Security Management Magazine Cover
​Beginning December 2016, Security Management will also be available as a PDF. View ​Issues available for Download

 November 2018 Unprepared2018-11-01T04:00:00Z, Mark Tarallo<p>​</p><p>Effective emergency response requires more than rapid, targeted action and brave rescue efforts. The efficacy of the response also depends on what takes place before the event, when the responding agency is shoring up and maintaining its programs and resources so that it is prepared for whatever disaster or force of nature might be in the works. </p><p>Two recent reports illustrate the importance of pre-response actions. The two studies critique the response to two of the most significant disasters of the last few years: the 2017 Atlantic Hurricane Season, which featured the nightmarishly destructive trio of hurricanes Harvey, Irma, and Maria, and the ongoing contaminated water crisis in Flint, Michigan. </p><p>The first report, from the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), found that FEMA went into the hurricane season understaffed, not properly trained in certain areas, and lacking proper assessments of the vulnerability of regional infrastructure and the possibility of long-term damage. </p><p>Similarly, the second report revealed that, during the Flint water crisis, both the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) failed to maintain key inventories and effective risk assessment procedures. These failures led to a flawed response, and ultimately, more lead exposure for residents. </p><p>The first study, 2017 Hurricane Season FEMA After-Action Report, analyzes the agency's response to hurricanes Harvey, Irma, and Maria, which made landfall as major storms in quick succession. Specifically, the report focuses on the response efforts made from August 25 to November 30, 2017. The three storms were part of one of the most destructive hurricane seasons in U.S. history: 10 hurricanes in a seven-month period from April to November 2017. </p><p>One crucial error made by FEMA before the hurricanes hit land was underestimating how much long-term damage the storms would cause to each region. Although capability assessments and exercise reports regarding the state of the area's infrastructure were available, the agency did not make proper use of that information, so it failed to produce realistic damage predictions.</p><p>"Emergency managers at all levels could have better leveraged existing information to proactively plan for and address such challenges, both before and immediately after the hurricanes," the report found.</p><p>Moreover, FEMA entered the hurricane season considerably understaffed. This resulted in staffing shortages for virtually every incident response by FEMA in 2017. </p><p>For example, FEMA estimates that 6,630 staff are required to stage a sufficient response to a Level 1 incident, but the agency never reached that staffing number in responding to the five Level 1 incidents that occurred in 2017. Staffing for the Hurricane Maria response seemed the most inadequate. After the storm made landfall in Puerto Rico in late September 2017, staffing peaked at only 1,200 in late November. In the U.S. Virgin Islands, staffing peaked at only 429 in late October. </p><p>In some workforce areas, these staffing shortages were extreme. FEMA divides its incident workforce into cadres, or groups of employees who have completed the requirements for deployments. In August 2017, force strength among many of these cadres was far short of normal. For example, staffing in the safety personnel cadre was only about 40 percent of target, and staffing in the operations cadre was roughly 50 percent of target. Overall, from August 25 to November 11, 13 of 23 cadres were operating at 25 percent or lower staffing levels for 45 days or more. </p><p>And FEMA also erred in relying too much on commercial cellular and broadband communications when conducting its response activities. "For example, limited cellular service impacted the ability of disaster survivors to register for FEMA assistance," the report found. </p><p>Although FEMA did deploy its Mobile Emergency Response Support (MERS) vehicles with mobile satellite, radio, and logistical support in Puerto Rico, it still ran into problems. "Some FEMA satellite phones could not correctly operate in the Caribbean. Many staff who received satellite phones did not know how to properly use them," the report found. Moreover, the demand for satellite phones and other contingency devices outstripped supply, and logistics problems delayed the acquisition and shipment of additional devices to Puerto Rico.</p><p>The Flint report, Management Weaknesses Delayed Response to Flint Water Crisis, was conducted by the EPA's Office of Inspector General (OIG). It looked at the EPA's response to the contamination of the community water system in the city of Flint, Michigan, and also how EPA exercised its oversight of the crisis. The crisis occurred after Flint switched its drinking water supply in April 2014, and inadequate water treatment exposed many city residents to lead.</p><p>In sum, the report found management and preparedness lapses by both MDEQ and EPA.  </p><p>For example, MDEQ is charged with ensuring that Flint develops and maintains an inventory of lead service lines that might be needed for sampling purposes. But MDEQ failed to maintain this inventory; without it, the city could not properly prioritize its sampling efforts so that high-risk areas would be sampled. </p><p>When contamination did occur, MDEQ was slow to react. The agency did not take formal enforcement action until August 2015. Instead, it advised Flint administrators to conduct additional tests, and it delayed the installation of corrosion control treatments. "The decision to delay corrosion control treatments prolonged residents' exposure to lead," the report found. </p><p>EPA also came into the crisis at least partially unprepared. It is charged with providing oversight that states comply with clean water requirements. But before the crisis occurred, EPA did not establish clear roles and responsibilities, risk assessment procedures, nor other proactive oversight tools. As a result, "while Flint residents were being exposed to lead in drinking water, the federal response was delayed," the report found. </p><p>And so, in the future, the OIG is calling for the EPA to be more aggressive in establishing and maintaining its oversight program, and to be more proactive in assisting the states with their water supply. </p><p>"In order for the EPA to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of its federal response to drinking water emergencies, the agency and its regional offices must understand their oversight tools and authorities," said Charles Brunton, a program analyst in OIG's Office of Audit and Evaluation, in a discussion of the report on the OIG's podcast. "The EPA also must not be reluctant to use those tools and authorities to assist states in protecting public health."</p><p> </p> MisconductGP0|#28ae3eb9-d865-484b-ac9f-3dfacb4ce997;L0|#028ae3eb9-d865-484b-ac9f-3dfacb4ce997|Strategic Security;GTSet|#8accba12-4830-47cd-9299-2b34a4344465<p>​Dealing with employee misconduct is never a pleasant task for any manager, including security managers. If the workplace happens to be part of the U.S. federal government, that task can be even trickier.</p><p>U.S. regulations specify the formal legal process that most federal agencies must follow when taking disciplinary action against employees for acts of misconduct. There are also regulations on the built-in procedural rights that many federal employees are entitled to when faced with these actions. Depending on the nature of misconduct, however, a federal agency sometimes may use alternative disciplinary approaches, instead of the formal legal process. </p><p>The U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO) was recently asked to examine how federal agencies address employee misconduct. It found that, in 2016, federal agencies formally disciplined an estimated 17,000 employees for misconduct, or less than 1 percent of the federal workforce. Based on Office of Personnel Management (OPM) data, federal agencies made 10,249 suspensions, 7,411 removals, and 114 demotions for misconduct.