitimate. And if it's not, you investigate."</p><p>These types of training programs are going to become more prevalent in the industry, Zajic says, adding that airport level screening would be too burdensome for hotels and guests alike.</p><p>"Should there be screening or metal detectors inside bell rooms?" he asks. "Those are all kneejerk reactions that I'm not sure are going to float. People are going to be resistant to the invasion of their privacy."​​​</p>

Event Security

 

 

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https://sm.asisonline.org/Pages/Q-and-A-Event-Security.aspxQ&A: Event Security<p>​The ASIS 2017 Book of the Year is <em>Managing Critical Incidents and Large-Scale Event Security</em> by Eloy Nuñez and Ernest G. Vendrell. The authors spoke to <em>Security Management </em>about security trends and challenges in the event industry.</p><p><em><strong>Q. </strong>What are some of the biggest challenges facing the event security industry today?</em></p><p><strong>A. </strong>An overreliance on technology is a major challenge. We tend to think that a wall or a fence will keep the bad guys out, and it does help a lot, but in and of itself it's not going to solve our problems. We know that every fence and wall can be breached, and every technology that one can think of can be counteracted. It takes an active observation of the technology and how it's working. Another challenge is a sense of complacency–the idea that someone else is watching. That tends to make us less alert. Communication also becomes so important, especially when you're dealing with a variety of participants. It's essentially impossible to achieve requisite levels of coordination and collaboration without that effective communication.</p><p><em><strong>Q. </strong>How has the event security space evolved over the last few decades?</em> </p><p><strong>A. </strong>Three factors have made us more effective and efficient than in the past: computer processing speed, the miniaturization of technology, and the interconnectedness of people via devices. The improvements to technology have been outstanding. We're now able to process information more quickly. The interconnectedness allows us to communicate, collaborate, and crowdsource for information. There are so many different people from disparate backgrounds and agencies. We all get together and plan things out, and the byproduct is that we learn from each other.</p><p><em><strong>Q. </strong>Your book draws on lessons learned from past events. What are some of the overarching themes in those lessons?</em></p><p><strong>A.</strong> Given the complexities of critical incident management and large-scale event planning, we try to simplify things as best we can so that everyone is able to execute those plans. It takes a well-trained, diversified, and committed team that has clear goals and objectives. Have the team that you put in place practice as much as possible, and institute training that's relevant, realistic, and replicates the environment that you're working in. </p><p><em><strong>Q. </strong>Given the range of threats to the live event industry, how can security professionals share information to help mitigate those challenges?</em></p><p>A. Networking is so critical. One thing we wrote about was that, in the public safety arena, we were great at identifying lessons learned, but the problem was that we weren't applying those lessons. Conferences like the ASIS annual seminar and exhibits), where you have professionals sharing lessons learned and how they applied them, are so important in terms of professionalization and collectively doing a better job moving forward. Identifying contacts ahead of time and getting to know them before there's a problem is critical. That way when an unforeseen incident occurs, you have the right parties on speed-dial.</p>GP0|#cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8;L0|#0cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8|Physical Security;GTSet|#8accba12-4830-47cd-9299-2b34a4344465
https://sm.asisonline.org/Pages/Securing-the-Fan-Experience.aspxSecuring the Fan Experience<p>​<span style="line-height:1.5em;">In October 2005, as the final seconds ticked off the clock and Oklahoma University (OU) sealed its 43 to 21 victory against Kansas State, an announcement washed over the 84,000 fans gathered in the football stadium: a bomb had gone off outside the stadium and attendees could not leave.</span></p><p> When fans finally exited the venue 30 minutes later, OU student Joel Henry Hinrichs III was dead, killed when an explosive device attached to his body detonated near Oklahoma Memorial Stadium. After an FBI investigation, authorities determined that Hinrichs had no intention of harming others and his death was ruled a suicide.