Event Security

 

 

https://sm.asisonline.org/Pages/Security-101--What-to-Expect-at-the-U.S.-Presidential-Inauguration.aspxSecurity 101: What to Expect at the U.S. Presidential InaugurationGP0|#21788f65-8908-49e8-9957-45375db8bd4f;L0|#021788f65-8908-49e8-9957-45375db8bd4f|National Security;GTSet|#8accba12-4830-47cd-9299-2b34a43444652017-01-18T05:00:00Zhttps://adminsm.asisonline.org/pages/megan-gates.aspx, Megan Gates<p>​Almost 1 million people are estimated to descend on Washington, D.C., on Friday for the inauguration of U.S. President-elect Donald Trump. Many of those individuals are part of 63 groups planning demonstrations at the inauguration, presenting a unique security challenge for the U.S. federal government, D.C. officials, and other stakeholders.</p><p>“Anytime you have coming together such large numbers of people, such large numbers of groups that intend to demonstrate and exercise their First Amendment rights, you’ve got to be vigilant; you’ve got to plan; you’ve got to prepare,” said U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Secretary Jeh Johnson in a press conference. <br></p><p>This is why the inauguration was designated as a National Special Security Event (NSSE), allowing federal officials to begin crafting a security plan for the event 180 days before it was to take place. <br></p><p></p><div class="ms-rtestate-read ms-rte-wpbox"><div class="ms-rtestate-notify ms-rtestate-read af4e0b24-c744-4f11-a407-cfd54f64d3ec" id="div_af4e0b24-c744-4f11-a407-cfd54f64d3ec"></div><div id="vid_af4e0b24-c744-4f11-a407-cfd54f64d3ec" style="display:none;"></div></div><p>​The U.S. Secret Service led the planning, working with other federal partners, such as the U.S. Department of Defense and the Federal Emergency Management Agency, and local partners such as the Metropolitan Police Department (MPD)—Washington, D.C.’s local police force.</p><p>Given the unique scope of a U.S. presidential inauguration where heads of state and numerous U.S. leaders will be in attendance, along with between 700,000 to 900,000 civilians, there will be an enormous security presence in the nation’s capital. <br></p><p>Johnson said that approximately 35,800 security personnel will be involved over the course of inauguration weekend—10,000 DHS personnel, 12,000 other federal personnel, 7,800 National Guard personnel, and 6,000 police officers from MPD and other local police departments.<br></p><p><strong>Security Measures for the Inauguration </strong><br></p><p>On Wednesday at 5 p.m., U.S. Capitol Police will begin <a href="https://www.uscp.gov/media-center/press-releases/2017-presidential-inaugural-capitol-complex-street-closures-parking" target="_blank">closing street access</a> to the Capitol complex and continue closing streets on Thursday at 11 p.m. local time. Streets access is expected to resume at 5 p.m. on Friday, and in the meantime the police are encouraging people to walk or take public transportation.<br></p><p>"Inaugural events attendees are encouraged to use public transportation, as many streets in and around the Capitol Grounds and the National Mall will be closed to private automobiles for much of the day," Capitol Police said in a statement. </p><p>Security personnel will establish two different types of perimeters for the event: soft vehicle perimeters where those who live or work inside the perimeter will be given access, and hard vehicle perimeters where only official vehicles will be allowed to pass through. The hard vehicle perimeter will also be heavily fortified by trucks and dumpsters, “given the current threat environment,” Johnson added.<br></p><p>The <a href="https://www.wmata.com/rider-guide/events/inauguration/index.cfm#MoreInfo" target="_blank">Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority​</a> (WMATA) will open at 4 a.m. on Friday and run through midnight. It plans to run at peak service from 4 a.m. until 9 p.m. that evening to service riders, but the Navy Archives, Federal Triangle, Mount Vernon Plaza, Pentagon, and Smithsonian stations will be closed.<br></p><p>Security personnel will have bag checks and 300 magnetometers set up to screen individuals planning on attending the inauguration festivities.<br></p><p>Washington, D.C., is also a <a href="https://www.secretservice.gov/data/press/releases/GPA-01-17-Inauguration-No-Drone-Zone.pdf" target="_blank">no fly zone​</a> for unmanned aircraft (drones), and Johnson said security measures have been taken to ensure that no drones are able to fly within the District during the inauguration weekend. <br></p><p>“Christmas was just a few weeks ago,” Johnson added. “I suspect a lot of people got drones for Christmas…this is something we’ve thought about, we have planned for, and we have technology to deal with it.”<br></p><p>Officials have also issued permits to 99 groups planning to demonstrate on inauguration weekend—63 of which plan to demonstrate on Friday. These permits were issued to help security plan for how it will handle these protesters—such as where protestors will be allowed to demonstrate to ensure that they are not crossing paths with groups that might hold opposing views. <br></p><p>This helps security personnel ensure that opposing groups do not disrupt the festivities and it helps prevent demonstrations from escalating. Security personnel will also monitor these groups for disruption and to make sure they remain separated, Johnson explained.<br></p><p>There is no specific threat to the inauguration, Johnson said, but security personnel will remain vigilant as the global terrorist environment is very different in 2017 than it was in 2013—the last time an inauguration was held in the United States. <br></p><div class="ms-rtestate-read ms-rte-wpbox"><div class="ms-rtestate-notify ms-rtestate-read 9c55b8b2-304d-46c0-8e24-aa44e28ebc64" id="div_9c55b8b2-304d-46c0-8e24-aa44e28ebc64"></div><div id="vid_9c55b8b2-304d-46c0-8e24-aa44e28ebc64" style="display:none;"></div></div><p>​Officials have to be concerned about homegrown violent extremism and lone wolves, Johnson explained, along with the “larger picture of general security and general public safety when you have a large public gathering with estimates of 700,000 to 900,000 people in close proximity of each other.”</p><p><strong>Securing Local Businesses</strong><br></p><p>While U.S. federal and local officials will be handling the security of public spaces in and around the inauguration, business owners will be responsible for securing their own facilities throughout the festivities. <br></p><p>One precaution these individuals should take is to map concealment areas in their facilities and regularly conduct routine sweeps of them—particularly the exterior—for weapons of convenience or cached weapons, says Ross Bulla, CPP, PSP, founder and president of The Treadstone Group, Inc., which advises clients on security solutions and best practices for protecting people, property, and information.