Event Security

 

 

https://sm.asisonline.org/Pages/Security-101--What-to-Expect-at-the-U.S.-Presidential-Inauguration.aspxSecurity 101: What to Expect at the U.S. Presidential InaugurationGP0|#21788f65-8908-49e8-9957-45375db8bd4f;L0|#021788f65-8908-49e8-9957-45375db8bd4f|National Security;GTSet|#8accba12-4830-47cd-9299-2b34a43444652017-01-18T05:00:00Zhttps://adminsm.asisonline.org/pages/megan-gates.aspx, Megan Gates<p>​Almost 1 million people are estimated to descend on Washington, D.C., on Friday for the inauguration of U.S. President-elect Donald Trump. Many of those individuals are part of 63 groups planning demonstrations at the inauguration, presenting a unique security challenge for the U.S. federal government, D.C. officials, and other stakeholders.</p><p>“Anytime you have coming together such large numbers of people, such large numbers of groups that intend to demonstrate and exercise their First Amendment rights, you’ve got to be vigilant; you’ve got to plan; you’ve got to prepare,” said U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Secretary Jeh Johnson in a press conference. <br></p><p>This is why the inauguration was designated as a National Special Security Event (NSSE), allowing federal officials to begin crafting a security plan for the event 180 days before it was to take place. <br></p><p></p><div class="ms-rtestate-read ms-rte-wpbox"><div class="ms-rtestate-notify ms-rtestate-read af4e0b24-c744-4f11-a407-cfd54f64d3ec" id="div_af4e0b24-c744-4f11-a407-cfd54f64d3ec"></div><div id="vid_af4e0b24-c744-4f11-a407-cfd54f64d3ec" style="display:none;"></div></div><p>​The U.S. Secret Service led the planning, working with other federal partners, such as the U.S. Department of Defense and the Federal Emergency Management Agency, and local partners such as the Metropolitan Police Department (MPD)—Washington, D.C.’s local police force.</p><p>Given the unique scope of a U.S. presidential inauguration where heads of state and numerous U.S. leaders will be in attendance, along with between 700,000 to 900,000 civilians, there will be an enormous security presence in the nation’s capital. <br></p><p>Johnson said that approximately 35,800 security personnel will be involved over the course of inauguration weekend—10,000 DHS personnel, 12,000 other federal personnel, 7,800 National Guard personnel, and 6,000 police officers from MPD and other local police departments.<br></p><p><strong>Security Measures for the Inauguration </strong><br></p><p>On Wednesday at 5 p.m., U.S. Capitol Police will begin <a href="https://www.uscp.gov/media-center/press-releases/2017-presidential-inaugural-capitol-complex-street-closures-parking" target="_blank">closing street access</a> to the Capitol complex and continue closing streets on Thursday at 11 p.m. local time. Streets access is expected to resume at 5 p.m. on Friday, and in the meantime the police are encouraging people to walk or take public transportation.<br></p><p>"Inaugural events attendees are encouraged to use public transportation, as many streets in and around the Capitol Grounds and the National Mall will be closed to private automobiles for much of the day," Capitol Police said in a statement. </p><p>Security personnel will establish two different types of perimeters for the event: soft vehicle perimeters where those who live or work inside the perimeter will be given access, and hard vehicle perimeters where only official vehicles will be allowed to pass through. The hard vehicle perimeter will also be heavily fortified by trucks and dumpsters, “given the current threat environment,” Johnson added.<br></p><p>The <a href="https://www.wmata.com/rider-guide/events/inauguration/index.cfm#MoreInfo" target="_blank">Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority​</a> (WMATA) will open at 4 a.m. on Friday and run through midnight. It plans to run at peak service from 4 a.m. until 9 p.m. that evening to service riders, but the Navy Archives, Federal Triangle, Mount Vernon Plaza, Pentagon, and Smithsonian stations will be closed.<br></p><p>Security personnel will have bag checks and 300 magnetometers set up to screen individuals planning on attending the inauguration festivities.<br></p><p>Washington, D.C., is also a <a href="https://www.secretservice.gov/data/press/releases/GPA-01-17-Inauguration-No-Drone-Zone.pdf" target="_blank">no fly zone​</a> for unmanned aircraft (drones), and Johnson said security measures have been taken to ensure that no drones are able to fly within the District during the inauguration weekend. <br></p><p>“Christmas was just a few weeks ago,” Johnson added. “I suspect a lot of people got drones for Christmas…this is something we’ve thought about, we have planned for, and we have technology to deal with it.”<br></p><p>Officials have also issued permits to 99 groups planning to demonstrate on inauguration weekend—63 of which plan to demonstrate on Friday. These permits were issued to help security plan for how it will handle these protesters—such as where protestors will be allowed to demonstrate to ensure that they are not crossing paths with groups that might hold opposing views. <br></p><p>This helps security personnel ensure that opposing groups do not disrupt the festivities and it helps prevent demonstrations from escalating. Security personnel will also monitor these groups for disruption and to make sure they remain separated, Johnson explained.