</p><p>As part of its report, Federal Employee Misconduct: Actions Needed to Ensure Agencies Have Tools to Effectively Address Misconduct, GAO asked management experts for promising practices based on lessons learned from real workplace situations that federal agencies could use to respond to employee misconduct. These recommended best practices included:</p><p>•  Senior agency officials should strive to set positive conduct examples, because the "tone at the top" is influential in employee misconduct.</p><p>•  Additional training would help supervisors identify and deal with misconduct, so agencies should sponsor ongoing training for managers. Also, supervisors should be held accountable for identifying misconduct and responding to it in a timely manner. </p><p>•  Internal collaboration is key to effectively addressing misconduct. Effective lines of communication and collaboration between human resources staff, line-level management, and legal counsel must be maintained.</p><p>•  Managers should actively engage employees and set clear rules and expectations regarding employee conduct, including specifics on applicable standards of conduct.</p><p> These best practices, however, are not being followed in some agencies. Some federal managers are not adequately addressing misconduct because they are unfamiliar with the disciplinary process, have insufficient training, or do not receive proper support from their human resources offices, the report found.</p><p>In its report, the GAO recommended that OPM better leverage these best practices to help agencies address misconduct and improve its guidance on training supervisors to address misconduct. OPM concurred with the recommendations.   </p><p> </p> Online November 2018GP0|#28ae3eb9-d865-484b-ac9f-3dfacb4ce997;L0|#028ae3eb9-d865-484b-ac9f-3dfacb4ce997|Strategic Security;GTSet|#8accba12-4830-47cd-9299-2b34a4344465<h4>​</h4><h4>Security Careers</h4><p>ASIS International and the Security Industry Association <a href="" target="_blank">commissioned research​</a> to understand the career pathway of security management and supplier personnel, including their educational and professional backgrounds, job titles and responsibilities, and required knowledge, skills, and abilities.</p><h4>Cyber Resilience</h4><p>Financial services businesses stopped 81 percent of cyberattacks in 2018, compared with 66 percent in 2017, <a href="" target="_blank">according to a new report from Accenture​</a>. But cybercriminals are attacking with new strategies and breakthrough technology, and financial firms may not be keeping up.</p><h4>Construction Sites </h4><p>To prevent theft at construction sites and help law enforcement identify stolen materials, the Provincial Electricity Physical Security Coalition (PEPS) Alberta offers two free documents, the <a href="/ASIS%20SM%20Documents/Construction%20Security%20Guideline%20Version%201.1.pdf">Construction Security Practices Guideline</a> and the <a href="/ASIS%20SM%20Documents/CI%20Stolen%20Materials%20Recognition%20Guide%202017%2001%20April.pdf">Stolen Equipment and Materials Recognition Guide.</a> </p><h4>Interoperable Communications</h4><p><a href="" target="_blank">A government watchdog report​</a> outlines the challenges first responders face when communicating with each other.</p><h4>Utilities</h4><p>The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency released a <a href="/ASIS%20SM%20Documents/Water%20Sector%20Cybersecurity%20Brief%20for%20States.pdf">Cybersecurity Guide for States</a>, which says that water and wastewater utilities lack resources for IT and security specialists to assist with creating cybersecurity programs.​ </p><h4>Banking Worries</h4><p>When <a href="">PwC Financial Services surveyed financial professionals​</a> about their biggest concerns, the top responses were excessive regulation, uncertain economic growth, and geopolitical uncertainty. </p><h4>Disaster Response</h4><p><a href="" target="_blank">Responses to last year's hurricanes</a> and <a href="" target="_blank">other disasters</a> show that an agency's pre-event failures can prove costly.</p><h4>​Employee Misconduct</h4><p>The U.S. Government Accountability Office <a href="" target="_blank">recently examined​</a> how federal agencies address employee misconduct and offered strategies for improvement.</p><h4>Harassment</h4><p>Employers—in some circumstances—can be held liable for a nonemployee's behavior if it exceeds expected norms, <a href="" target="_blank">a U.S. appellate court ruled.</a></p><br> off Copper Crime WavesGP0|#cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8;L0|#0cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8|Physical Security;GTSet|#8accba12-4830-47cd-9299-2b34a4344465<p>​Copper theft can be dangerous—even deadly. The metal is attractive for thieves, who often find the cover of night and the remoteness of a construction or utilities site the perfect scene for their crimes.  </p><p>The value of copper is driven by the classic supply-and-demand scenario—the world's copper mining industry can't produce enough to keep up with the demand, says Ross Johnson, CPP, senior manager, security and contingency planning at Capital Power in Alberta, Canada.</p><p>"Since you cannot mine copper fast enough to keep up with the demand, the shortfall is made up from the recycling industry, and that's what drives up the value of copper," he notes. "Generally, when the price per pound on the scrap market goes up, what happens is the theft goes up as well."  </p><p>In Canada, where there is little regulation in the recycling industry, thieves can more easily trade stolen materials for cash. "There's always a level of background theft around construction, especially in the electricity sector because there's so much copper that's used," Johnson explains. </p><p>There have been at least 15 deaths in the last five years related to metal theft in Canada, according to data from the Canadian Electricity Association. Thieves are often either unaware or unconcerned about the high-powered voltage running through copper and can be badly burned, or worse. </p><p>"Copper is used to ground electrical equipment," Johnson explains. "When people break into our facilities to steal copper, it renders the equipment unsafe because it isn't grounded anymore, and it could kill the thieves or utility workers that are going in to work on it."</p><p>Even when the bad actors manage to escape unscathed, there is a ripple effect in the surrounding community. For example, in October 2013 in Surrey, British Columbia, thieves cut through a utility pole in the province and waited for the BC Hydro and Power authority to respond by shutting off the power. </p><p>Once the power was cut off, the thieves removed five meters of braided copper wire. A nearby clinic was left without power for two days, affecting its ability to treat more than 200 patients. ​</p><h4>PEPS Alberta</h4><p>There has been a concerted effort by the sectors most affected by copper and other metal theft to fight back. </p><p>One such coalition is Provincial Electricity Physical Security (PEPS) Alberta, a working group made up of stakeholders from the electricity, metal, and telecommunications industries. </p><p>PEPS was formed about a decade ago to fight industrial crime in rural areas through legislative and educational efforts. The group works alongside the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) and other law enforcement entities to reduce and prevent crime. </p><p><strong>Scrap metal theft.</strong> PEPS is working with the recycling industry and the provincial government to find ways to reduce metal theft. These methods include developing training material for the construction industry on safeguarding assets and for law enforcement to help identify stolen material, sharing of information related to incidents to help police resolve crime, and studying potential legislation to make it more difficult to sell stolen material.   </p><p>"When thieves steal metal from us, they can take it to a recycler, and then the recycler buys it—that's where the trail goes cold," Johnson notes. "And the police can't investigate it because they need to be able to identify who sold that material to the recycler."