<br></p><p>This is because a group who might be planning a violent demonstration may try to leave supplies at a local business on a parade route or nearby the National Mall to access them later. If facility owners find these kind of items, Bulla says they should contact law enforcement immediately and post security—if possible—in the area that the items were stowed in.<br></p><p>Bulla also recommends businesses in the immediate vicinity of the inauguration and its parade route assess their physical security, their food and safety handling, water supplies, electrical systems, and shelter in place procedures. This is especially critical for hotels, which might require hundreds of people—both guests and staff—to shelter in place should an emergency occur.<br></p><p>“You also may need to determine a way to re-credential people,” Bulla explains. “Guests who’ve left the facility and need to get back inside, you need to be able to quickly identify them as a guest and get them inside, while not allowing non-guests in.”<br></p><p>And for high-rise facilities, Bulla says it’s critical to limit or prevent rooftop access. <br></p><p>“Check door locks and secure windows that face the inauguration and parade route because on of the main or favored activities of protest groups is to get on a roof and unfurl banners or throw objects,” he explains. “Your roofs’ become focal points. Newspapers see them, and they’re a great place to throw rocks at law enforcement.”<br></p><p><strong>Securing your Person</strong><br></p><p>Individuals planning to attend the inauguration should <a href="https://www.secretservice.gov/data/press/releases/JIC-01_PressRelease_TransportationPlan-Final_USCP-1-6-17.pdf" target="_blank">review the reference materials</a> provided by officials on prohibited items, which include animals other than service or guide animals, oversized backpacks and bags (18” by 13” by 7”), coolers, mace, selfie sticks, bicycles, and more.<br></p><p>While small bags and purses will be allowed in secure areas, Bulla recommends individuals planning to attend the inauguration try not to carry a bag at all as it will slow them down going through security screenings. <br></p><p>“If you go to an officially sanctioned event or any unsanctioned or related event, there will be security screening in place,” Bulla says. “Don’t carry an oversized camera, don’t carry an oversized purse—or even carry one…just pack lightly, or nothing more than your wallet if possible.”<br></p><p>Those traveling to Washington, D.C., for inauguration festivities can also sign up for free emergency text alerts and notifications by texting the word “INAUG” to 888777, according to the Secret Service.<br></p><p>Bulla also suggests creating a muster point plan if you’re attending the event with several people should an emergency occur and you need to evacuate quickly.<br></p><p>“It’s one thing to evacuate quickly and protect yourself if there is an incident,” Bulla ​says. “It’s entirely different to be one of 100,000 people running. You’re not going to be able to stay with your husband, your wife, your children.”<br></p><p>Instead of attempting to stay with your party, Bulla says you should plan to run with the crowd and exit the area as quickly as possible. Then, when you’re away from danger, head to the muster point you agreed on beforehand, such as a hotel lobby.<br></p><p>“One of the primary reasons that people are injured or killed is because they panic and don’t have an escape route,” he adds. “Just always know and be aware of your surroundings, and where you’d go if something happened.”<br></p><p>For more on inauguration security, listen to a special edition of the <em></em><a href="https://soundcloud.com/security-management/special-edition-us-presidential-inauguration-security"><em>Security Management </em>podcast</a> with a former U.S. Secret Service agent.<br></p><p><br></p>

Event Security

 

 

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https://sm.asisonline.org/Pages/Securing-the-Fan-Experience.aspxSecuring the Fan Experience<p>​<span style="line-height:1.5em;">In October 2005, as the final seconds ticked off the clock and Oklahoma University (OU) sealed its 43 to 21 victory against Kansas State, an announcement washed over the 84,000 fans gathered in the football stadium: a bomb had gone off outside the stadium and attendees could not leave.</span></p><p> When fans finally exited the venue 30 minutes later, OU student Joel Henry Hinrichs III was dead, killed when an explosive device attached to his body detonated near Oklahoma Memorial Stadium. After an FBI investigation, authorities determined that Hinrichs had no intention of harming others and his death was ruled a suicide.</p><p> The incident at OU is just one in a long line of threats to sports venues across the United States and the world, stretching from the Munich Summer Olympics in 1972 to the Boston Marathon bombing in 2013. Now, any sporting event can be selected as a worthy target,and with more than 2,450 stadiums in the United States alone, there are many of these critical infrastructure targets to choose from.</p><p> Complacency in responding to emerging threats could result in lost assets, injuries, and deaths. The National Football League (NFL) addressed this concern with its clear bag policy for entry into any football game—a controversial and unpopular decision, especially for female fans. </p><p> The policy, adopted in May 2013, requires fans who carry in bags to use bags that are clear plastic, vinyl, or PVC that do not exceed 12” x 6” x 12.” The league also allows fans to bring in one-gallon, clear, plastic freezer bags, and small clutch bags that are approximately the size of a hand. These rules are similar to policies that were already in place at the University of Michigan, Penn State University, and others.</p><p> “Our fans deserve to be in a safe and secure environment,” said Jeffrey Miller, NFL vice president and chief security officer, in a press release on the policy. “Public safety is our top priority. This will make the job of checking items much more efficient and effective.”</p><p> Following the NFL’s actions, in January 2014, Major League Baseball (MLB) announced that metal detectors will be required by 2015 in all baseball stadiums. The policy was developed with the aid of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) in an effort to “standardize security practices across the game,” said MLB spokesman Michael Teevan in a press release. All 30 teams will be required to implement security screening for fans, either with hand-held metal detection or walk-through magnetometers.