</p><p> The incident at OU is just one in a long line of threats to sports venues across the United States and the world, stretching from the Munich Summer Olympics in 1972 to the Boston Marathon bombing in 2013. Now, any sporting event can be selected as a worthy target,and with more than 2,450 stadiums in the United States alone, there are many of these critical infrastructure targets to choose from.</p><p> Complacency in responding to emerging threats could result in lost assets, injuries, and deaths. The National Football League (NFL) addressed this concern with its clear bag policy for entry into any football game—a controversial and unpopular decision, especially for female fans. </p><p> The policy, adopted in May 2013, requires fans who carry in bags to use bags that are clear plastic, vinyl, or PVC that do not exceed 12” x 6” x 12.” The league also allows fans to bring in one-gallon, clear, plastic freezer bags, and small clutch bags that are approximately the size of a hand. These rules are similar to policies that were already in place at the University of Michigan, Penn State University, and others.</p><p> “Our fans deserve to be in a safe and secure environment,” said Jeffrey Miller, NFL vice president and chief security officer, in a press release on the policy. “Public safety is our top priority. This will make the job of checking items much more efficient and effective.”</p><p> Following the NFL’s actions, in January 2014, Major League Baseball (MLB) announced that metal detectors will be required by 2015 in all baseball stadiums. The policy was developed with the aid of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) in an effort to “standardize security practices across the game,” said MLB spokesman Michael Teevan in a press release. All 30 teams will be required to implement security screening for fans, either with hand-held metal detection or walk-through magnetometers.</p><p> Although there are many obstacles to overcome, the ultimate goal is to provide a secure venue where sports fans are safe watching their team and the stakeholders are responsible in their efforts to provide a safe and secure environment. Two ways of doing this are by understanding the current liability landscape and through improvements in facility design.​</p><h4>Liability</h4><p>During the February 2014 Super Bowl, DHS provided support to the State of New Jersey and the NFL to help secure MetLife Stadium in East Rutherford and establish a perimeter around the facility. Efforts included teams to secure transit to and from the stadium, equipment scanning of cargo entering the stadium, air security enforcement, maritime and waterway security, and the addition of screeners and checkpoint lanes at Newark Liberty International Airport for the influx of fans arriving by air for the game.</p><p> This was part of the department’s efforts through the Support Anti-Terrorism by Fostering Effective Technologies (SAFETY) Act of 2002, which allows businesses to have a cap placed on liability due to terrorist acts where Qualified Anti-Terrorism Technologies (QATTs) have been deployed. Many venues in the sporting world have qualified for the act designation and are among the more than 685 applications that have been approved, according to DHS.</p><p> When venues achieve designation, they are encouraged to develop and deploy antiterrorism technology, and private corporations have seized on the opportunity to promote the financial incentive of enhancing technology and infrastructure to create a secure ring around venues. These methods include 24-hour awareness of the interior and exterior of the venue before, during, and after the event, such as the security operation surrounding the 2014 Super Bowl. </p><p> The SAFETY Act is just one part of the initiative to improve security at critical infrastructure in the United States, clarify liability, and ensure that insurance is available to cover terrorist attacks. This became a major concern for the private sector following the collapse of the Twin Towers, when the courts decided that the World Trade Center stakeholders should have known that the building complex was a potential target for terrorist attacks. Consequently, the stakeholders should have provided more mitigation to occupants in the buildings, the courts determined, resulting in $39.4 billion in losses from the towers’ collapse.</p><p> Following the incident, many insurance providers began to exclude terrorism coverage from their policies. This ultimately threatened the economy; commercial project leaders and many industry investors require terrorism protection to begin construction.</p><p> After the insurance companies’ move, the federal government decided to take action, and in 2002, Congress passed the Terrorism Risk Insurance Act (TRIA), which allows the federal government to assist with compensation in the event of losses from a terrorist attack. It was renewed by Congress in 2007 and is currently being debated for extension through December 2019; otherwise, it will expire at the end of this year.