</p><p>"We've been working with Alberta Justice, and a senior-level official and her staff," Johnson says. "The Alberta Justice officials we work with are actually members of PEPS, too, so they attend the meetings and communicate regularly with members." </p><p><strong>Calgary bylaw. </strong>There is a precedent for such regulat­ion in the Alberta recycling industry. Calgary, a city within the Province of Alberta, passed a bylaw making it more difficult for thieves to trade in scrap metal without being traced. </p><p>"The Calgary Police Service initiated an investigative strategy named Operation Metallica, and it involved a team of police officers who focused on metal theft using the Calgary bylaw," Johnson notes. </p><p>One recycler he spoke to in the city said that she noticed an improvement in customers when the bylaw was passed; crooks were no longer coming to trade in stolen scrap metal. </p><p>"They were so successful in stomping out metal theft in Calgary that after a two-year period, Operation Metallica was terminated because the officers had accomplished their objectives," Johnson adds. "Calgary was a great example that this could work."​</p><h4>Worksites​</h4><p>While metal and other valuable materials make substations and other utilities sites attractive to thieves, Johnson says sites are weakest during the construction phase. </p><p>"It's usually because fences aren't permanent—if there are any—and there are often excavations and other things exposing wire and conduit," he adds. </p><p>As the potential for theft goes up, so does the potential for danger, Johnson says, explaining that stealing copper is literally playing with fire. </p><p>"Most people's experience with electricity is the wall outlets in your home in the wall where you get 115 volts," he says. "When you're dealing with electricity at the transmission and distribution levels, it is phen­omenally dangerous."</p><p><strong>Safety concerns. </strong>Johnson used to work as security director at EPCOR Utilities Inc., formerly the Edmonton Power Corporation, a distribution and transmission company. "We had a construction arm as well that did a lot of work, and we were constantly getting hit by copper thieves," he says. </p><p>On one occasion, a thief trespassed on one of EPCOR's properties to steal copper. He entered an area of the substation that was fenced off from the rest of the substation and touched a piece of equipment.  </p><p>The resulting arc flash flowed around him—not through him—and his clothing from the waist up caught fire. The substation engineers later said that there were about 7,000 amps of electricity in that plasma cloud (one-tenth of an amp can kill a person), and it would have been hotter than the surface of the sun.  </p><p>EPCOR officials were greatly concerned after the incident about safety—not just of their workers, but of any potential bad actors who could be killed or injured. An executive of the company asked if an extra layer of fencing around all substations in the city would help, but Johnson said that would merely push the security concerns out further—not eliminate them. </p><p><strong>Construction guideline.</strong> "After a copper theft at a construction site or substation, the workers would tell us that they weren't concerned with the value of the copper stolen—they were only worried that someone would get hurt," Johnson says. </p><p>In one incident, someone used a pair of pruning shears to cut an energized 14.4-kilovolt line at a construction site. </p><p>"The damaged shears were found the next morning, and the worried electrical workers searched the area to see if the would-be thief was dead or injured," Johnson says. Not finding him, they even called local hospitals to see if they had a recent admission with severe burns.  </p><p>With more than three years of experience as a safety and security supervisor in Houston's offshore oil industry, Johnson says he understood that metal theft was not primarily a security concern, but a safety issue that would best be addressed through safety management planning.</p><p>Few construction workers have security plans, but they all have safe work plans. The plan was simple: no copper left above ground after they cease work at the end of the day, and nothing—no scrap, no bulk wire, etc.—left in containers or anywhere else on site overnight. It was all removed and returned to the service center each evening. This new approach to combating metal theft paid immediate dividends—metal theft from construction sites almost disappeared.</p><p>The lessons learned at EPCOR eventually became part of a document from PEPS, the Construction Security Practices Guideline, which iterates that taking simple precautions throughout and at the end of the work day can help prevent crime and increase worker safety.</p><p>And one of the best ways to deter thieves mentioned in the guide? Don't use copper at all. </p><p>"One of the most effective crime-reducing measures is to not use attractive metals in the first place," according to the guideline. "Avoid using solid copper grounding straps and components wherever possible: use copper-clad steel (such as Copperweld) instead, because it has no commercial value." </p><p>Copperweld works similarly to copper, though it must be installed differently and doesn't have the same resistance as copper. </p><p>"It's steel or zinc coated with copper and it has no commercial value. You can take it to a recycler and they just don't want it," Johnson explains. "We tell people, 'If you have copper stolen, do not replace it with copper—because then they'll just come back and steal the replacement stuff, and you've become an automated teller machine,'" he says. </p><p><strong>Wind farms. </strong>As a wave of new construction is being planned for wind farms in Alberta, PEPS is aiming to introduce physical security measures to help reduce crime.</p><p>Pick any point in central Alberta, and there is a good chance a thick seam of coal lies deep beneath the ground. Traditionally, a majority of the province's energy was generated by coal plants. But Canada, a member of the Paris Agreement on climate change, is making strides as a nation to be less dependent on nonrenewable energy sources. </p><p>The New Democratic Party, which won the election in 2015, launched a billion dollar initiative last year to have renewable power make up 30 percent of the province's energy demands by 2030. With an aggressive timeline of constructing 5,000 megawatts of wind and solar farms, the government began taking bids from the private sector. </p><p>Johnson's company, Capital Power, had one of the first winning bids. </p><p>"There are all these wind farms being built in southern Alberta—and we do not want to feed crime," he says. </p><p>PEPS Alberta is working on several physical security measures that can be employed at the wind farms that will help deter and detect bad actors who, as previously discussed, tend to be attracted to construction sites. </p><p>Thankfully, Johnson says there are several simple ways that the private companies constructing the wind and solar farms can cut down on crime, as noted in the Construction Safety Guideline. One tool of choice for thieves is a disc grinder, which can cut through metal locks. </p><p>However, Johnson says heavy-duty locks that are immune to the disc grinder are available. Johnson is also working with Capital Power employee Ian Sustrik to create a small Internet of Things sensor that would be able to pick up any vibrations caused by a disc grinder being operated at a wind turbine—a thief has already tried his hand at cutting through one, Johnson says.</p><p>"The sensor sits on the inside of the door, and it's tuned for the vibration that you would get from a disc grinder," he notes. "If the sensor picks up that vibration, it sends a signal out and informs security."  </p><p>The solution is low-cost due to the way the sensor communicates back to the security operations center. Rather than using cellular communication, which would require a more intricate network to be built, the sensor passes on the message to the sensor closest to it, then that sensor sends it to its neighbor, and so on—like a game of telephone. </p><p>"The message is passed down until it's got the one that has the cellular system on it, and that's the sensor that sends it to security," Johnson says. </p><p>As Capital Power works to develop similar security solutions, the company will disseminate them with the help of PEPS Alberta so other companies can take advantage. </p><p>"What we're doing here at Capital Power is trying to solve problems, and then sharing the solutions as widely as we can," Johnson says. "Ian will create sensors and then send out the instructions on how to build them, for whoever is interested."  ​</p><h4>Awareness</h4><p>While PEPS Alberta is working with private sector and government officials to reduce crime, it is also focused on one of its primary audiences it says can help prevent theft—the public.</p><p>As part of this effort, Dan Blacklock, a former communications advisor to energy company AltaLink and former public relations lead for PEPS Alberta, says the group has developed several materials targeted at rural communities where crime is highest. </p><p>"These thieves come from rural communities, so it's about inspiring those communities to take action and work with local law enforcement, or to report suspicious activity that they see in their communities at rural substations," Blacklock says. "That's our number one lead to arrests, information that's brought to [Canada] Crime Stoppers and law enforcement from these rural communities of seeing suspicious activity knowing someone who has done something."</p><p><strong>Ad campaign. </strong>PEPS Alberta plans to launch a public awareness campaign soon that includes a series of advertisements with statistics about the number of people affected by metal theft, and case study examples of how the crime impacts the community. </p><p>Each ad contains the tagline, "When equipment theft happens, we all get left in the dark," along with a number to call to report suspicious activity. </p><p>Besides warnings about the danger of trying one's hand at metal theft, the ads also describe the increased physical security measures and law enforcement activity at substations to further deter thieves. </p><p>"Part of this awareness campaign is spreading the message that substations aren't easy targets, and that industries, law enforcement, and the government have come together to prevent it," Blacklock says.</p><p>The RCMP provided PEPS with a map of hotspot communities that have experienced the most substation crime in the past five years, and the ads are running in local newspapers in those communities. Facebook ads were also purchased to target specific communities, and posters will be placed in recreational centers and hockey arenas. </p><p>"Information and education around the impacts of crimes like this, it's really a preemptive crime prevention tool," Blacklock says of the campaign. "So, it shouldn't be overlooked for its impact." </p><p>Construction materials guide. While the ad campaign primarily targets the public, PEPS Alberta has also come up with a guide for law enforcement to help them better identify types of metal and materials stolen from construction sites. </p><p>Johnson recalls at an ASIS Seminar and Exhibits in Houston, members from Texas had produced similar materials for law enforcement. </p><p>"At an ASIS Houston lunch, there was a guy there saying a state trooper didn't know what oil field equipment looked like," he says. "Consequently, when they pulled over a pickup truck that had a bed full of stolen oilfield equipment, they didn't recognize it immediately as stolen—they just thought it was scrap." </p><p>PEPS solicited photographs and descriptions of items most stolen from the different sectors, resulting in the Critical Infrastructure Stolen Materials Recognition Guide, which acts as a look-book for law enforcement should they come across suspicious looking goods.</p><p>"It doesn't cost anything to share," Johnson says. "I can create a PDF document on my computer and I can send it out to the world, and it doesn't cost anything." </p><p><strong>Outlook. </strong>PEPS Alberta is continuing to work with its partners in critical infrastructure, law enforcement, the recycling industry, and the provincial and federal governments to find ways to reduce crime, increase reliability, and keep communities safe. </p><p>In the meantime, PEPS believes that through its Construction Safety Guideline, the advertising campaign targeted at the public, and other awareness materials, crime can be reduced or even eliminated at construction and substation sites throughout the province. </p><p>"Someone can look at those crimes and think, 'It's just an industrial crime and there aren't any victims,'" Blacklock says. "But when you actually take a step back, you can see how serious and impactful those crimes are—people's lives are at risk."</p><p>Johnson reiterates that by stopping crime at a rural substation or a remote construction site, the ripple effects that devastate communities can be eliminated.  </p><p>"The aim here is to stop people from stealing our stuff because it brings in thieves. If thieves are successful, they'll come back. If they come back, they're stealing not only our stuff, but they're stealing from the local farmers, the local communities," he says. "And that's bad for everybody."  </p><p><br></p><h4>Sidebar: Metal Theft Impacts Communities</h4><p>Copper isn't the only type of metal that thieves are after, says Ross Johnson, CPP, senior manager, security and contingency planning at Capital Power.  </p><p>Any type of nonferrous metal—not containing iron—is potentially valuable to crim-­inals, including lead, zinc, brass, and aluminum. For example, cell phone tower batteries are often targeted for the lead they contain.</p><p>And the value the criminals get for the stolen material versus the cost to replace and repair the damage is virtually nothing. "You have a $400 battery that is stolen and destroyed for $3 worth of lead," he notes. </p><p>Brass theft has also been a major problem in Alberta and has had a devastating effect on the history of local communities. Not only do thieves steal brass urns from cemeteries—in some cases, brass plaques memorializing war veterans have been destroyed. </p><p>"Thieves are removing the brass plaques and destroying them, and then taking them in for the brass metal value," Johnson says. "The problem with that is that nobody knows what the plaque said, unless you have a photograph of it." </p><p>In 2018, an Edmonton man was arrested for stealing 18 memorial plaques, receiving $525 for the scrap metal, reported Radio Canada International. </p><p>"Literally the history of small towns is disappearing, especially around war memorials," Johnson says. "To me, that's a compelling reason to try to stop this."​</p><h4>What is PEPS Alberta?</h4><p>PEPS (Provincial Electricity Physical Security) Alberta is a team of men and women from the electricity, oil and gas, telecommunications, energy pipelines, and water industries; the National Energy Security Professionals (NESP) group; trade associations; recyclers; law enforcement; the metal forging industry; the National Energy Board; and governments at the Canadian federal, provincial, and municipal levels. </p><p>The PEPS coalition promotes public safety, the resilience of critical infrastructure, and crime prevention.​</p> a Hostility-Free WorkplaceGP0|#cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8;L0|#0cd529cb2-129a-4422-a2d3-73680b0014d8|Physical Security;GTSet|#8accba12-4830-47cd-9299-2b34a4344465<p>​This is the #MeToo era. The great wave of public accusations involving inappropriate conduct such as sexual harassment between managers, employees, and coworkers has washed over U.S. workplaces, unsettling everything in its wake.</p><p>But sexual harassment is not the only conduct that can help turn a working environment hostile. Given this, employers and security managers who take action now to help establish and solidify a welcoming and hostility-free work environment will be better positioned for the future. Such actions can come in many forms, ranging from zero-tolerance anti-harassment policies and violence prevention training to diversity task forces and team-building exercises. </p><p>But while they vary, these actions all benefit from a proactive approach. Opposing views and opinions are inevitable among a diverse workforce, but leaders of organizations should not wait until disruptive incidents break out before focusing on the state of the workplace environment. Instead, they can start immediately. </p><h4>Respect and ​Dignity</h4><p>Security is a team sport. No one security director or manager, no matter how talented or knowledgeable, can completely shoulder the burden of protecting his or her firm. A cohesive security team, on the other hand, is positioned to tackle anything thrown its way. But when one gear gets out of whack, the whole team is affected and compromised. </p><p>Take, for example, one security director who we'll call Sam. The team was led by a small group of managers who worked well together; they collaborated to achieve goals and boost one another to success. However, a new manager, Chris, was brought on.  </p><p>Chris has a markedly different type of attitude and leadership style. Chris is demanding, and sometimes even yells at employees in public. He occasionally disparages another manager's directions to team members and will go so far as to threaten a firing in an attempt to improve performance. </p><p>A few months after this leadership transition, some employees began to leave Sam's team by choice. But those are not the only changes triggered by the new manager. Some of Sam's team members have absorbed the negative qualities Chris exhibits, including degrading public chastisements, gossiping, and expressing increased agitation in the office. Chris' overwhelming negativity threw a wrench into a once strong security team and threatened to break it down into an unproductive group of individuals. Before Chris took over, Sam's team members respected one another and successfully accomplished goals. Chris' harsh leadership eroded the members' respect and kindness, causing productivity to decrease and spirits to drop.</p><p>How can this situation be avoided? When building a team, it is important to establish respect, dignity, and kindness as foundational principles. This will very likely increase productivity and reduce the risk of violent workplace behaviors. When employees feel respected and treated with dignity, they are more likely to treat coworkers and customers the same way. This creates a positive culture within the organization. </p><p>To facilitate this, security managers should go beyond simply asking employees to be civil and respect one another. They should also explain how to do so, and demonstrate what civility means to the organization by providing examples of positive interactions. </p><p>During my time as an assets protection manager, there were key opportunities for me to support the company culture. Security managers can take advantage of the same opportunities, if their organizations are willing to provide them.   </p><p>For example, orientation sessions are an opportunity to introduce yourself, your department, and the values of the organization to those who are being onboarded. Time can be devoted to explaining appropriate workplace behavior through the use of scenario-based situations.</p><p>In addition, team meetings—whether daily, weekly, or monthly—offer opportunities for managers to touch on relevant issues and provide training through small group discussion or case study review. Individuals can assess a situation and provide feedback on how it should have been appropriately handled. Using both positive and negative behaviors for examples will help employees understand the difference.</p><p>Open houses are another possible venue for educating discussions. The security company may arrange with company leaders to have a time where employees come in, ask questions, and participate in discussions that help workers understand their role as part of the larger effort to maintain a healthy workplace. </p><p>Finally, it is important to remember that security managers and staff should always be role models of appropriate behavior. If they are behaving badly by being rude, disrespectful, or uncivil, how can they expect to help the organization promote a culture that values everyone? </p><p>In the end, managers cannot assume that people understand what is and is not appropriate. Setting expectations from the start, and clearly demonstrating how to positively act and show respect to coworkers, is an effective way for managers to set the right tone—and a more active and effective approach than simply hoping for the best. This will have a ripple effect throughout the workforce, and it will help prevent future breaches of conduct from triggering a domino effect of disrespect, such as the one caused by Chris' behavior. </p><h4>​Violence Preve​ntion</h4><p>Another common violation of positive foundational workplace principles is workplace bullying. The following scenario illustrates some gender issues, which are starting to become more common in workplaces.   </p><p>Stephen, a security department employee, was encouraged by ongoing legislation for gender-neutral bathrooms. As a result, Stephen approached a manager to explain that she gender-identified as female and would like to be referred to as Shawna. Shawna was later confronted by a handful of coworkers who said they would never support legislation and would monitor the bathrooms should such laws pass. The confrontation caused Shawna to feel unsafe at work and scared to "come out" as a female to the rest of the office.  </p><p>Depending on where Shawna lives, she may be protected. Approximately 20 states and 200 cities have laws that protect transgender individuals from discrimination specifically related to job status and/or promotion. However, just like bullying of a non-transgender person, there are limited laws preventing bullying types of behavior.</p><p>A key component to preventing bullying in the workplace is to start by defining what bullying is. Bullying involves repeated unreasonable actions with the intent to intimidate, degrade, or humiliate another individual or group of individuals. This can occur between any two coworkers or groups of coworkers, regardless of rank or status. </p><p>Hostile environments often stem from bullying, sexual harassment, or discriminatory conduct that interferes with an employee's ability to perform his or her job. In such environments, verbal, physical, or visual behaviors create an intimidating, offensive, threatening, or humiliating workplace. It's important to note that hostile behaviors can be perpetrated by anyone in the work environment, from employees to customers to vendors.</p><p>These situations can adversely affect an employee's psychological wellbeing. Moreover, the psychological injury that results from harmful conduct can be considered a form of workplace violence. Complicating matters is the fact that every employee brings a unique set of values, upbringing, experiences, and education into the workplace. Certain incidents, conversations, or remarks that may be acceptable to one may be harmful and injurious to another. </p><p>Luckily, various preventative measures are available to managers. Engaging in conversations about appropriate workplace behaviors helps to set a line between right and wrong, so HR sessions that allow for this can be helpful. Gaining an understanding of what is and isn't considered harassment, bullying, and incivility allows employees to differentiate between certain behaviors and comprehend the context of any policies and procedures. Given the global diversity of most workforces, it is important to define and discuss what civility and respect mean to your organization to ensure everyone is on the same page.</p><p>Security managers also can implement violence prevention training. Just as it is vital to teach what behaviors are acceptable, it is a good idea to define and train employees on behaviors that are unacceptable through examples, case studies, or role playing. Setting a definitive line between right and wrong helps employees recognize these behaviors in themselves and others, mitigating the risk of conflict. </p><p>In the case of Shawna, the security manager eventually worked with HR to organize violence prevention training sessions for all employees. The sessions instructed employees about how to take steps in certain workplace situations. Furthermore, they allowed employees across the office to learn more about their coworkers and gain a better understanding of everyone's unique backgrounds and values. This strengthened respect for each other. Overall, the sessions were a success. Had they been implemented as a matter of course, they may have prevented the incident from ever occurring.  </p><h4>​​Multi-Generational Teams</h4><p>Multi-generational workforces are here to stay. The members of Generation Z, or those born between the mid-1990s to the mid-2000s, have started to enter the workforce. They join the Generations Y (commonly known as Millennials) and X, and the Baby Boomers. In some workplaces, members of the Silent Generation are still productive in their seventies. </p><p>This age-diverse workforce can make for a rich and vibrant mix of ideas, opinions, and viewpoints. It also can cause problems when conflicts arise, and two employees don't see eye to eye. Given this, more employers are trying to keep up with changing demographics and are taking a closer look at office dynamics and making adjustments to fit their multi-generational teams.</p><p>To help create an environment where a diverse community of workers can collaborate, employers may create a multi-generational task force to survey their current workforce and gain a sense of what is useful and what is outdated. The task force should include at least two individuals from each generation represented in the workplace, with additional gender and cultural considerations applied. It may operate as an Employee Engagement Committee, with task force members serving as the voice of their fellow employees and implementing various staff celebrations. Members may also facilitate professional growth opportunities that appeal to the group of employees they are representing.</p><p>Another way to improve relations between generations is implementing an onboarding buddy system. New employees are paired with someone outside their own generation, allowing for an opportunity to learn while appreciating another's perspective.</p><p>Take, for example, a task force which includes members Kelsey and Carol, two employees who are nearly 30 years apart in age. As a Millennial, Kelsey prefers to receive information electronically through either text or email. She also prefers a manager who takes an educational approach and who takes time to understand her personal and professional goals. Like many Millennials, Kelsey also values meaningful work and desires to contribute to the larger mission. </p><p>Carol, a Baby Boomer, prefers face-to-face communication. She benefits from managers who take a democratic band-of-equals approach to working with a group, and who clearly define the team's mission. Carol is a dedicated worker and at a point in her career where she isn't really interested in moving ahead. She is counting down the days to retirement. She is willing to train her younger coworkers to step up and take on leadership roles. </p><p>Gaining a greater understanding of employees' management needs will help security managers create a more inclusive environment. Once organizations gain a better understanding of who their employees are as individuals, they can strategically partner with people who will work well together. The employer may realize Kelsey's strengths as a Millennial can be enhanced with a little coaching from a seasoned worker like Carol. Many Millennials grew up with a coach or mentor teacher who provided a positive influence, and they desire a similar relationship in their jobs. </p><p>By pairing Kelsey with Carol in a buddy system, both stand to learn from each other. Perhaps Kelsey learns the inside scoop of the job while teaching Carol about the latest technology trends. This pairing helps coworkers relate to one another, create new bonds, and build new skill sets. Additionally, the teamwork between a Millennial and Baby Boomer prepares both employees as the Baby Boomer transitions to retirement. Carol can effectively train Kelsey on her roles in the company so that when she retires, Kelsey is able to seamlessly take on new responsibilities without Carol's guidance. </p><p>One of the best things security managers can do to create connections between employees is to promote team development activities and implement cultural diversity training. Multi-generational workforces can learn about their younger or older peers through non-threatening teambuilding activities. Older employees' fears of feeling outdated may be lessened, and younger employees' frustration about being excluded from certain operations due to inexperience may be reduced.   </p><p>These activities foster engagement between coworkers, allowing them to discover commonalities, as well as highlight what makes them valuable to the organization. They also make for a more comfortable workplace, and they foster the guiding principles of respect and inclusion. </p><h4>Improving Workplace Resiliency</h4><p>Resilience has recently become an important concept in many different arenas; cities, communities, and even countries are all striving to achieve it in different ways. It is also critical for a security team to exemplify resiliency. In this case, resiliency describes the capacity of people, organizations, or systems to adapt to changing conditions and rapidly recover from disruption. </p><p>To improve the resiliency of a security team, it is advisable to incorporate overall concepts of resilience into existing training programs. For example, a shared understanding of the roles and responsibilities of team members can greatly reduce the stress on the team and therefore increase resiliency. Moreover, each individual employee has an innate level of resilience that can be further developed through training. </p><p>Just as training employees helps to build confidence, so does recognition of performance. Thus, one of the most direct ways to increase resiliency is to build people up by recognizing them for their work. The act of thanking employees and acknowledging quality work helps create a positive and productive environment—in effect, the opposite of a hostile workplace. When people feel appreciated, they often feel more energetic, and are willing to go the extra mile when the going gets tough.</p><p>I used to work as an operations manager of a retail store. I realized the importance of maintaining resilience and of expressing my appreciation for my staff's hard work. Therefore, I would look for ways to show them my appreciation. After an especially challenging week, I called a team meeting to recognize everyone's hard work and thank them for their dedication. I showed them my gratitude with a catered meal accompanied by praise and motivating remarks for continued success. </p><p>In addition to showing appreciation, managers can also offer rewards for exceptional work. For example, I implemented a "recognition wall" that encouraged employees to fill out a card briefly detailing something another employee did and add it to the wall. The actions written about could be as simple as someone going out of his or her way to help a fellow coworker or customer. In a seemingly small but important way, the system allowed employees to support one another, boost each other's confidence, and ultimately enhance company morale.</p><p>I also required my leadership team to write out three to five cards per shift to keep the wall filled with positivity each day. Within three months, the culture of the workplace improved dramatically; many employees who had been disheartened and unmotivated became much more engaged. The employee attrition rate also dropped from 30 percent to 20 percent. </p><p>A workplace where employees do not feel valued or recognized is not a positive workplace. Often, it is one where employees feel they need to escape; they feel that management is not helping them feel like a part of a mentally and emotionally safe and healthy environment. This in and of itself may not constitute a hostile environment, but it is likely close to one.  </p><h4>​Using an EAP</h4><p>Security work can be highly stressful, and stressful work situations can lead to anger, withdrawal, and even situations of workplace violence. Stress, anxiety, and depression do not just affect the employee suffering from them. The employer and the company are also affected, by way of factors like lost production time and negative effects on coworkers. </p><p>To help prevent violence between stressed coworkers, HR and managers should take note of signs and symptoms of stress and attempt to address changes in behaviors. Behaviors to look for include decreased productivity, frequently arriving to work late, and sudden shifts in mood.   </p><p>According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, there were 866 fatal work injuries involving violence in 2016. To keep employees safe, security managers can train all employees to recognize warning signs of workplace violence. Training should include steps to take for violence prevention and verbal intervention. Security managers also should encourage employees to notify them of any threats, so they're able to take action before an incident occurs. </p><p>Additionally, employers can provide an employee assistance program (EAP) in their employee benefits package. An EAP provides quick, reliable guidance on everything from stress management to family care options so staff can come to work with greater peace of mind. A good EAP helps alleviate stress and worry, connects employees with the resources they need to manage their mental health, and helps prevent potential violence before it occurs. </p><p>Take the example of Patrick and Jordan. Patrick is a long-term employee struggling at work due to personal dilemmas stemming from a rough divorce. Jordan, Patrick's manager, noticed a marked decrease in Patrick's productivity and engagement. Jordan took Patrick aside to discuss the productivity problem. When Patrick shared his personal struggle, Jordan was able to provide resources to help Patrick via the company-provided EAP. The EAP offered guidance and a referral to a local counseling professional. With this support, Patrick was able to adjust to the changes taking place in his life and return to work with a greater sense of normalcy. </p><p>Of course, a solution like this one is not always possible in every case. Many employers do not provide an EAP; if they do, employees are unaware it is available or believe it isn't confidential. Inattentive managers or fellow coworkers may not notice the warning signs, and the stressed employee will keep his or her feelings bottled up. When this is the case, the employee can lose control and become verbally or physically violent towards coworkers. With the appropriate training and resources, all members of a security team are able to de-escalate and curtail potentially troubling situations without resorting to physical confrontation.</p><h4>Company Policies</h4><p>The workplace should be an inclusive environment where employees feel safe to effectively share ideas and join forces to create new ones. Going the extra mile to develop a welcoming community for employees will help security teams thrive and improve the likelihood that the work produced there will be exceptional. Moreover, it is the responsibility of managers to create and enforce the policies and procedures that will guide employees towards resilience.</p><p> Establishing specific and explicit policies regarding harassment, bullying, and violence, which also include plans and procedures for responding to incidents, is essential. These response plans should include processes for communicating with employees, families, and the media, working with law enforcement, and a capacity for staff debriefing if any type of violence is committed, threatened, or observed. As part of the onboarding process, new hires should be made aware of the plan, so they are well-versed on the organization's policies. </p><p>With these policies in place, the next step is to consider using some of the training programs mentioned above that will develop employees as team players, improve overall productivity, and mitigate problematic workplace behaviors. Finally, security managers should continuously review how employees interact with one another and update policies and procedures to fit the needs of their advancing workforce. </p><p>​<em>Raquelle Solon is a business solutions engineer for FEI Behavioral Health in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. She is responsible for, among other things, helping organizations implement crisis management systems and workplace violence prevention strategies. She was named "Woman of the Year" for 2012-2013 by the National Association of Professional Women.</em></p> Pathways in SecurityGP0|#28ae3eb9-d865-484b-ac9f-3dfacb4ce997;L0|#028ae3eb9-d865-484b-ac9f-3dfacb4ce997|Strategic Security;GTSet|#8accba12-4830-47cd-9299-2b34a4344465A career in security management comes with diverse options for growth and impact, and the many different pathways available are not always clear or intuitive.<p>When students are trying to plan for their future, or more tenured professionals are contemplating a career transition, there are many questions. What traits and competencies do professionals need at different stages in their careers? Should individuals focus on becoming more specialized or growing into broader responsibilities? How can you take your career to the next level?</p><p>ASIS International partnered with the Security Industry Association (SIA) to answer these very questions in the Security Industry Career Pathways Guide. ASIS and SIA commissioned McKinley Advisors, who analyzed more than 2,400 survey results, conducted numerous telephone interviews, and performed other research, to develop the guide.</p><p>One finding is that, unlike some professions that provide a linear career path, security is diverse, comprising many job roles, salary levels, career opportunities, and sectors. At the highest level, security can include a multitude of functions for business organizations related to the provision of security services and technology. Employment opportunities range in terms of salary and position from entry-level security officer positions to investigators specializing in specific areas to directors at major global corporations. </p><p>Security spans a variety of sectors and markets and each specialty has its own set of requirements and issues, such as shoplifting, privacy rights, or data security. Security also has interrelationships with other departments or areas, such as risk management, safety, law, finance, business continuity, network and computer security, risk analysis, facility management, and others. </p><p>The diversity of the profession provides opportunities for horizontal career growth potential, in which roles expand into other business functions or areas in addition to security. In today's technologically advanced and globalized market, jobs are becoming even more complex in terms of focus and growth opportunities. All of this makes security management a challenging and exciting profession to navigate, define, and understand.</p><h4>Three Career Stages</h4><p>Security professionals generally fall into one of three career stages. The accompanying infographic (page 44) describes each of these career stages—examining sample job titles and responsibilities, core traits and competencies that enable someone to master each role—and identifies the skill gaps that can help people at each stage excel and grow. </p><ol><li>Professional Level: These are the doers; people who are generally at the beginning of their security careers.<br></li><li>Management Level: These are the delegators; the people who manage specific security functions and supervise people to carry out security duties.<br></li><li>Executive Level: These are the visionaries; the people who bring strategic and critical acumen to helping an organization protect its assets.<br></li></ol><p>For example, security professionals at the management level may have a job titles such as Director of Global Security or, simply, Security Manager. They will have oversight over one or more security functions, will direct and coordinate resources to accomplish those functions, be able to develop and implement strategies to understand and manage risk, and will likely have some budgeting, strategy, and human resources responsibilities. A successful security manager will have a strong grasp of security fundamentals and risk management and possess a high degree of leadership capability and integrity. To advance in their careers, security managers should work on acquiring general business acumen—understanding how security and other business functions interrelate—and gain a thorough understanding of compliance and regulatory issues.</p><p>The Security Industry Career Pathways Guide provides considerable information on each stage: how it was identified; detail on the knowledge, experience, and traits common to professionals at each stage; and what skills and competencies bridge from one level to the next.