</p><p> Although there are many obstacles to overcome, the ultimate goal is to provide a secure venue where sports fans are safe watching their team and the stakeholders are responsible in their efforts to provide a safe and secure environment. Two ways of doing this are by understanding the current liability landscape and through improvements in facility design.​</p><h4>Liability</h4><p>During the February 2014 Super Bowl, DHS provided support to the State of New Jersey and the NFL to help secure MetLife Stadium in East Rutherford and establish a perimeter around the facility. Efforts included teams to secure transit to and from the stadium, equipment scanning of cargo entering the stadium, air security enforcement, maritime and waterway security, and the addition of screeners and checkpoint lanes at Newark Liberty International Airport for the influx of fans arriving by air for the game.</p><p> This was part of the department’s efforts through the Support Anti-Terrorism by Fostering Effective Technologies (SAFETY) Act of 2002, which allows businesses to have a cap placed on liability due to terrorist acts where Qualified Anti-Terrorism Technologies (QATTs) have been deployed. Many venues in the sporting world have qualified for the act designation and are among the more than 685 applications that have been approved, according to DHS.</p><p> When venues achieve designation, they are encouraged to develop and deploy antiterrorism technology, and private corporations have seized on the opportunity to promote the financial incentive of enhancing technology and infrastructure to create a secure ring around venues. These methods include 24-hour awareness of the interior and exterior of the venue before, during, and after the event, such as the security operation surrounding the 2014 Super Bowl. </p><p> The SAFETY Act is just one part of the initiative to improve security at critical infrastructure in the United States, clarify liability, and ensure that insurance is available to cover terrorist attacks. This became a major concern for the private sector following the collapse of the Twin Towers, when the courts decided that the World Trade Center stakeholders should have known that the building complex was a potential target for terrorist attacks. Consequently, the stakeholders should have provided more mitigation to occupants in the buildings, the courts determined, resulting in $39.4 billion in losses from the towers’ collapse.</p><p> Following the incident, many insurance providers began to exclude terrorism coverage from their policies. This ultimately threatened the economy; commercial project leaders and many industry investors require terrorism protection to begin construction.</p><p> After the insurance companies’ move, the federal government decided to take action, and in 2002, Congress passed the Terrorism Risk Insurance Act (TRIA), which allows the federal government to assist with compensation in the event of losses from a terrorist attack. It was renewed by Congress in 2007 and is currently being debated for extension through December 2019; otherwise, it will expire at the end of this year.​</p><h4>Facility Design</h4><p>With the changing liability landscape, constructing new stadiums and retrofitting them to improve the fan experience and security is now a focus. Venue owners of the NFL, MLB, National Hockey League, and National Basketball Association are taking pride in developing new, elaborate facilities, and have recognized that stadium construction analysis and design can help them achieve their goal of protecting the up to 100,000 people who attend a game. </p><p> New stadiums can be engineered for increased safety. For example, to ensure maximum security new construction can avoid dangerous major industrial areas, highways, freight railways, and bodies of water. The structure should also be protected against earthquakes, lightning, and bombs.</p><p> Additionally, it should have all glassy, show areas away from where the fans stand. This means putting up a large expanse of glass near the entry could result in a shower of glass on fans if a sniper or bomb blast blows it out.</p><p> Venues should also be less porous. In particular, ballparks should not expose their outfields to adjacent neighborhood buildings where a sniper could lurk. There are now numerous companies that promote building protection, bollards, barriers, safety glass retrofit, hydraulic lift gate closure, hazardous materials detection technology, and other security services to protect the integrity of the building and the fans.</p><p> Along with improving the safety features of the materials in the facility itself, ingress and egress issues should also be of concern to venue owners: patrons have been crushed to death on several occasions. One of the worst incidents of fans being crushed at a soccer match was at a match at Hillsborough Stadium in Sheffield, England, in 1989 where 93 people were killed and 180 injured when fans surged forward in severely overcrowded stands, according to <em>The New York Times. </em></p><p> Egress should also be considered during an evacuation, given that victims can be trampled when panicking crowds behave erratically, such as during a fire. Venues can also be held liable for crowd crush incidents, so many are changing their venue construction and practices in response. For instance, festival seating or open admission is no longer a universal practice because crowds can get unruly and can threaten public safety, according to Steven Adelman of Adelman Law Group. Adelman doesn’t consider general seating, such as festival seating, to be a wise arrangement. Assigned seating, railings, sections, and corridors are valuable for crowd management and result in fewer crush situations.</p><p> Venues of various capacities in the United States will eventually be required to protect the public with a high standard of security, including MLB and NFL stadiums. The focus on entry security and control of access is only one of many enhancements seen in the last few years that are now necessary to prepare for a wide range of threats.</p><p> In the past, venue security was focused on weather related, earthquake related, or firearm related threats. The concerns of today include biological, chemical, radiological, and hidden explosive threats, and venues must take the proper precautions to ensure fans and athletes within their facilities are secure. </p><h4>Government Programs for Securing Sports Venues</h4><p><br>The federal government has designated sports venues as critical infrastructure and the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is providing a variety of resources to the sector, taking the lead in sports venue security. One of its first projects was in May 2005 when the agency worked with the Mississippi Emergency Management Agency, providing funds to the University of Southern Mississippi to develop a model for sports venue security. </p><p> These vulnerability models were designed to address hazards and threats, and DHS has concentrated on providing resources for venue owners and managers. Following are a few such tools available to security professionals.