<br></p><p>There is no specific threat to the inauguration, Johnson said, but security personnel will remain vigilant as the global terrorist environment is very different in 2017 than it was in 2013—the last time an inauguration was held in the United States. <br></p><div class="ms-rtestate-read ms-rte-wpbox"><div class="ms-rtestate-notify ms-rtestate-read 9c55b8b2-304d-46c0-8e24-aa44e28ebc64" id="div_9c55b8b2-304d-46c0-8e24-aa44e28ebc64"></div><div id="vid_9c55b8b2-304d-46c0-8e24-aa44e28ebc64" style="display:none;"></div></div><p>​Officials have to be concerned about homegrown violent extremism and lone wolves, Johnson explained, along with the “larger picture of general security and general public safety when you have a large public gathering with estimates of 700,000 to 900,000 people in close proximity of each other.”</p><p><strong>Securing Local Businesses</strong><br></p><p>While U.S. federal and local officials will be handling the security of public spaces in and around the inauguration, business owners will be responsible for securing their own facilities throughout the festivities. <br></p><p>One precaution these individuals should take is to map concealment areas in their facilities and regularly conduct routine sweeps of them—particularly the exterior—for weapons of convenience or cached weapons, says Ross Bulla, CPP, PSP, founder and president of The Treadstone Group, Inc., which advises clients on security solutions and best practices for protecting people, property, and information.<br></p><p>This is because a group who might be planning a violent demonstration may try to leave supplies at a local business on a parade route or nearby the National Mall to access them later. If facility owners find these kind of items, Bulla says they should contact law enforcement immediately and post security—if possible—in the area that the items were stowed in.<br></p><p>Bulla also recommends businesses in the immediate vicinity of the inauguration and its parade route assess their physical security, their food and safety handling, water supplies, electrical systems, and shelter in place procedures. This is especially critical for hotels, which might require hundreds of people—both guests and staff—to shelter in place should an emergency occur.<br></p><p>“You also may need to determine a way to re-credential people,” Bulla explains. “Guests who’ve left the facility and need to get back inside, you need to be able to quickly identify them as a guest and get them inside, while not allowing non-guests in.”<br></p><p>And for high-rise facilities, Bulla says it’s critical to limit or prevent rooftop access. <br></p><p>“Check door locks and secure windows that face the inauguration and parade route because on of the main or favored activities of protest groups is to get on a roof and unfurl banners or throw objects,” he explains. “Your roofs’ become focal points. Newspapers see them, and they’re a great place to throw rocks at law enforcement.”<br></p><p><strong>Securing your Person</strong><br></p><p>Individuals planning to attend the inauguration should <a href="https://www.secretservice.gov/data/press/releases/JIC-01_PressRelease_TransportationPlan-Final_USCP-1-6-17.pdf" target="_blank">review the reference materials</a> provided by officials on prohibited items, which include animals other than service or guide animals, oversized backpacks and bags (18” by 13” by 7”), coolers, mace, selfie sticks, bicycles, and more.<br></p><p>While small bags and purses will be allowed in secure areas, Bulla recommends individuals planning to attend the inauguration try not to carry a bag at all as it will slow them down going through security screenings. <br></p><p>“If you go to an officially sanctioned event or any unsanctioned or related event, there will be security screening in place,” Bulla says. “Don’t carry an oversized camera, don’t carry an oversized purse—or even carry one…just pack lightly, or nothing more than your wallet if possible.”<br></p><p>Those traveling to Washington, D.C., for inauguration festivities can also sign up for free emergency text alerts and notifications by texting the word “INAUG” to 888777, according to the Secret Service.<br></p><p>Bulla also suggests creating a muster point plan if you’re attending the event with several people should an emergency occur and you need to evacuate quickly.<br></p><p>“It’s one thing to evacuate quickly and protect yourself if there is an incident,” Bulla ​says. “It’s entirely different to be one of 100,000 people running. You’re not going to be able to stay with your husband, your wife, your children.”<br></p><p>Instead of attempting to stay with your party, Bulla says you should plan to run with the crowd and exit the area as quickly as possible. Then, when you’re away from danger, head to the muster point you agreed on beforehand, such as a hotel lobby.<br></p><p>“One of the primary reasons that people are injured or killed is because they panic and don’t have an escape route,” he adds. “Just always know and be aware of your surroundings, and where you’d go if something happened.”<br></p><p>For more on inauguration security, listen to a special edition of the <em></em><a href="https://soundcloud.com/security-management/special-edition-us-presidential-inauguration-security"><em>Security Management </em>podcast</a> with a former U.S. Secret Service agent.<br></p><p><br></p>

Event Security

 

 