​</p><h4>Facility Design</h4><p>With the changing liability landscape, constructing new stadiums and retrofitting them to improve the fan experience and security is now a focus. Venue owners of the NFL, MLB, National Hockey League, and National Basketball Association are taking pride in developing new, elaborate facilities, and have recognized that stadium construction analysis and design can help them achieve their goal of protecting the up to 100,000 people who attend a game. </p><p> New stadiums can be engineered for increased safety. For example, to ensure maximum security new construction can avoid dangerous major industrial areas, highways, freight railways, and bodies of water. The structure should also be protected against earthquakes, lightning, and bombs.</p><p> Additionally, it should have all glassy, show areas away from where the fans stand. This means putting up a large expanse of glass near the entry could result in a shower of glass on fans if a sniper or bomb blast blows it out.</p><p> Venues should also be less porous. In particular, ballparks should not expose their outfields to adjacent neighborhood buildings where a sniper could lurk. There are now numerous companies that promote building protection, bollards, barriers, safety glass retrofit, hydraulic lift gate closure, hazardous materials detection technology, and other security services to protect the integrity of the building and the fans.</p><p> Along with improving the safety features of the materials in the facility itself, ingress and egress issues should also be of concern to venue owners: patrons have been crushed to death on several occasions. One of the worst incidents of fans being crushed at a soccer match was at a match at Hillsborough Stadium in Sheffield, England, in 1989 where 93 people were killed and 180 injured when fans surged forward in severely overcrowded stands, according to <em>The New York Times. </em></p><p> Egress should also be considered during an evacuation, given that victims can be trampled when panicking crowds behave erratically, such as during a fire. Venues can also be held liable for crowd crush incidents, so many are changing their venue construction and practices in response. For instance, festival seating or open admission is no longer a universal practice because crowds can get unruly and can threaten public safety, according to Steven Adelman of Adelman Law Group. Adelman doesn’t consider general seating, such as festival seating, to be a wise arrangement. Assigned seating, railings, sections, and corridors are valuable for crowd management and result in fewer crush situations.</p><p> Venues of various capacities in the United States will eventually be required to protect the public with a high standard of security, including MLB and NFL stadiums. The focus on entry security and control of access is only one of many enhancements seen in the last few years that are now necessary to prepare for a wide range of threats.</p><p> In the past, venue security was focused on weather related, earthquake related, or firearm related threats. The concerns of today include biological, chemical, radiological, and hidden explosive threats, and venues must take the proper precautions to ensure fans and athletes within their facilities are secure. </p><h4>Government Programs for Securing Sports Venues</h4><p><br>The federal government has designated sports venues as critical infrastructure and the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is providing a variety of resources to the sector, taking the lead in sports venue security. One of its first projects was in May 2005 when the agency worked with the Mississippi Emergency Management Agency, providing funds to the University of Southern Mississippi to develop a model for sports venue security. </p><p> These vulnerability models were designed to address hazards and threats, and DHS has concentrated on providing resources for venue owners and managers. Following are a few such tools available to security professionals.</p><p> <strong>Risk assessment.</strong> DHS has created a Risk Self-Assessment Tool (RSAT), which provides an assessment of the venue and a benchmark report, comparing it to other similar venues. Results of the assessment are confidential and can address retrofitting of equipment and physical infrastructure, technology, staff training, maintenance, and creating a virtual ring of safety around a venue to increase security.</p><p> <strong>Reference materials. </strong>DHS also publishes an official Protective Measures Guide for U.S. Sports Leagues and a Protective Measures Guide for Outdoor Venues as a resource for sports venues. It also has created a suspicious activity video, Check It! A Training Guide: How to Check a Bag for Security Personnel, which includes guidelines on checking for false sides or bottoms, and checking for forbidden or hidden items. </p><p> DHS has also created another video in the Check It! line on protecting public spaces. This video explains how to recognize suspicious behavior.