</p><p> <strong>Risk assessment.</strong> DHS has created a Risk Self-Assessment Tool (RSAT), which provides an assessment of the venue and a benchmark report, comparing it to other similar venues. Results of the assessment are confidential and can address retrofitting of equipment and physical infrastructure, technology, staff training, maintenance, and creating a virtual ring of safety around a venue to increase security.</p><p> <strong>Reference materials. </strong>DHS also publishes an official Protective Measures Guide for U.S. Sports Leagues and a Protective Measures Guide for Outdoor Venues as a resource for sports venues. It also has created a suspicious activity video, Check It! A Training Guide: How to Check a Bag for Security Personnel, which includes guidelines on checking for false sides or bottoms, and checking for forbidden or hidden items. </p><p> DHS has also created another video in the Check It! line on protecting public spaces. This video explains how to recognize suspicious behavior.</p><p> Additionally, DHS will also provide site assistance visits for venue owners and law enforcement to receive input on their particular venue vulnerabilities. DHS can also provide evacuation planning for a stadium.</p><p> <strong>Cubed Program.</strong> DHS is also taking an active role in promoting the interconnectivity of cybersecurity and physical security. One recent initiative, the Cubed Program (C3), was announced in February 2014 and is just one of DHS’s recent efforts. The program provides assistance to owners and operators, voluntarily, to use DHS guidelines in managing their cybersecurity. The program provides cybersecurity resources and access to a cybersecurity advisor. </p><p> The federal government also provides incentives for participating, including liability protection, procurement advantages, and tax grants. </p><p> <strong>Reviews.</strong> If a sports venue is listed in the Commercial Facilities Sector of U.S. critical infrastructure, DHS will provide tools for a self-assessment Cyber Resilience Review. However, DHS also gives venues an option to allow a DHS representative to perform a security assessment. All findings are then presented in a confidential report.</p><p> <strong>Insider Threat.</strong> DHS’s Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) also offers programs to assist with sports venue security. Its “IS-915: Protecting Critical Infrastructure Against Insider Threat” course provides guidance to critical infrastructure employees and service providers on how to identify and take action against insider threats. There are no prerequisites for the course, which is offered for free on FEMA’s website, but FEMA recommends that participants take “IS-906: Workplace Security Awareness” to provide a foundation for the course.</p><p> <strong>Surveillance.</strong> FEMA also offers another program, “IS-914: Surveillance Awareness: What You Can Do, A Guide to Identifying Suspicious Behavior.” The course is designed to make critical infrastructure employees and service providers aware of actions they can take to detect and report suspicious activities associated with adversarial surveillance—surveillance conducted to gather information about individuals, organizations, businesses, and infrastructure to commit an act of terrorism or another crime.</p><p> The course is also available on FEMA’s website for free and also provides additional course documents and training resources for students. </p><h4>Sports Venue Security Checklist</h4><ul><li><span style="line-height:1.5em;">Credential all employees and vendors with photo IDs.<br></span><br></li><li><span style="line-height:1.5em;">Conduct background checks on all staff working the event, including delivery staff and concessions suppliers.<br></span><br></li><li><span style="line-height:1.5em;">Conduct pre-event staff training on e</span><span style="line-height:1.5em;">mergency plans for evacuation, hazardous weather, terrorism, hostage events, bomb threats, releases of chemical agents, food borne illnesses, fire, structural collapse, and earthquakes.<br></span><br></li><li><span style="line-height:1.5em;">Prepare and update a protocol and script in video and audio of emergency instructions for every type of emergency.<br></span><br></li><li><span style="line-height:1.5em;">Address crowd management and fan demographics, accounting for the influence of alcohol and fan emotion. Ensure one crowd observer—live or via video surveillance—for every 250 visitors.<br></span><br></li><li><span style="line-height:1.5em;">Upgrade to advanced camera surveillance of interior, exterior, and perimeter of the venue for 24-7 coverage.<br></span><br></li><li><span style="line-height:1.5em;">Promote the use of the Department of Homeland Security initiative “If You See Something, Say Something” to empower fans and staff through signage and video.<br></span><br></li><li><span style="line-height:1.5em;">Assess barriers, fences, and surveillance of the perimeter and install perimeter barriers, bollards, or planters as needed.<br></span><br></li><li><span style="line-height:1.5em;">Secure all systems serving the venue, including air flow, utilities, and water.<br></span><br></li><li><span style="line-height:1.5em;">Make sure hazmat strips are in place to monitor air quality and detect foreign chemicals.<br></span><br></li><li><span style="line-height:1.5em;">Search and lock down the venue before the event; all individuals and vehicles should be searched on arrival.<br></span><br></li><li><span style="line-height:1.5em;">Ensure that all parking and entry staff are equipped with radios.<br></span><br></li><li><span style="line-height:1.5em;">Have highly visible uniformed security and law enforcement in place to act as a deterrent.<br></span><br></li><li><span style="line-height:1.5em;">Secure all concessions.<br></span><br></li><li><span style="line-height:1.5em;">Maintain open communication and cooperation with law enforcement.<br></span><br></li><li><span style="line-height:1.5em;">Consider using a social media technology for situational awareness to monitor the venue.</span><span style="line-height:1.5em;">​</span><br></li></ul><div><br> </div><div><em>Nancy Serot is a business development manager for Phoenix Risk Assessment and a member of ASIS International. Thomas K. Zink is a professor at the Saint Louis University Department of Environment and Occupational Health and founder of Project EQUIPP.</em><br></div>GP0|#cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8;L0|#0cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8|Physical Security;GTSet|#8accba12-4830-47cd-9299-2b34a4344465