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https://sm.asisonline.org/Pages/Drafting-a-Blueprint-for-Security.aspxDrafting a Blueprint for Security<p>​<span style="line-height:1.5em;">Immediately upon concluding the construction of a secure-asset facility 10 years ago, project management hit a major setback: the security manager. Instead of working with the design team and project manager in the initial phases of the project, the security manager waited until the new facility was already erected to determine where security cameras needed to be placed.</span></p><p>“All of a sudden, we’re moving cameras and changing openings and sleeves in the wall for wiring because [the security manager] had difficulty reading blueprints,” says Rick Lavelle, PSP, principal architect and owner of Creador Architecture, of the experience. Instead of admitting that he had this difficulty, the security manager waited until he could see the facility three-dimensionally, causing delays and increasing project costs.</p><p>“Then he’d step in and really do his job that would have been helpful to have earlier in the process,” Lavelle explains.</p><p>To help prevent security professionals from becoming similar setbacks in construction projects, Security Management sat down with Lavelle; Mark Schreiber, CPP, principal consultant for Safeguards Consulting and chair of the ASIS International Security Architecture and Engineering Council; Rene Rieder, Jr., CPP, PSP, associate principal at Ove Arup & Partners; and J. Kelly Stewart, managing director and CEO of Newcastle Consulting, for their tips on navigating the document and project management process.​</p><h4>1. Know Your Team</h4><p>Like almost any project that involves numerous people, it’s crucial to understand that a construction project is a team effort that requires team members to understand the process and communicate with each other.</p><p>“We emphasize...know who your team is, align with your team, and communicate with your team as much as possible because that will support a central project,” Schreiber explains. </p><p>And this team can be quite large, including top executives at the company, the project manager, the facility operations manager, the facility engineer, the security manager, security consultants, architects and designers, engineers, and general consultants—just to name a few. The council encourages team members to construct a simple diagram to help keep track of everyone.</p><p>While it may take a while, identifying the team and communicating with them helps ensure that security is included in construction project discussions from the very beginning—something that doesn’t always happen automatically. </p><p>“I was fairly surprised to learn early on in one of [the first classes I taught] that most of the project is completed—and sometimes is built—when the security manager gets a roll of drawings and they say, ‘Give us a security plan,’” Lavelle says.  </p><p>To change this, he explains that security needs to “know the relationships within their own companies that they need to develop so that doesn’t happen to them, [and that they make sure] they’re brought in earlier in the process. That leads to a much more successful implementation of anybody’s security plan.”</p><p>Lavelle also recommends that security leads work with the IT department during the project. “Getting IT, security, and the facilities people together on one team and having them all have the same direction, you’ll probably have the most effective security program that’s possible,” he explains.​</p><h4>2. Know Your Goals</h4><p>A construction project is rarely initiated just to meet a security need. It’s typically instigated to meet some other operational need, such as to increase manufacturing capacity. So the security department must ensure that its goals for the project—whether it’s introducing a new CCTV system or implementing its existing access control system—align with the overarching goals for the new facility.</p><p>“Just because they now have been given the green light to do an improvement for their facility doesn’t mean that they can go in and put every possible technology, every possible countermeasure that they’ve been dreaming about for years in,” Schreiber says. “They have to work within the goals of that project.”</p><p>This means that once the goals for the facility are outlined, the security department needs to specify its own project goals, providing a way to measure those goals, ensuring that goals are attainable and relevant to the overall project, identifying the starting functional requirements, and making sure they meet time and budgetary constraints. In the case of a new manufacturing plant, for example, CCTV might be attractive to other departments as well, such as quality management or logistics, creating a stronger case for the technology and getting these departments to share the expense.</p><p>By going through this process, security professionals can make sure that their goals are aligned with the overall project goals, enabling them to have success, Schreiber adds. “Whereas the more they stray away, they’re going to essentially be spinning their wheels, wasting effort, and possibly jeopardizing credibility.”​</p><h4>3. Know Your Documents</h4><p>For most security professionals, being part of a construction project is not routine. Nor is the process of reading project manuals, floor plans, elevations, and other drawing plans. But understanding what these documents are and how they come together to represent a construction project is key to the success of the project “because if the documents are correct, then you have a sound project for development,” Stewart says.</p><p>That’s because the documents work together as a guide detailing the design of the project, the technology that will be installed, and where exactly those installations will take place in the final construction. </p><p>And while discussing changes or where technology should be installed in the final project, security directors can communicate with design professionals and architects—regardless of their drawing skills, Lavelle adds. A quick visual representation of the camera and access control location can be helpful. </p><p>While these discussions are taking place, it’s important to document changes throughout the process and review them with the project team after each step is completed. “It’s arduous, but it’s a necessary evil because if you skip a step, you’ll forget something or something will fall through the cracks,” Stewart explains.