</p><p> Additionally, DHS will also provide site assistance visits for venue owners and law enforcement to receive input on their particular venue vulnerabilities. DHS can also provide evacuation planning for a stadium.</p><p> <strong>Cubed Program.</strong> DHS is also taking an active role in promoting the interconnectivity of cybersecurity and physical security. One recent initiative, the Cubed Program (C3), was announced in February 2014 and is just one of DHS’s recent efforts. The program provides assistance to owners and operators, voluntarily, to use DHS guidelines in managing their cybersecurity. The program provides cybersecurity resources and access to a cybersecurity advisor. </p><p> The federal government also provides incentives for participating, including liability protection, procurement advantages, and tax grants. </p><p> <strong>Reviews.</strong> If a sports venue is listed in the Commercial Facilities Sector of U.S. critical infrastructure, DHS will provide tools for a self-assessment Cyber Resilience Review. However, DHS also gives venues an option to allow a DHS representative to perform a security assessment. All findings are then presented in a confidential report.</p><p> <strong>Insider Threat.</strong> DHS’s Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) also offers programs to assist with sports venue security. Its “IS-915: Protecting Critical Infrastructure Against Insider Threat” course provides guidance to critical infrastructure employees and service providers on how to identify and take action against insider threats. There are no prerequisites for the course, which is offered for free on FEMA’s website, but FEMA recommends that participants take “IS-906: Workplace Security Awareness” to provide a foundation for the course.</p><p> <strong>Surveillance.</strong> FEMA also offers another program, “IS-914: Surveillance Awareness: What You Can Do, A Guide to Identifying Suspicious Behavior.” The course is designed to make critical infrastructure employees and service providers aware of actions they can take to detect and report suspicious activities associated with adversarial surveillance—surveillance conducted to gather information about individuals, organizations, businesses, and infrastructure to commit an act of terrorism or another crime.</p><p> The course is also available on FEMA’s website for free and also provides additional course documents and training resources for students. </p><h4>Sports Venue Security Checklist</h4><ul><li><span style="line-height:1.5em;">Credential all employees and vendors with photo IDs.<br></span><br></li><li><span style="line-height:1.5em;">Conduct background checks on all staff working the event, including delivery staff and concessions suppliers.<br></span><br></li><li><span style="line-height:1.5em;">Conduct pre-event staff training on e</span><span style="line-height:1.5em;">mergency plans for evacuation, hazardous weather, terrorism, hostage events, bomb threats, releases of chemical agents, food borne illnesses, fire, structural collapse, and earthquakes.<br></span><br></li><li><span style="line-height:1.5em;">Prepare and update a protocol and script in video and audio of emergency instructions for every type of emergency.<br></span><br></li><li><span style="line-height:1.5em;">Address crowd management and fan demographics, accounting for the influence of alcohol and fan emotion. Ensure one crowd observer—live or via video surveillance—for every 250 visitors.<br></span><br></li><li><span style="line-height:1.5em;">Upgrade to advanced camera surveillance of interior, exterior, and perimeter of the venue for 24-7 coverage.<br></span><br></li><li><span style="line-height:1.5em;">Promote the use of the Department of Homeland Security initiative “If You See Something, Say Something” to empower fans and staff through signage and video.<br></span><br></li><li><span style="line-height:1.5em;">Assess barriers, fences, and surveillance of the perimeter and install perimeter barriers, bollards, or planters as needed.<br></span><br></li><li><span style="line-height:1.5em;">Secure all systems serving the venue, including air flow, utilities, and water.<br></span><br></li><li><span style="line-height:1.5em;">Make sure hazmat strips are in place to monitor air quality and detect foreign chemicals.<br></span><br></li><li><span style="line-height:1.5em;">Search and lock down the venue before the event; all individuals and vehicles should be searched on arrival.<br></span><br></li><li><span style="line-height:1.5em;">Ensure that all parking and entry staff are equipped with radios.