https://sm.asisonline.org/Pages/The-Power-of-Physical-Security.aspxThe Power of Physical Security<p>​<span style="line-height:1.5em;">A</span><span style="line-height:1.5em;">ny utilities security expert can effortlessly recite the details. In April 2013, someone snuck into an underground vault near a freeway in San Jose, California, and cut several telephone cables. Then, 30 minutes later, snipers shot at an electrical substation in Metcalf, California, for almost 20 minutes, knocking out 17 transformers that funnel power to Silicon Valley, before fleeing the scene and evading capture. </span></p><p>A major blackout was prevented by rerouting power around the downed station, but the attack caused more than $15 million in damage and brought physical threats to the electric grid to the forefront of discussions about the security of the United States’ critical infrastructure. It quickly became clear that cyberattacks were not the only threat to the U.S. power supply. </p><p>Two years have passed since the incident, and, while the snipers remain at large, the utility industry is taking steps to deter any future attacks.</p><p>“Because the grid is so critical to all aspects of our society and economy, protecting its reliability and resilience is a core responsibility of everyone who works in the electric industry,” said acting Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) chairman Cheryl LaFleur in a statement in March 2014. (LaFleur was named permanent chairman in July 2014.) Following LaFleur’s statement, FERC directed the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) to develop new standards requiring owners and operators of the bulk-power system to address risks due to physical security threats and vulnerabilities.</p><p>The FERC order asked NERC to create a standard to identify and protect transmission stations, substations, and associated primary control centers that could cause widespread outages if compromised. </p><p>From those instructions, a 10-person drafting committee created the CIP-014 standard that focuses on transmission assessments and physical security. The standard requires transmission station and substation owners to perform a risk assessment of their systems to identify facilities that could have a critical impact on the power grid.</p><p>The order also requires owners and operators to develop and implement a security plan to address potential threats and vulnerabilities.​</p><h4>Participants</h4><p>The electric system is made up of three components: generators—coal fired, biomass, solar, and wind—that produce electricity; transmission—taking the electricity from the power source and moving it somewhere, such as a substation; and distribution—power moving from a facility to the meter in a home, business, or other building.</p><p>When electricity moves from a generation station, such as a wind farm, it goes to a substation that normally has transformers that decrease the voltage, often from 500 to 230 kilovolts (kV). From there, the substation transmits the power to another substation, which usually lowers the voltage even further to 115 kV so it can be used in residential and commercial facilities. </p><p>CIP-014 applies to transmission substations in the electric system, not the generators or the distribution stations. However, it doesn’t apply to all 55,000 transmission substations in the country, explains Allan Wick, CPP, PCI, PSP, a member of the standard drafting committee. </p><p>Instead, the standard relies on categories that determine which facilities must comply with the standard. The standard takes effect if a system that is “rendered inoperable or damaged as a result of a physical attack could result in instability, uncontrolled separation, or cascading with an interconnection,” Wick explains. </p><p>Because of these criteria, CIP-014 applies to transmission facilities that operate at 500 kV or higher, or single facilities that operate between 200 kV and 499 kV where the substation is connected at 200 kV or higher voltage to three or more other transmission stations that have an “aggregate weighted value” higher than 3,000 kV. </p><p>This means that few transmission substations will have to comply with standards. “By the time you use those criteria against what’s in the standard, [CIP-014] will only apply to 200 or fewer substations in the United States,” Wick says. The standard also applies to the control centers that operate those 200 substations—which are owned by roughly 30 different companies. </p><div><span class="Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre;"> </span></div><h4>Preparation</h4><p>FERC approved CIP-014 in November 2014, officially kickstarting the compliance process that owners need to complete by the first implementation date in October 2015. Their first responsibility is to perform an initial risk assessment (Requirement 1) to identify the transmission stations and substations the standard may apply to. Owners then have to identify the primary control centers that operationally control each transmission station or substation identified in the risk assessment.</p><p>Once these steps have been completed, owners will have 90 days to have an unaffiliated third party verify their assessments (R2). This third party can be a registered planning coordinator, transmission planner, reliability coordinator, or an entity that has transmission planning or analysis experience. </p><p>If the third party adds or removes a transmission station or substation from the original assessment, owners then have an additional 60 days to modify their risk assessments or document the basis for not making the appropriate changes.</p><p>Additionally, if the primary control centers identified are owned by a company other than the transmission station, that owner needs to be notified (R3) within seven days following the third-party verification that it has operational control of the primary control center.</p><p>After the initial risk assessment has been completed, transmission owners that are covered by the standard will perform subsequent assessments at least once every 30 months. Transmission owners that are not covered by the standard are also required by law to perform assessments, but only once every 60 months.​</p><h4>Physical Security</h4><p>Once the transmission analysis and identification have been completed, owners are required to conduct evaluations of the potential threats and vulnerabilities of a physical attack (R4) to each of their respective transmission stations, substations, and primary control centers.