</p><p>After the construction project is completed, it’s important to continue to keep track of its documentation and make sure it’s up to date so it reflects the current facility. In one case, Stewart took over as a director of security for a company that hadn’t documented the many changes to its system over the years. </p><p>“I actually had to bring in a security consultant and architect to figure out where all the stuff was,” he says. “There were drawings that were going back 20 years, which had nothing to do with the current system.”​</p><h4>4. Know Your Chain of Command</h4><p>In an ideal world, once the initial security goals for the project are outlined and plans are designed to implement them, nothing would change. “But truthfully, it never works that way,” Lavelle says. And when changes or problems occur, it’s critical to know who in the project team you need to talk to about implementing a solution. </p><p>As the project goes further along, you spend less time with the design team and more time with the general contractor, Lavelle explains. This means that security directors need to understand the roles and responsibilities of those involved in the project, and who they need to speak to about changes throughout the process.</p><p>For instance, some construction projects can take more than 18 months to complete, and during that time technology may change or new company policies may be implemented. The security needs for the project may shift, but it might not be appropriate to seek executive approval for the change.</p><p>“Going back to the CEO or the CFO who approved the project costs in the beginning may not be appropriate if you’re halfway through construction,” Lavelle says. Instead, security directors will likely need to go to the facility or project manager, or even their direct supervisor, to have the changes approved.</p><p>Most security professionals have never been involved in a construction project. For them, this is a “once in their career” experience, Rieder says. Following the steps outlined above can help smooth the way. However, if a project seems overwhelming security professionals need to reach out to peers or experts for help and advice.</p><p><em>​The Security Architecture and Engineering Council is sponsoring an educational session on the <a href="https://www.asisonline.org/Education-Events/Education-Programs/Classroom/Pages/Security-Document-and-Project-Management-Process.aspx" target="_blank">security document and project management process​</a> in October.</em><br></p>GP0|#cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8;L0|#0cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8|Physical Security;GTSet|#8accba12-4830-47cd-9299-2b34a4344465
https://sm.asisonline.org/Pages/What-the-Pulse-Nightclub-Attack-Means-for-Soft-Target-Security.aspxWhat the Pulse Nightclub Attack Means for soft Target Security<p>​<span style="line-height:1.5em;">After news broke of the <a href="/Pages/Orlando-Nightclub-Shooting.aspx" target="_blank">shooting at Pulse nightclub in Orlando</a> in the early hours of Sunday morning, many were left wondering what could have been done to prevent the attack that left 50 people dead—including the gunman—and wounded 53 others. </span></p><p><span style="line-height:1.5em;">To find out and to discuss what this latest attack on a soft target means for the security industry, <em>Security Management</em> Assistant Editor Megan Gates spoke with subject matter expert Kevin Doss, CPP, PSP. </span><br></p><p><span style="line-height:1.5em;">Doss is president and CEO of </span><span style="line-height:1.5em;">Level 4 Security, a security consultancy, and author of<a href="http://store.elsevier.com/Active-Shooter/Kevin-Doss/isbn-9780128027844/" target="_blank"> <em>Active Shooter: Preparing for and Responding to a Growing Threat</em>.</a> Below is a transcript of their conversation, which has been lightly edited for clarity.</span><br></p><p><span style="line-height:1.5em;"><strong>Gates: When you first heard about what was happening in Orlando, what was your initial reaction?</strong></span><br></p><p><span style="line-height:1.5em;">Doss: I certainly was not surprised. I worked in nightclub security in my early 20s, and you just don’t think about venues like that being attacked by active shooters. </span><br></p><p><span style="line-height:1.5em;">So my first thought was, ‘Wow, someone decided to hit a nightclub, which changes the game.’ </span><span style="line-height:1.5em;">It changes the game for all the different businesses out there that are soft targets, that are open to the public. </span></p><p><span style="line-height:1.5em;">In the case of a nightclub, security typically does not carry a firearm, even if they’re off-duty police officers, because of the environment and fights. You wouldn’t want someone to take your weapon during a fight or if you’re breaking up a fight.</span><br></p><p><span style="line-height:1.5em;">So you typically have no firearms at a nightclub or a bar. Also, concealed weapons permits usually do not allow you to conceal carry into an establishment that sells alcohol, or sells more alcohol than it does food.</span><br></p><p><span style="line-height:1.5em;">So it was a venue that I thought, from an attacker’s point of view, is a target-rich environment with very little protection.</span><br></p><p><span style="line-height:1.5em;"><em>(Editor’s note: The off-duty police officer who was hired as security for Pulse nightclub was carrying a firearm.)</em></span><br></p><p><span style="line-height:1.5em;"><strong>Gates: As more details about the attack emerged, what did you as a security consultant begin thinking about?