<br></span><br></li><li><span style="line-height:1.5em;">Have highly visible uniformed security and law enforcement in place to act as a deterrent.<br></span><br></li><li><span style="line-height:1.5em;">Secure all concessions.<br></span><br></li><li><span style="line-height:1.5em;">Maintain open communication and cooperation with law enforcement.<br></span><br></li><li><span style="line-height:1.5em;">Consider using a social media technology for situational awareness to monitor the venue.</span><span style="line-height:1.5em;">​</span><br></li></ul><div><br> </div><div><em>Nancy Serot is a business development manager for Phoenix Risk Assessment and a member of ASIS International. Thomas K. Zink is a professor at the Saint Louis University Department of Environment and Occupational Health and founder of Project EQUIPP.</em><br></div>GP0|#cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8;L0|#0cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8|Physical Security;GTSet|#8accba12-4830-47cd-9299-2b34a4344465
https://sm.asisonline.org/Pages/Q-and-A---Soft-Targets.aspxQ&A: Soft Targets<p>​<span style="line-height:1.5em;">Jennifer Hesterman, Colonel, U.S. Air Force (Retired), discusses her book <em>Soft Target Hardening</em>, which was named the 2015 ASIS Security Book of the Year. Available from ASIS; asisonline.org; Item #2239; 322 pages; $69 (members); $76 (nonmembers).</span><span style="line-height:1.5em;">​</span></p><p><strong><em>Q.</em></strong><em> Why are soft targets increasingly attractive to terrorists?  </em></p><p><strong>A. </strong>Soft target, civilian-centric places that are not typically fortified—such as schools, churches, hospitals, malls, hotels, restaurants, and recreational venues—have little money to spend on security. Frequently, they must balance security, aesthetics, and a positive experience for customers.  </p><p>Terrorists select soft targets because there are many, possibly hundreds, of them in small towns and cities; they are vulnerable, so the odds of success are high and the terror effect is amplified among civilians. The story also stays in the news longer—the soft target attack in San Bernardino received far more coverage for almost twice the length of time compared to the Ft. Hood shooting. Military and government workers are generally seen as more legitimate targets than civilians, so soft targets provide more of the outrage, shock, and fear that terrorists crave.</p><p><em><strong>Q.</strong> What inspired you to write a book on hardening soft targets? </em></p><p><strong>A.</strong> I was living in the Middle East and close to several soft target attacks. I also realized that in the United States after 9-11, we further reinforced hard targets like government buildings and military installations, while soft targets are increasingly in the crosshairs but unprotected. I traveled all over the Middle East and Southwest Asia, and saw how soft targets are protected against attack. I wanted to apply some of these lessons to the civilian sector.  </p><p><em><strong>Q.</strong> Which soft targets are being hardened in the United States?</em></p><p><strong>A.</strong> Schools are further along the spectrum due to the rise of school shootings and stabbings. Mall security is much improved after the Westgate Mall attack in Nairobi, but shopping venues are still extremely vulnerable. Churches have a unique problem due to their open, inviting culture even after the Charleston shooting. Of course synagogues, mosques, and Sikh temples are moving towards a more hardened posture as the result of a rise in domestic terrorist activity. Hospitals usually don’t realize they are targets for terrorist attack or exploitation. Every type of soft target is different and requires tailored hardening tactics. </p><p><em><strong>Q. </strong>What trends should security professionals look out for?</em></p><p><strong>A. </strong>The insider threat is a growing concern. Insider attacks have the greatest possibility of success in terms of destruction of a target and mass casualties. The perpetrator can preposition items, understands the layout of the facility, has unfiltered access, and knows vulnerabilities to exploit. </p><p>We spend a great deal of time in vetting people during the hiring process, but new employees are basically left alone after the onboarding process. Venues like stadiums or concert halls may perform inadequate background checks on seasonal workers. The book discusses added layers of protection such as using behavioral detection techniques, a buddy system where a seasoned worker is paired with a new worker, and rules ensuring that no one is ever alone.</p>GP0|#cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8;L0|#0cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8|Physical Security;GTSet|#8accba12-4830-47cd-9299-2b34a4344465