</p><h4>​Advancing to the Next Career Stage</h4><p>The study also explored what fields, areas of study, or background security management practitioners came from prior to entering the security profession. In terms of educational backgrounds, most professionals working in security have obtained a master's or bachelor's degree. Some of the more common areas of study include criminal justice, business administration, business management, political science, law enforcement and correction, economics, security management, information or systems technology, computer science, terrorism, emergency management, personnel management, or information management. </p><p>After obtaining a degree, professionals may take an entry-level position—a professional-level role—in security management and grow their careers from there, or they may come to security from an entirely different sector. The most common backgrounds include law enforcement, military, or business administration and management from another sector. A managerial or executive-level professional, for example, can come from a long career in the security profession, growing from professional to managerial to executive, or transition into the field from higher levels within military, law, or another sector. </p><p>There are several common ways for security professionals to increase their expertise and credibility in gap areas, including certifications and credentialing opportunities. The most common include the Certified Protection Professional (CPP©) and Physical Security Professional (PSP©) certifications, as well as the Certified Security Project Manager (CSPM) and Project Management Professional (PMP) for those interested in project management credentials. Additionally, volunteering with an association, or serving as a mentor to a less experienced professional can also boost a professional's engagement with the industry. </p><p>Security professionals looking to advance to the next career stage should be developing and working improvement strategies that build on the skills and competencies they already have, so that they continue to excel in their current roles, while also working to acquire knowledge and experience required to excel at the next level.</p><p>ASIS International will be incorporating the career pathways research into its program and content development strategies. The goal is to provide resources that security professionals can use to advance their careers. ASIS will be intentional, both in developing a suite of resources for all three career stages and in describing and promoting those resources so that security professionals can easily identify the ones that will be most beneficial to their career development.</p><p>Likewise, security professionals need to be intentional in how they approach career advancement. Security professionals may find that they fall neatly into one of the types described in the guide. Many will not, however, and that is part of the point. The myriad of security career pathways underscores the diverse nature of the profession. The guide can help professionals understand where they are and how they can use resources from ASIS and other sources to help them get where they want to go.  ​</p>’s-Your-Plan.aspxBook Review: What’s Your Plan?GP0|#28ae3eb9-d865-484b-ac9f-3dfacb4ce997;L0|#028ae3eb9-d865-484b-ac9f-3dfacb4ce997|Strategic Security;GTSet|#8accba12-4830-47cd-9299-2b34a4344465<p>Digi-Tall Media;; 82 pages; $20.</p><p>This easy-to-read book offers sound planning advice for families attending various events and venues such as sports and entertainment, houses of worship, and universities. While many ideas are well known, the author does a good job emphasizing the importance of taking time as a family to discuss important action steps to take should an emergency occur.</p><p>For example, here are some planning points for a family heading to a ball park—and they apply to almost any event. </p><p>Do you remember where you parked your car? If you took public transit, can you recall which subway, train, or bus station will bring you back home? Which entrance did you use to enter the stadium? Did you check the weather before you left for the stadium? If you drove your vehicle, did you have a full tank of gas, a flashlight with working batteries, and a roadside emergency kit? Can you recall the clothing your children are wearing if they wander away from you? Do you have cash, photo ID, credit/debit card in your wallet or purse? Is your mobile phone fully charged?</p><p>The author stresses situational awareness and the importance of practicing your plan. A final point that is of utmost importance is to select a location where family members will meet in case some sort of catastrophe occurs. The author shares other good points that should be part of pre-planning. I recommend this book for all families to improve their safety and security.</p><p><em>Reviewer: Jim McGuffey, M.A., CPP, PCI, PSP, has been an ASIS member since 1981, serving as chapter chair for Savannah Low Country Chapter for five years and House of Worship Committee chair for three years. He is currently assistant regional vice president for ASIS Region 4B and serves on the ASIS Cultural Properties Council.  </em></p> Manipulation,-CPP.aspx2018-09-01T04:00:00ZCertification Profile: Tim Sutton, CPP in Violence Prevention,-Secure-Spaces.aspx2018-09-01T04:00:00ZOpen Doors, Secure Spaces Review: Floods,-Hard-Challenges.aspx2018-09-01T04:00:00ZSoft Targets, Hard Challenges Failure to Plan's-Note-Explorers.aspx2018-09-01T04:00:00ZEditor's Note: Explorers Review: Left of Bang World of Risk Risk with Regular System Audits AI State of Mind,-China-Arrests-Second-Canadian-Businessman,-Report-Finds-Fault-With-Parkland-Shooting-Response.aspx2018-12-13T05:00:00ZStrasbourg Manhunt Continues, China Arrests Second Canadian Businessman, Report Finds Fault With Parkland Shooting Response, And More

- Issues

January 2019 December 2018 November 2018 October 2018 September 2018 August 2018 July 2018 June 2018 May 2018 April 2018 March 2018 February 2018 January 2018 December 2017 November 2017 October 2017 September 2017 August 2017 July 2017 June 2017 May 2017 April 2017 March 2017 February 2017 January 2017 December 2016 November 2016 October 2016 September 2016 August 2016 July 2016 June 2016 May 2016 April 2016 March 2016 February 2016 January 2016 December 2015 November 2015 October 2015 September 2015 August 2015 July 2015 June 2015 May 2015 April 2015 March 2015 February 2015 January 2015 December 2014 November 2014 October 2014 September 2014 August 2014 July 2014 June 2014 May 2014 April 2014 March 2014 February 2014 January 2014 December 2013 November 2013 October 2013 September 2013 August 2013 July 2013 June 2013 May 2013 April 2013 March 2013 February 2013 January 2013 December 2012 November 2012 October 2012 September 2012 August 2012 July 2012 June 2012 May 2012 April 2012 March 2012 February 2012 January 2012 December 2011 November 2011 October 2011 September 2011 August 2011 July 2011 June 2011 May 2011 April 2011 March 2011 February 2011 January 2011 December 2010 November 2010 October 2010 September 2010 August 2010 July 2010 June 2010 May 2010 April 2010 March 2010 February 2010 January 2010 December 2009 November 2009 October 2009 September 2009 August 2009 July 2009 June 2009 May 2009 April 2009 March 2009 February 2009 January 2009 December 2008 November 2008 October 2008 September 2008 August 2008 July 2008 June 2008 May 2008 April 2008 March 2008 February 2008 January 2008 December 2007 November 2007 October 2007 September 2007 August 2007 July 2007 June 2007 May 2007 April 2007 March 2007 February 2007 January 2007 December 2006 November 2006 October 2006 September 2006 August 2006 July 2006 June 2006 May 2006 April 2006 March 2006 February 2006 January 2006 December 2005 November 2005 October 2005 September 2005 August 2005 July 2005 June 2005 May 2005 April 2005 March 2005 February 2005 January 2005 December 2004 November 2004 October 2004 September 2004 August 2004 July 2004 June 2004 May 2004 April 2004 March 2004 February 2004 January 2004 December 2003 November 2003 October 2003 September 2003 August 2003 July 2003 June 2003 May 2003 April 2003 March 2003 February 2003 January 2003 December 2002 November 2002 October 2002 September 2002 August 2002 July 2002 June 2002 May 2002 April 2002 March 2002 February 2002 January 2002 December 2001 November 2001 October 2001 September 2001 August 2001 July 2001 June 2001 May 2001 April 2001 March 2001 February 2001 January 2001 December 2000 November 2000 October 2000 September 2000 August 2000 July 2000 June 2000 May 2000 April 2000 March 2000 February 2000 January 2000