</strong></span><br></p><p><span style="line-height:1.5em;">Doss: I started thinking about what should a nightclub do? If I’m the consultant coming in, how am I going to put a security program in place that would mitigate—maybe not stop, but mitigate—the risk of an active shooter or any act of violence, whether it’s a gun, whether it’s a knife. </span><br></p><p><span style="line-height:1.5em;">The first step in any security program is you need a plan. You have to have and develop a plan, and I think every nightclub in America and the world today is probably going out and looking at their security and going, ‘Wow, we need to do something. We need to make sure we have a better plan in place.’ Because I can assure you, many of them have probably never thought about security to that level.</span><br></p><p><span style="line-height:1.5em;">But you can’t just throw in a simple emergency action plan. You have to plan for specific threats. Pulse was a gay club, an alternative lifestyle club. We know there are threats from certain individuals who hate that lifestyle. They hate people based on their sexual orientations, so if you’re doing a threat assessment—which is part of a risk assessment—you already know that there’s a potential for violence.</span><br></p><p><span style="line-height:1.5em;">Your local neighborhood bar my not have that same threat, versus a nightclub that caters to the alternative lifestyle. That’s going to have additional threats. That’s going to determine what type of security measures you need. You can’t go out to one club and go, ‘OK, every club should do this.’ That’s just not realistic and it’s not going to work.</span><br></p><p><span style="line-height:1.5em;">What you need to do is look at the club, look at the social environment, look at the economic environment, and look at the geographic area around it. What are the threats? What are the things that could possibly happen? And then you start building your plan to mitigate those risks.</span><br></p><p><span style="line-height:1.5em;"><strong>Gates: With that said, what are some plans a nightclub could put in place to mitigate the risk of an active shooter?</strong></span><br></p><p><span style="line-height:1.5em;">Doss: In this case, with an active shooter, did they compartmentalize? Oscar Newman in his book called it defensible space. What that is, is taking the environment and breaking it down into more manageable areas so you can secure those areas and not focus on the macro environment where you’re trying to secure the entire facility at one time. You break it down into more manageable zones.</span><br></p><p><span style="line-height:1.5em;">In this case, maybe they could have put a vestibule in and had it secured so that when you go through the checkpoint, you don’t get into the main hall until you’ve been let in through a secondary checkpoint. You create a lobby or vestibule area, so you don’t have full access from the street to run right in and start shooting.</span><br></p><p><span style="line-height:1.5em;">Also, you have loud music, you have flashing lights, and you have a lot of darkness in a nightclub. It was evident from seeing some of the TV and reports that came out that people [inside Pulse] heard the gunshots, but thought they were part of the show. Until they saw bodies falling, they were under the impression that those gunshots were just part of the party.</span><br></p><p><span style="line-height:1.5em;">So that’s something that needs to be addressed—an awareness of if this happens, how do we turn the lights on? How do we cut the music? How do we have a public announcement to everybody that ‘Hey, you need to take cover’? There has to be a way to communicate with everybody in that facility, very rapidly, because that’s going to save lives.</span><br></p><p><span style="line-height:1.5em;"><strong>Gates: That’s a good point, and is something I’ve heard and seen in coverage of the Orlando attack over and over again—that when the gunman started shooting, people didn’t know what was happening. Those were crucial moments for some people to respond, or not to respond.</strong></span><br></p><p><span style="line-height:1.5em;">Doss: Absolutely. You also wonder how many medical supplies [Pulse] had. So if they have a normal group of 300 people, do they have just standard Band Aids? Or do they have tourniquets? Do they have bandages? Do they have things that could be used in a medical emergency where you have a high number of casualties?</span><br></p><p><span style="line-height:1.5em;">If I had to make an assumption, my assumption would be they probably did not. So some of the wounded may have succumbed to their wounds because there were no tourniquets, there were no bandages, and they couldn’t get medical care in quickly.</span><br></p><p><span style="line-height:1.5em;">Coordination with law enforcement and first responders is critical. But also having medical supplies that they can immediately administer to the wounded is critical to saving lives because it doesn’t take long to bleed out when you’ve been shot, depending on where you’ve been hit.</span><br></p><p><span style="line-height:1.5em;"><strong>Gates: Do you think these kind of soft target attacks are going to continue in the United States—especially because we have easier access to firearms here than citizens do in other countries?</strong></span><br></p><p><span style="line-height:1.5em;">Doss: Yes, I think these shootings, these unnecessary acts of crime will continue. I think you’ll see more of a focus put on how do we plan better—how do we prevent. </span><br></p><p><span style="line-height:1.5em;">My focus as a consultant has changed from response programs that focus on after the shooter gets there, how do we respond. Those are important programs, because it saves lives if there is a response plan.