</p><p>These evaluations should include unique characteristics of the identified and verified transmission stations, substations, and control centers. For example, characteristics could include whether the substation is rural or urban, if it’s near a major highway, or if it’s in a valley. </p><p>For instance, the substation could be “set down in a small valley, so there are areas around it [from which] a shooter could either shoot the transformers or even use a rocket-propelled grenade to shoot something into it,” Wick explains.</p><p>Owners also need to detail any history of attacks on similar facilities, taking into account the “frequency, geographic proximity, and severity of past physical security related events,” according to the standard. CIP-014 asks owners to include intelligence or threat warnings they’ve received from law enforcement, the Electric Reliability Organization, the Electricity Sector Information Sharing and Analysis Center, and government agencies from either the United States or Canada.</p><p>Once these evaluations have been completed, and no more than 120 days after R2 is completed, owners are required to develop and implement a documented security plan and timeline that covers their respective transmission stations, substations, and primary control centers (R5). </p><p>Within the security plan, owners should include law enforcement contact and coordination information, provisions to evaluate evolving physical threats and their corresponding security measures, and resiliency or security measures designed “collectively to deter, detect, delay, assess, communicate, and respond to potential physical threats and vulnerabilities identified” during R4.</p><p>The drafting committee chose this language specifically, Wick says, because “you can’t just do one of those—you need to put them together as a group to ‘deter, detect, delay,’ because those are the primary components…in a layered security program.”</p><p>The committee was also purposely less prescriptive about methods owners can use as part of their security measures. “We tried to build in maximum flexibility to arrive at the same end state for everybody,” Wick says. For instance, to delay someone “you can do that several different ways. You could have a 20-foot -high wall with razor tape, or you could do it with a chain link fence; there are so many options that you could use to mitigate the threats and vulnerabilities that are identified in R4.”</p><p>This nonprescriptive method has faced some criticism, but many others think it’s beneficial. The regulators “are not really telling you to go out and spend all sorts of money on increased cameras, spending a lot of money on fences,” says Rich Hyatt, PCI, manager of security services for Tucson Electric Power. “They’re kind of promoting that you should harden up your site, like vegetation removal, signage…it’s not like the government’s coming in and telling you to spend $5 million per substation.”</p><p>The committee is also allowing owners to take a twofold approach by giving them the opportunity to build in resiliency on the operational side and protect their assets with security measures.</p><p>For example, Tucson Electric Power is increasing its resiliency by hardening its substations, says Hyatt, who’s also a member of the ASIS International Utilities Council. This is important because sometimes transformers malfunction. “There’s always the likelihood of sabotage, but we also have a threat of malfunction or weather-related issues, or manmade stuff that could go into a transformer being taken out,” he explains.</p><p>Hyatt is also working with substation employees to improve emergency communication, another issue addressed in the standard. “We’re also engaging our…substation folks to beef up their emergency response and have additional spare parts in their inventory so they can respond if a transformer got shot out—we could get it back online quicker,” he explains.</p><p>However, Jake Parker—director of government relations for the Security Industry Association (SIA)—says physically protecting assets is the better way to go for utilities security. “We think that physical security measures are much more cost effective because the cost of hardening the structure can also be extremely steep,” he explains. </p><p>Once owners have drafted and implemented their physical security plans, they then need to be verified again by a third party reviewer (R6) within 90 days. This reviewer can be an entity or organization with physical security experience in the electric industry and whose review staff: has at least one member who holds either a Certified Protection Professional (CPP) or Physical Security Professional (PSP) certification; is approved by the Electric Reliability Organization (ERO); is a government agency with physical security expertise; or is an entity or organization with law enforcement, government, or military physical security expertise.</p><p>The ASIS certifications requirement was included after a review of existing applicable certifications. “By holding one of those two certifications, it shows that you know what you’re talking about on physical security,” Wick explains. “We did reviews of any certification that had physical security requirements, and these were the only two that were suitable.”</p><p>If the reviewer recommends changes to the R4 evaluation or the security plan, owners then have 60 days to comply with those recommendations or document why they are not modifying their plans.</p><h4>Penalties</h4><p>CIP-014 has an aggressive implementation timetable; Parker says he expects most utilities to have their physical security plans in place by spring 2016. There are no penalties for owners who do not comply with the new standard, although owners who do comply are required to keep documentation as evidence to show compliance for three years. NERC is responsible for enforcement.</p><p>Despite the lack of penalties and the limited number of transmission stations and substations covered by the standard, many companies say the standard has inspired them. CIP-014 has given companies guidance on increasing their physical security, according to Parker.</p><p>“We’re seeing, given the current environment and response to what happened at Metcalf…that utilities are finding it easier to justify security improvements across the board via rate increases,” he explains.</p><p>The rate increases are the funding mechanism utilities can use to pay for physical security improvements. They can do this by bringing proposals to their boards and justifying small rate increases “to cover the cost of the security upgrades because of the standard, but also because of the need to improve physical security of the electric grid overall,” Parker adds. </p><p>Hyatt agrees, saying that the industry is doing a “really good job” on being proactive in “policing up” and increasing the use of best security practices. The incident at Metcalf, he adds, has “actually increased security’s perception among executives where we work that physical security is just as important as cybersecurity.” ​</p>GP0|#cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8;L0|#0cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8|Physical Security;GTSet|#8accba12-4830-47cd-9299-2b34a4344465