</span><br></p><p><span style="line-height:1.5em;">But my goal as a consultant is to focus on the behavior indicators and to be proactive. Let’s not wait until the person shows up at the front door, because when that happens, somebody’s getting injured. Somebody’s going to die.</span><br></p><p><span style="line-height:1.5em;">In almost every active shooter case there have been family members, friends, or coworkers who have said, ‘We knew something bad was about to happen. The person was acting erratically; the person was not acting like</span><span style="line-height:1.5em;"> a normal person should act.’</span><br></p><p><span style="line-height:1.5em;">It’s no different in the Orlando case. People are now coming out saying, ‘Yes, we think he was mentally ill. Yes, he had issues and we knew something bad was going to happen.’</span><br></p><p><span style="line-height:1.5em;">Usually someone is aware of the indicator, someone knows something is very wrong, and the question is, what do we do with that information? How do we get that information? Sometimes it’s as simple as sitting down with the person and saying, ‘Is everything OK? I know you’re under stress, you’re going through this, and this, and this. What can I do to help you?’</span><br></p><p><span style="line-height:1.5em;">And it may just be being a friend to these individuals. I think of it from this perspective—there are victims on both sides of the shooter. You have the shooter, and the family members of the shooter that just lost a son, brother, uncle, whatever it may be. So they’re mourning and they’re embarrassed; they’re embarrassed at a heinous act of crime that their family member just committed.</span><br></p><p><span style="line-height:1.5em;">Then you have the other victims that were shot, that were innocent victims, and you have their family members. So everybody loses in an active shooter event.</span><br></p><p><span style="line-height:1.5em;">That’s why I think our focus should be more on preventing and finding out what the accurate indicators are. And if we can intercept and intervene prior to someone buying a gun and starting to shoot, that’s when we win.</span><br></p><p><span style="line-height:1.5em;"><strong>Gates: Would it have made a difference if patrons in Pulse were armed?</strong></span><br></p><p><span style="line-height:1.5em;">Doss: I’ll be the first to tell you that even if everybody in that club was carrying a gun, and pulled out a concealed weapon, you’d have just as many shot and killed. You would have people missing, people shooting erratically, and when alcohol is involved, you now have people who probably can’t see their sights.</span><br></p><p><span style="line-height:1.5em;">I have friends that will be like, ‘Hey, carry a gun and fire back. That’s the answer.’ And I respond, ‘I’m fairly highly trained at shooting a weapon. And I would not want to have to pull my weapon out in a crowd and make that shot while people are running by me and knocking me around.’</span><br></p><p><span style="line-height:1.5em;">Then, if you miss or the bullet penetrates through the person, now you’ve injured or killed an innocent person. It’s not as simple as ‘Give everyone a gun and fire back.’ It’s much more complicated, and very few people are capable of shooting under that type of stress accurately and effectively.</span><br></p><p><span style="line-height:1.5em;">I’m not anti-gun. I’m just stating that that’s not the simple answer when it comes to active shooter—that everyone should be armed. It can work in some cases, but in many cases it will probably be worse than some other options.</span><br></p><p><span style="line-height:1.5em;"><strong>Gates: What are some additional areas of security at Pulse that as a security professional, you’d want to know more about following this incident?</strong></span><br></p><p><span style="line-height:1.5em;">Doss: My question will be for the security officer on duty, was he trained on active shooter? If he was trained, on what type of protocols? What did he learn?</span><br></p><p><span style="line-height:1.5em;">From a security consultant perspective and a subject matter expert perspective, I’m interested in how your people are trained. And then, did they do what they were trained to do? And was that the right thing to do?</span><br></p><p><span style="line-height:1.5em;">Those are the questions that I think will be bouncing around as everything is analyzed, because this is a pretty impactful event. You have 103 people that have been either wounded or killed. Out of 300 people, that’s one-third of the people in the place. That’s a huge percentage. So I think this is, unfortunately, a lesson that every business is going to have to start taking seriously.</span><br></p><p><span style="line-height:1.5em;">And many do not. I’m out there—I wrote a book on active shooter. I’m out there​ preaching it, and I sit there and still see businesses that don’t invest in building a plan. They still don’t invest in training and awareness. They still don’t invest in training their people when it comes to active shooter or any act of violence.</span><br></p><p>  ​</p>GP0|#cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8;L0|#0cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8|Physical Security;GTSet|#8accba12-4830-47cd-9299-2b34a4344465
https://sm.asisonline.org/Pages/When-Simulation-Means-Survival.aspxWhen Simulation Means Survival<p>​<span style="line-height:1.5em;">Active shooter simulation exercises are undoubtedly the most effective way to prepare for a real-life scenario. These scenarios mimic the stress and chaos of an actual event and reinforce the principles of survival taught in active shooter training programs. </span></p><p>But in recent years, some companies have taken that idea to the extreme, conducting surprise active shooter drills on unsuspecting employees, students, and teachers. </p><p>Michelle Meeker, an employee at a Colorado nursing home, filed a federal lawsuit against a local law enforcement officer and her workplace in July 2014 for being taken hostage during one such drill. Meeker had no idea it was a simulation, according to The Wall Street Journal, and tearfully begged for her life as the “gunman” forced her into an empty room. She sued for damages after being so traumatized from the event that she quit her job. </p><p>Similarly, an Oregon teacher filed suit against her workplace after a man dressed in a black hoodie and goggles burst into her classroom and brandished a gun loaded with blanks, then pulled the trigger. “You’re dead,” the gunman said to her, and walked away. The teacher believed she might have really been shot and was going to die, OregonLive.com reported in April 2015. </p><p>At a middle school in Winter Haven, Florida, teachers and students alike were terrified when two armed police officers swept through classrooms with weapons drawn in November 2014. Parents were outraged, the principal was suspended, and the school resource officer reassigned in the aftermath, according to The Washington Post. </p><p>And these aren’t just recent phenomena. Security Management has reported on these types of incidents for at least 20 years.</p><p>Such training methods cause unnecessary panic and trauma. While the simulations themselves are a critical part of any effective active shooter training program, these kneejerk reactions to the proliferation of mass shootings accomplish nothing, as the focus in the aftermath is on people’s confusion and anger. Rather, the most effective way to prepare for a potential active shooter event is to combine announced simulated exercises with training materials that constantly reinforce the principles of the program. </p><p>The chief goals of these programs are to eliminate the threat and to teach victims to survive. However, as an attack is taking place, no training will completely ensure the safety of those involved or guarantee that the shooter will be taken down. </p><p>The human factor is unpredictable—but with proper training and repetition, an effective response will become ingrained in the actions of employees. Certain movements will become a part of one’s muscle memory, thus aiding the individual during an actual shooter event. The benefits of such programs can aid participants in a number of real-life emergencies, not just active shooter situations. </p><p>Program components. An active shooter scenario will put any crisis plan to the test, and its success or failure rests in how well and how often people are trained to respond to an incident. Conducting a simulated exercise that mimics an active shooter event is the best way to acclimate employees to the factors involved in these crises. </p><p>Hiring specialized companies that facilitate training and simulation can help organizations close  the gaps that they may not have otherwise noticed. These firms bring with them both expertise and experience that businesses lack.  </p><p>To develop effective response tactics, security personnel should understand what environmental and human factors typically occur during a shooting, which they can then simulate in training exercises. Loud noises—including gunshots, screams, breaking glass, alarms, and public address announcements—are to be expected. Consulting companies can provide such noises over speakers during the simulations to heighten the stress and reality of the scenario. The physical environment will be in disarray as high concentrations of people flock to exits or seek cover. There is also the possibility of visual trauma, including seeing the shooter as well as wounded or deceased victims.</p><p>The duration of the event should be considered when conducting training. While the length of the active shooter event may last anywhere from minutes to hours, police response and investigation may require witnesses and victims to be involved for up to several hours. </p><p>Psychological stress is also inevita­ble. Each person will process the shooting in different ways, and the nervous system response will kick in and possibly override any training received. Similarly, physical stresses may be imposed upon the body, including having to run, navigate stairs, lift or push heavy items, or possibly carry a wounded victim to safety. </p><p>To ilustrate this, active shooter training programs in corporate, educational, and religious settings often include a 150-pound dummy that trainees practice dragging to experience the unaccustomed physical exertion. </p><p>Given the various scenarios that have occurred in real-life active shooter situations, simulations should vary so that participants can’t anticipate the gunman’s actions. Having him enter from different points and take various routes through the facility will keep the trainings fresh. </p><p>The drills can be conducted as often as quarterly or as infrequently as once a year, depending on the size and capabilities of the company. Fire, police, and EMS personnel should be involved in at least one training per year. Tabletop exercises among key staff are also a good option to refresh critical decision making skills. </p><p>These simulations should be supplemented with training materials that reinforce the principles practiced during simulation. Reminders about the importance of awareness and preparedness can be placed in company newsletters or on websites. Classroom trainings to introduce basic concepts