https://sm.asisonline.org/Pages/Secure-Activism-101.aspxSecure Activism 101: How To Survive a Demonstration<p>​<span style="line-height:1.5em;">Twenty-thousand strong marched in protest in Bogotá in 2011 at the Colombian government’s plans to cut university spending. The protestors retained a student-led atmosphere of goodwill and the only simmering of potential aggression was due to the presence of the Colombian Police’s Riot Control Unit (ESMAD) parked on strategic side streets.</span></p><p> I was in downtown Bogotá on the second floor café above the throngs with a tourist from Seattle, watching students from all over Colombia protesting the bill pushed through by President Juan Manuel Santos’ government to reform higher education by introducing a profit motive. </p><p> “I wish my daughter could be here to witness this,” the Seattle visitor told me. “It’s a healthy display of the young airing their grievances with a government decision. We don’t see this anymore in the United States.”</p><p> Protest participants were handing out carnations to members of the ESMAD, placards were held aloft announcing the arrival of different student bodies. With several years of experience as a foreign correspondent in Colombia, I knew better than to drop my guard despite the festive mood as if these students had somehow lost their way in route to a humanities class.</p><p> And my instincts were right, as the carnival atmosphere was threatened by an undercurrent of disobedience as masked agitators—armed with spray paint canisters—left shop windows and walls emblazoned with slogans: “Pensar diferente no es un crimen.” Translation: “Thinking differently isn’t a crime.”</p><p> From our present vantage point we were safe, unless the protest turned violent, as it has been proven time and again that an emotionally charged crowd of people can be swayed from grief or merriment to sadistic dementia in a second.</p><p> After all, if the ESMAD fired off tear gas, where would we go? The only exit from the café would be down a narrow flight of stairs and out onto the Carrerra Septima, the principal thoroughfare for all demonstrations in Bogota as it leads directly to the Plaza de Bolivar and the Palicio Narino seat of power—hardly an ideal route.</p><p> Strikes, marches, and demonstrations are a routine occurrence in Colombia, set against the backdrop of the Colombian armed conflict—currently the longest-running in the hemisphere. And in 2016, in the lead up to and after the signing of a final peace accord with the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC rebels), these may increase as disgruntled sectors of the country’s society feel their needs and complaints are not being heard.</p><p> If President Santos makes good on his promise to bring the final accords to a referendum, so people can vote in favor or against it, there will be many opportunities for people to make their cases heard by pounding the streets.</p><p> As a Bogotá-based journalist, the possibility of being caught up in some kind of social unrest during the course of my work in 2016 is high. To help plan for the worst, I picked the brain of a trusted security expert—Ben Hockman, senior consultant at Control Risks, a global risk management consultancy specializing in assisting clients operate in complex and hostile environments.</p><p><span style="line-height:1.5em;"><strong>Planning<br></strong></span><span style="line-height:1.5em;">Even with experience witnessing challenging demonstrations across South America from Bolivian miners threatening to hang themselves by the neck from a bridge to facing off with police and throwing sticks of dynamite along each avenue leading up to La Paz’s Plaza Murillo to politically charged May Day lawlessness, I know better than to stay too close to the action.</span></p><p> This experience with the issues of violence and potential lawlessness in demonstrations in Latin America has helped me in the past. But before hitting the streets, Hockman suggests I take the following into account when I’m planning to cover an event. <br></p><ol><li style="line-height:1.5em;"><span style="line-height:1.5em;">Gather intelligence. Know the immediate area, the wider area, and all evacuation options. Determine what the political and economic situations are.</span><br></li><li><span style="line-height:1.5em;">S</span><span style="line-height:1.5em;">tudy the basics of the local political and economic situation. A well prepared traveler to Venezuela might avoid wearing red t-shirts in and around Caracas, for instance, in the current climate of social unrest.</span><br></li><li><span style="line-height:1.5em;">Have a Go Bag. Collect identification documents, copies, snacks, cash for emergencies, water, basic first aid kit, and put them into a bag to take with you.</span><br></li><li><span style="line-height:1.5em;">Print physical copies of maps from apps. Don’t rely on applications, such as Waze, Google Street View, as Internet access may go down in the midst of unrest.</span><br></li><li><span style="line-height:1.5em;">Know in advance where help points are located and how to get to them.</span><br></li><li><span style="line-height:1.5em;">Have a back-up communication plan and prepare for network infrastructure failure. Have a replacement cell phone, a radio, or a walk-talkie.</span><br></li><li><span style="line-height:1.5em;">Be conscious of your wardrobe. Are you able to change your look quickly? What happens if you are in olive drab and resemble the military? </span><br></li></ol><p></p><p><span style="line-height:1.5em;">​As Hockman advises, before even approaching a demonstration, I should know the lay of the land—or at least have in my possession a map of the area where I will be engaging with the event. </span><br></p><p> I also need to keep myself abreast of the type of demonstration that is taking place: is it political, is violence likely? I should check for security forces and know the general current of feeling in the city and country at that precise moment, in addition to having investigated the outcomes and reactions to past demonstrations. </p><p> Additionally, as a 6-foot-tall Caucasian male, I know I’m going to stand out in a melee of rioting Bolivian miners. The question is if that makes me more—or less—of a target.