that will be practiced during the programs are encouraged, but they need not be repeated as often as the training scenarios. </p><p>The same training and preparedness principles deployed by these programs apply to other emergencies, like severe weather or medical events. During an earthquake, for example, similar physical stressors and environmental conditions are present, and there can be panic, confusion, and communication issues. Active shooter programs will apply and reinforce responses to a range of possible scenarios. </p><p>A community center in the California Bay Area recently set up an effective active shooter program. The center’s campus includes about five buildings and a school. The center formed a crisis response team from its core employees, and everyone on the team has a distinct role in the event of an active shooter or any emergency, including a severe weather event or medical crisis. The team rotates every few months so each person receives training for every role. </p><p>As part of the active shooter training, the center purchased communication equipment, including radios, to deploy in case cellular towers go down. The company also established a command post during simulation trainings where team members could wait for police response. Redundancy is built into the roles so that if one person falls victim to the active shooter or emergency event, someone can step in and fulfill that person’s response protocols.  </p><p>Popular protocols. One popular active shooter response protocol is the U.S. Homeland Security Department’s “Run, Hide, Fight” program. It was designed as a simple means for people to recall what to do during an event in just three verbs, but this approach may oversimplify the human response mechanism.</p><p>Running at the first sign of gunfire may not always be the best option depending on where the shooter is, how far one has to go to reach safety, and whether there are small children in tow, for example. To hide or shelter in place can be a lifesaving response, provided that the room can be locked and barri­caded with heavy furniture to offer cover from potential gunfire. </p><p>Hiding below a desk or on the floor does not guarantee cover if the shooter breaches the door. Hiding adjacent to a door, not in front of it, is recommended. This way, if a responder needs to engage the shooter in a fight by positioning himself or herself near the door, the shooter can be taken by surprise. If the door isn’t locked or barricaded well and the shooter comes in, a responder may have to improvise and find something to throw at the shooter.</p><p>It’s possible that there isn’t sufficient cover in a room. Such was the case in the mass shooting at a health department in San Bernardino, California, in December 2015 that left 14 people dead. Survivors reported that they deployed the skills they had learned earlier in an active shooter training course by hiding behind tables and chairs, but the large room was mostly open space without much cover. In these scenarios, attempting to stay outside of the line of sight, in the peripheral vision of the shooter, is the best cover. </p><p>To fight back against the shooter, responders must be able to identify and take advantage of improvised weapons in their environment and use them as the shooter enters the room. If not practiced previously in a live realistic setting, the fight phase can end horribly for the responder. Expecting someone to fight back against an armed assailant if they have never practiced that before is unreasonable. </p><p>Due to these concerns, as well as the unpredictable nature of active shooter events, organizations implementing “Run, Hide, Fight” should carefully consider supplementing it with extensive training tactics in their active shooter programs. </p><p>Program costs. Several firms offer active shooter response programs and training for organizations. The cost of active shooter programs will vary based on factors such as the number of parti­cipants, number of buildings on the campus, and number of drills coordinated with first responders. </p><p>A flat fee of $5,000 for a small organization may cover a day’s training plus educational materials, such as posters, booklets, online tools, and assessments. Offering ongoing training as part of an onboarding hiring process will incur recurring fees but will help the organization be better prepared.</p><p>Some programs offer to certify people as active shooter response instructors for $500 and more. There are other providers that offer armed response training for the cost of $1,500 per person. </p><p>The steps outlined in this article will help an organization set the groundwork for establishing an effective active shooter response program. Companies should tailor the program to their individual needs and ensure that all employees are trained on proper protocols. </p><p>If a thorough risk assessment is completed, incident response plans are put in place, and trainings and simulations are carried out on a regular basis, the organization’s efforts may ultimately save lives. </p><p>--<br></p><p><em><strong>Greg Schneider, CPP</strong>, is president of Battle Tested Solutions, an organization providing security consulting, intelligence management, and tactical response training for clients. His career of more than 20 years includes experience in law enforcement, military, intelligence, and security organizations. He is a member of the ASIS Global Terrorism, Political Instability, and International Crime Council and a veteran of the Israel Defense Forces. ​</em></p>GP0|#cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8;L0|#0cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8|Physical Security;GTSet|#8accba12-4830-47cd-9299-2b34a4344465