</p><p> And in extreme situations where a demonstration may lead to military deployment and a challenge of the political regime, it’s crucial to have my passport and tickets out of the country on hand.</p><p><span style="line-height:1.5em;"><strong>Responding<br></strong></span><span style="line-height:1.5em;">As the tourist from Seattle and I watched the main cadre of students pass by during their protest, I was right to be concerned. Things were heating up, and paint bombs were being hurled at government buildings.</span></p><p> Our exit option was limited and there would be precious little space for movement on the street because of the numerous protestors. To get out of the café, the tourist and I would need to keep close, head to the edges of the protest, and move with the crowd as if negotiating a strong ocean current, before slipping away down a side street. </p><p> The aim would be to get out, avoid a possibly trigger-happy police front line spraying pepper spray or tear gas, and escape injury in the process.</p><p> To help think through our escape plan—if it became necessary—I ran through Hockman’s checklist on what to do if caught in the midst of a violent protest.</p><ol><li><span style="line-height:1.5em;">Remember your principal objective is to put as much distance as possible between you and the unrest. If you fail, plan b will be to seek appropriate cover—alleyways, buildings, or vehicles.</span><br></li><li><span style="line-height:1.5em;">Control your emotions. Try to remain as calm as possible.</span><br></li><li><span style="line-height:1.5em;">Keep anyone in your party close—<span style="line-height:19.5px;background-color:#ffffff;">maintain</span> a distance within reach or physical contact, and agree on safe meting points ahead of time in the event that you are separated.</span><br></li><li><span style="line-height:1.5em;">Keep moving, but don’t run.</span><br></li><li><span style="line-height:1.5em;">Move with the crowd and don’t draw attention to yourself. Look for exit options to side streets and your help points—alleys, safe zones, or alternative cover.</span><br></li><li><span style="line-height:1.5em;">Make yourself compact while moving. Protect your head, neck, face, and vital organs. Do not get pushed against or blocked by solid objects.</span><br></li><li><span style="line-height:1.5em;">Watch your footing and obstacles on the ground.</span><br></li><li><span style="line-height:1.5em;">Move between “waves of crowd movements.”</span><br></li><li><span style="line-height:1.5em;">Avoid major roads and sites.</span><br></li><li><span style="line-height:1.5em;">If gas or pepper spray is released, cover your airways with clothing but try to keep your hands free. </span><br></li><li><span style="line-height:1.5em;">Do not approach the front line of police.</span><br></li><li><span style="line-height:1.5em;">Avoid interaction with demonstrators or security forces.</span><br></li><li><span style="line-height:1.5em;">Avoid confrontation with any party.</span><br></li><li><span style="line-height:1.5em;">If you find yourself on the ground, try to stand as quickly as possible. If you can’t stand up, curl yourself into a ball to protect vital organs and try to regain your footing as soon as possible.</span><br></li><li><span style="line-height:1.5em;">If you’re in a vehicle, stay in the vehicle. If gun shots sound, determine their origin and the target before driving away or running away. Sudden movements can draw attention from both protestors and the security forces, particularly during exchanges of fire, so have a plan before you move.</span><br></li></ol><p><span style="line-height:1.5em;">Luckily, the worst of the violence was d</span><span style="line-height:1.5em;">efacement of property and a couple of skirmishes during the student protest in 2011, and we were able to safely leave the café.</span><br></p><div><span style="line-height:1.5em;"><strong>The Aftermath</strong></span></div><p>Fast forward four years, however, and I was again in the midst of some social unrest in the form of the Colombian Farmers’ Protests of 2015. Thousands of farmers were protesting to demand that the government comply with reforms it agreed to in 2014, accusing it of failing to implement measures to reduce debt and control the price of fertilizer. It was clear that the Colombian people were largely in favor of the protests, and on key dates 45,000 people had taken to the streets to demonstrate.</p><p> This time the feeling was different and the carnival atmosphere of the student-led demonstration was replaced with a more sinister and aggressive sentiment. And, as was to be expected, pandemonium ensued.</p><p> At the height of the turmoil, there was a period of four hours when police used tear gas on rioters throwing petardos (flash-bombs) that injured the police and the public. None of the injuries appeared serious, however, in what was Bogota’s worst street violence since protesters in March 2012 against the city’s municipal bus system were attacked by young vandals.</p><p> This was clearly a demonstration to avoid, and Hockman gave me the following tips to manage the immediate aftermath of violent social unrest.</p><ol><li><span style="line-height:1.5em;">Avoid public transportation.</span><br></li><li><span style="line-height:1.5em;">Check for injuries and, if necessary, seek medical help. The immediate adrenaline rush experienced during violent unrest might mask injuries.</span><br></li><li><span style="line-height:1.5em;">Report in to your office or family as frequently as you can.</span><br></li><li><span style="line-height:1.5em;">Consider the possibility of mild-Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and seek medical attention where necessary.</span><br></li></ol><p><span style="line-height:1.5em;">Colo</span><span style="line-height:1.5em;">mbia will face a new wave of emotionally and politically fueled demonstrations in 2106 and beyond as the government seeks to sign off on a peace accord with the FARC and entice the country’s second guerrilla group—the National Liberation Army—to the negotiating table, demonstrations will be the norm.</span><br></p><p> It pays to be prepared, and to fully consider the advice provided by experts in the field. </p><p><em>Richard McColl is a foreign correspondent and conflict resolution specialist based in Colombia. Ben Hockman contributed to this article and is a senior consultant at Control Risks based in Colombia and a member of ASIS International.</em></p><p><br></p>GP0|#21788f65-8908-49e8-9957-45375db8bd4f;L0|#021788f65-8908-49e8-9957-45375db8bd4f|National Security;GTSet|#8accba12-4830-47cd-9299-2b34a4344465